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- MORPHOLOGICALLY SIMPLE: consist of single free morph (ran, went, go) - MORPHOLOCALLY COMPLEX: Can be analyzed into a string of two or more morphs. It may consist of free and bound morph (duckling) or two free morphs (teatime, black-board) ROOT/STEM, AFFIXES DEFINITION OF ROOT/STEM: DEFINITION OF AFFIXES:

Boeree, 2003: Suffixes are attached to the end of the stem; Eg.: -ed, -s, -es, -ing etc. Prefixes are attached to the front of the stem; Eg.: pre-, im-, un-, etc. Infixes are put in the middle of the word; Eg.: rarely: Ablaut is a change in a vowel that carries extra meaning; is a matter of doubling a syllable to do the same. It seems to come from former suffixes that influenced the pronunciation of the vowel, then disappeared over time Eg.: sang-sing-sung, goose-geese

In the 19th century, philologists devised a now classic classification of languages according to their morphology. A way of classifying language according to the ways by which morphemes are used in a language. - Isolating : have little to no morphology. eg. Chinese, Indonesian, Krewol - Agglutinative : use grammatical morphemes in the form of attached syllables called affixes, struck together; have lots of easily separable morphemes. Eg. Turkish, Finish, Tamil - Fusional (Inflextional)language: their inflectional morphemes are fused together. This leads to one bound morpheme conveying multiple pieces of information. They change the word at the phonemic level to express grammatical morphemes.Eg. Latin, Greek, Russian, Arabic

The classical typology mostly applies to

inflectional morphology. There is very little fusion going on with word formation. Languages may be classified as synthetic or analytic in their word formation, depending on the preferred way of expressing notions that are not inflectional: either by using word formation (synthetic), or by using syntactic phrases (analytic).

Some terminology
Word :

- important analytic unit

- Used in different senses

Lyons (1968): in order to distinguish them(word, word form,), we shall identify: 1. Its use to refer to actually occurring physical forms Eg. Mary loved John once but she doesnt love him anymore. There are 8 words We use : there are 8 word forms

Word form: orthographic and phonological Phonological: - Represented in phonemic slashes. Ex.: /wd fmz/ Orthographic: - Used for exemplification within the text - Italicized Ex: word forms




word : is used only when were going to look up the meaning of a particular word in the dictionary Lexeme: lexical morpheme: to distinguish this usage from word forms use small capital letters to refer to a lexeme.

For example: word forms: love, loves, loved, loving They all related to lexeme LOVE but none is actually lexeme LOVE

3. Grammatical form

Wrote: past tense of write Written: past participle of write Use of a word: - Word form - Lexeme - Grammatical form

determine by context