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WELCOME

TO TRAINING PROGRAMME ON MATERIAL HANDLING DURING 17TH 18TH DECEMBER, 2013 AT SAIL / CET , RANCHI ON

BY B.K.BISOYI MANAGER (MECH.) SAIL/CET, RANCHI

INTRODUCTION
Why crushing is required ? To meet the requirements of end users. Beneficiation & etc.

Size requirements of Iron Ore: Lumps for BF Fines for Sinter : (+) 6 mm to (-)30 mm : (+) 0.15 mm to (-)6 mm

Fines for Pellet


ROM size (Iron Ore) Size Requirements of Coal:

: (-) 0.15 mm
:1200mmx1000mmx1000mm

Pulverised Coal - PP
CDI Coal size

: (-)0.074 mm
: 0.09 mm : 100 mm (Approx.)
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THE TECHNOLOGY OF CRUSHING


Crushing is the reduction of large rocks into smaller rocks by Impact Attrition Shear Compression

THE TECHNOLOGY OF CRUSHING

Weakest zones

When a material is compressed/sheared/attrition, it will break from the weakest zone.


What is a Crusher ? A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks by compression/attrition/shear/impact.
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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSHERS (BASED ON TYPE OF CRUSHING) CRUSHERS


COMPRESSIVE CRUSHERS
(Compress the material until it breaks)

IMPACT CRUSHERS
(Principle of quick impact to crush the material)

JAW CRUSHERS CONE CRUSHERS GYRATORY CRUSHERS ROLLER CRUSHERS

IMPACTORS HAMMER MILLS

CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSHERS (BASED ON SIZE OF CRUSHING)

CRUSHERS
PRIMARY CRUSHERS SECONDARY / INTERMEDIATE CRUSHERS TERTIARY/ FINE CRUSHERS QUATERNARY / FINE CRUSHERS

JAW CRUSHERS GYRATORY CRUSHERS IMPACTORS

CONE CRUSHER

HAMMER MILLS HAMMER MILLS


ROLLER CRUSHERS ROLLER CRUSHERS

CONE CRUSHERS CONE CRUSHERS

JAW CRUSHERS Mainly used as primary crushers Produce materials that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stage. Capacity: Upto 1600 tph Principle of operation:

The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw
Intermittent process Hydraulic setting adjustment Liner plates JAW CRUSHER IS A RELIABLE, ROBUST Manganese steel, EQUIPMENT AND IS QUITE POPULAR IN Ni-cr alloyed CI PRIMARY CRUSHING APPLICATIONS. 7
BETTER RETURN ON INVESTMENT.

MAJOR COMPONENTS OF JAW CRUSHERS

TYPES OF JAW CRUSHERS


SINGLE TOGGLE JAW CRUSHER DOUBLE TOGGLE JAW CRUSHER

JAW CRUSHER AT KIOM

Capacity : 600 tph Feed opening : 1520 mm Plate Width : 2130 mm 10

CONE CRUSHERS Mainly used as intermediate or fine crushing to obtain a product with good uniform shape Capacity: Upto 1200 tph
MANTLE WITH LINER BOWL WITH LINER

Principle of operation:
The material is crushed in a crushing cavity between an external fixed element(bowl liner) and internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The fragmentation of materials results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle liners and bowl liners in the chamber.

CSS OSS

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CONE CRUSHERS Contd

Principle of operation: The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between OSS and CSS discharge opening. The eccentricity is one of the major factors which determine the capacity of the cone crushers. Adjustment of OSS/CSS: The settings can be adjusted by
Rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part is changed.

Time consuming but uniform wear & tear of liners


By lifting and lowering the main shaft Adjustment can be done continuously under load.

Higher capacity in secondary crushing with low operating cost


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CONE CRUSHERS - MAJOR COMPONENETS

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TERTIARY CONE CRUSHER OF M/s HEC FOR MIOM VARIOUS COMPONENTS UNDER MFG.
Capacity 500 tph Feed Size: (+)30 to (-)75 mm Output: 30 mm

MAIN FRAME

DRIVE SHAFT

PINION RING GEAR


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TERTIARY CONE CRUSHERS OF M/s HEC FOR MIOM VARIOUS COMPONENTS UNDER MFG.

GEAR ASSEMBLY

ECCENTRIC SHAFT HOUSING

MAIN SHAFT

CONE

CONE

ADJUSTMENT RING 15 ASSEMBLY

CROSS SECTION OF A CONE CRUSHER

Metso Cone Crusher H P VXKI.mpg

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GYRATORY CRUSHERS Efficient primary crushing in mining application. Crushing chamber designed to accept feed materials of relatively larger size. Capacity: 100 tph-9000tph Principle of operation: Same as cone crusher.

Provides much larger feed area than a jaw crusher


Taller, heavier with massive foundation

Adjustment of closed side settings(CSS): Equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment, which adjust CSS and thus have better productivity.
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GYRATORY CRUSHERS - MAJOR COMPONENTS

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GYRATORY CRUSHING STATION

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GYRATORY CRUSHER STATIONS

Mobile Primary Gyratory Station

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CRUSHER - SUPPLIERS

METSO

FL SMITH

SANDVIK

THYSSENKRUP
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ROLLER CRUSHERS
Purpose: Mainly for crushing easily fractured materials such as soft limestone, chalk and clay. Reduction ratio - 3:1 to 5:1 Principle of operation: The roller crushers consists of two rollers. One of the roller shafts is adjustable while the other has a fixed position and is provided with a flywheel. The gap between the two rollers can be varied depending upon the degree of crushing required. Rollers have scrapers to remove any material sticking to the surface.

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IMPACT CRUSHERS Purpose Generation of fine materials e.g. Sand. Liberate hard minerals from waste materials High reduction ratio and cube shaped product. Capacity: Upto 1800tph Principle of operation The feed material is crushed in the quick rotational movement of hammers/bars fixed to the rotor .
HAMMERS / BARS

The particles produced are then further crushed inside the crusher HIGHER CAPACITY, CUBICAL as they collide against crusher parts PRODUCT & GENERATION OF and against each other, producing a FINES IS NOT A PROBLEM finer, better-shaped product. NOT RECOMMENDED FOR CRUSHING TOO FINES MATERIALS 23

IMPACT CRUSHERS - MAJOR COMPONENTS

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IMPACT CRUSHERS - TYPES

HORIZONTAL SHAFT IMPACTOR

VERTICAL SHAFT IMPACTOR

TWIN ROTOR IMPACTOR

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VERTICAL SHAFT IMPACT CRUSHER Vertical shaft impactor The vertical shaft impactor is like a stone pump which operates like a centrifugal pump. The material is fed through the center of the rotor, where it is accelerated to high speed before being discharged through the openings in the rotor periphery. The material is crushed as it hits on the outer body and also due to the rock-on-rock action. Used for generation of fines e.g. Sand, gravel etc.
VERTICAL SHAFT IMPACTOR
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HAMMER MILLS Purpose To grind and pulverise materials that are not too hard or abrasive.

Principle of operation: Similar to impactors The hammer mill rotor has many pivoted hammers attached to it and the discharge opening consists of a grate through which the material has to pass, thus contributing to the reduction process. The rotor speed and the grate spacing can be optimised to suit different 27 applications.

REDUCTION RATIO OF CRUSHERS - TYPICAL CALCULATION

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REDUCTION RATIO OF CRUSHERS - GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

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How to select a Crusher?

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FACTORS AFFECTING THE SELECTION OF CRUSHERS


Purpose of crushing (Primary / Secondary / Tertiary / Quaternary) Location (Fixed /Mobile) Type of material (Hard /Soft/Medium) Abrasiveness (Abrasive/Non Abrasive) Feed size of materials (Larger/Smaller/Medium) Capacity of crusher (Higher /Medium / Lower) Reduction ratio (Higher /Medium / Lower) Product Size (Fines /Coarse) Operation & Maintenance aspects

Other Economic aspects

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SELECTION OF CRUSHERS (Based on Capacity)

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SELECTION OF CRUSHERS (Based on Capacity, Feed Size & End product)

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SELECTION OF CRUSHERS

Typical maximum Reduction Crusher Typical Feed Size type Process Stage upto (mm) End Product Ratio size (mm) Jaw crushers Gyratory crushers Primary 1400 200-300 3:1 to 5:1

Typical Capacity (tph) Upto 1600

Amount Hardness Abrasiv of Fines Moisture content of material eness Produced Low Soft to very hard Soft to very hard High Dry to slightly wet, not sticky Dry to slightly wet, not sticky

Application

Heavy mining

Primary

1500

200-300

4:1 to 7:1

> 1200

Low

High

Heavy mining

Secondary Cone crushers Tertiary / Quaternary Primary / secondary

450 300

60-80 0-30

3:1 to 5:1 3:1 to 5:1

Upto 1200 Upto 1000

Low Low / Medium Medium / High Medium hard to very hard Low /High Dry or wet, not sticky

Mining, Quarried materials, Sand & gravel Quarried materials, sand & gravel, recycling Sand & gravel, recycling crushing of easily fractured materials

Horizontal shaft impactors Vertical shaft impactors Roller Crusher

1300

200-300

10:1 to 25:1

Upto 1800

Soft to medium hard Medium hard to very hard

Low

Dry or wet, not sticky

Tertiary

40

0-30

6:1 to 8:1

Upto 600

High

Low

Dry or wet, not sticky

Primary

Fines

Fines

3:1 to 5:1

Upto 500

High Soft Low Dry or wet

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COMPARISION OF TYPES OF CRUSHERS

Characteristics
Type

Jaw crusher
Primary Crushing

Gyratory crusher
Primary Crushing

Cone Crusher
Secondary / Tertiary / Quaternary Medium
( 1200 tph) Continuously 3:1 to 5:1

Capacity

Lesser
( 1600 tph)

Higher
(1000-9000 tph) Continuously 4:1 to 7:1 Heavy

Work Reduction Ratio Weight of Equipment Crushing Surface

Intermittently 3:1 to 5:1 Medium Jaw Plates

Medium

crushing surface flares in from top to bottom

crushing surface flares in from bottom to top

Feed Opening Principle of operation Operating Cost Relative merits/demerits

Larger /Medium feed opening Compression Medium Chances of passage of material without crushing

Larger feed opening Gyration High No chance of passage of material without crushing

Smaller feed opening Gyration Economical No chance of passage 35of material without crushing

CRUSHER SPECIFIC POWER CONSUMPTION (TYPICAL)

Type of crusher

Specific Power Consumption (kWhr/t)

Gyratory Crusher Jaw Crusher


Cone Crusher Impactor Crusher

0.1 to 0.2 0.4 to 0.6


0.4 to 0.6 1 to 1.2

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CRUSHER - SPECIFICATION
Sl. No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Description
TYPE OF CRUSHER Quantity (No.) Rated Capacity (tph) Design Capacity (tph) ROM Dimensions(mm x mm x mm) Material to be handled Crusher Feed F100 (mm)

Specification
JAW / GYRATORY /CONE 1 1000 1300 1200x1000x1000 Direct Ore and Beneficiable ore 1000

8
9 10 11 12

Crusher Feed F80 (mm)


Crusher Product P100 (mm) Crusher Product P80 (mm) Bulk Density (t/m3) Crushing Work Index (kWh/t)

600
288 134 2.2 11
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CRUSHER - PERFORMANCE The performance of a crusher depends upon the right choice & correct operation of associated equipments such as feeders, conveyors, screens, drives, silos etc.

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CLOSED LOOP CRUSHER CIRCUIT

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OPEN LOOP CRUSHER CIRCUIT

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THANK YOU

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