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Suggestions for selecting the right words:(correctness,appropriatness & effectiveness)

Use familiar words Eg i) This machine has the tendency to develop excessive and unpleasant audio symptoms when operated at elevated temperatures.

i)This machine tends to get noisy when it runs hot.

Eg- ii) Company operations for the preceding accounting period terminated with a financial deficit. ii) The Company lost much money last year.

Choose short words

Eg i) The decision was predicted on the assumption that an abundance of monetary funds was forthcoming. i) The decision was based on the belief that that there would be more money. ii) Definitive action was effected subsequent to the reporting date.

ii) Final action was taken after the reporting date

Select words with right strength and vigour Eg: Successful business person Business tycoon Period of business prosperity Boom Use concrete language Eg: a significant loss should be written as 50 percent losses Avoid camouflaged verbs Eg: Acquisition of the property made him happy He was happy to acquire the property

Avoid wordiness (by avoiding redundancies, repetitions &replacing long phrases by single words) Eg. In todays modern world, finding out the true facts in foreign affairs becomes increasingly difficult. In todays world, it is difficult to find out facts in foreign affairs.

1) Message must be adapted to the reader imagining what he or she knows,feels,thinks &such 2) Use jargon (technical vocabulary) appropriately. 3) Use words that do not discriminate. 4) Language is- Formal, Informal, Colloquial & Slang. Avoid colloquial, dialectal and slang words 5) Words have denotative & connotative meanings

6) Problem of translation (I am (reading) studying in Thapar University) 7) Write with clarity and precision by avoiding camouflaged verbs, by selecting the right words and by using idioms correctly. 8) Use politically correct language.


1.Emphasize on short sentences byi) Limiting the sentence content ii) Economize on words eg. i) In the event that the payment is not made by January, operations will cease. ii) He ordered desks that are of executive type. iii) We must assemble together at 10.30 AM in the morning. 2. Bring variety in sentence structure

3. Avoid repetition of words, phrases & clauses Eg-The responsibility of preparing a work schedule for the entire month is the responsibility that HR managers must carry out 4.Use pleasant & positive conversational tone 5.Sentences should be grammatically correct

6.Give emphasis to the main idea of the sentence. 7.Construct sentences in active voice. Eg: Your letter of May 2, 2009 was received yesterday. We received your letter of May 2, 2009 yesterday. 8. Avoid choppy as well as run -on sentences

Effective paragraph writing

Organization of thoughts and ideas Coherence Length of paragraphs

The Process of Writing 1) Pre-Writing 2) Drafting 3) Revising

1. Pre-Writing: a) Subject b) Purpose- to inform to persuade (narration, description, argumentation & exposition ) c) Audience

2. Drafting a) Introduction

b) Body c) Conclusion

a) Introduction:
To state the topic clearly To interest the reader in the topic

b) Body
i) Coherence ii) Clarity iii) Unity iv) Completeness & conciseness

c) Conclusion
To indicate clearly that the composition has come to an end To give readers a sense that the topic has been dealt with in its entirety To give a sense of completeness by linking the end with the beginning

3) Revising: a)content

b)organisation c)language

Peer-Editing Proof-Reading


Planning Study of the readers point of view and interests You Attitude Knowledge of the subject Command of language Simple language Avoid Monotony Avoid jargon Promptness Completeness Conciseness Courtesy Clarity Correctness Concreteness