Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 40

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 1.

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM a) Gravity system COURSE OUTLINE


b) Pumping system c) Combination of gravity and pump system

6 HOURS of LECTURE = 3 WEEKS

2. PIPING MATERIAL a) Selection of piping material b) Advantages and disadvantages of multiple pipe material c) Selection of pipe size 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM a) Valves b) Storage reservoirs i. Storage reservoir construction ii. Main component in storage reservoir 4. NON REVENUE WATER a) Leakage factors b) Leakage procedure measurements i. Direct leakage measurements ii. Indirect leakage measurements c) Methods to control leakage d) Methods to detect leakage e) Piping design with Hazen Williams formula

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 1. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


A good water supply can be considered water distribution system is considered good if it comply with following requirements i. have good water quality by meeting local needs, such as colorless, not turbid, not hard and does not contain suspended solids

ii. quantity and pressure of water supplied is adequate for all uses, including for fire prevention

iii. Non revenue water occurs at the minimum rate of 15%


iv. cheap, durable and easily maintained

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 1. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM

a) Gravity system Water is supplied from a higher place to a lower place Treatment plant is located at a higher ground from user Friction in piping can cause energy loss, i.e distance Energy loss eventually can cause static head This will make end user experience slow water from tap. Advantages o Reliable o Low operation cost o Suitable for community at the lower ground Disadvantages o Static head will cause a drop in pressure, and cause end user angry

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 1. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


b) Pump system Used for low pressure end user located on lower ground than end user Water is directly pumped to delivery pipe Advantages o Pressure and flow of water can be adjusted for demand Disadvantages o water supply cut off if there is no electricity or pump defective o different water flow rates cause pressure to change o pump operate at different speeds according to the rate of flow, causing the pump can damage quickly

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 1. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


c) Combined gravity and pump system Water is pumped up and stored on high level ground in tank or reservoir Water id distributed by gravity to end user. Pressure head must be elevated to allow next water flow Advantages o Effective o Low operation cost o Able to supply water if pump fail or no electricity o Need moderate and flat rate capacity pump Disadvantages o Operation and maintenance pump ------ related problem

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 2. PIPING MATERIAL SYSTEM


a) Selection factors
i. Pressure of work and test

ii. Strength
iii. Durability

iv. Workability at site


v. Cost capital, operation and maintenance vi. Leakage possibility

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 2. PIPING MATERIAL SYSTEM b) Advantages and disadvantages of multiple pipe material
Material Cast iron Adv Corrosion resistant Low cost Multiple joints available Corrosion resistant Able to strong impact Low cost Electrolisys free Light and easy workability strong against bending and tensile impact Long No leak problem Flexible Light Strong against impact Low Internal friction Disadv Weak against impact Heavy Heavy High cost Weak against bending easily leak if exposed to excavators Fragile easily leak at the connection Weak to corrosion Pipe Connection need to be welded High cost Need special tool to connect Need adjustable socket for other pipe connection

Ductile iron Asbestos cement

steel

HDPE ( high density polyethylene)

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 2. PIPING MATERIAL SYSTEM


c) Selection of pipe size
For gravity system, it depend on differences in level of source and end user For pump system, it depend on the need of power cost

Pipe diameter also depend on the major loss due to the friction in distribution pipe , delivery pipe and reticulation
Minor losses caused by valves and connection usually minimum and can be can be neglected

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


a) Valves
i. Stop/gate valve Use to control flowrate, pressure and stop flow rate Stop cock - small size (d < 100mm) Sluice valve big size (d > 100mm)

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


a) Valves
ii. Butterfly valve Use to control flow rate Pipe size, d > 450mm

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


a) Valves
iii. Scour valve Stop valve - Use for cleaning works scouring works About 1/3 of the main pipe size

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


a) Valves
iv. Air release valve Single orifice type to release air in the pipe Double orifice type to release air in the pipe and allow air into the pipe

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


a) Valves
v. Check valve Semi auto valve allow only one way flow rate Open when water flow Closed when water stop flow

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


a) Valves
vi. Ball valve Use to control flow level at a certain level

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


a) Valves
vii. Altitude valve/one way flow (tank fill) Provides automatic filling of elevated tanks or reservoirs. When the altitude control senses a drop in level below the predetermined set point, the valve opens to fill tank. When the level again reaches the set point, the valve will close. Discharge of the tank is by a separate line.

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


a) Valves
viii. altitude valve / two way flow (tank fill & discharge) Controls both the fill and discharge cycles of a tank or reservoir. When valve inlet (system) pressure falls below tank head pressure, the altitude valve opens to feed the system. When system pressure recovers above tank head, the tank begins to refill. When the high level set point is reached, the valve will close.

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


a) Valves ix. (a) Pressure reducing valve pilot operating automatically reduces the pressure from the water supply main to a lower, more sensible pressure. to boost water supply pressures in supply mains to be able to supply water for fire fighting, high rise buildings to overcome loss of pressure as the elevation increases, and to maintain water supply in water towers and supply tanks

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


a) Valves
x. Pressure sustaining/relief valve The valve instantly opens when the pressure in the pipeline exceeds the preset safe level, thus relieving excessive pressure from the pipeline. When the pressure returns to normal, the valve closes. The valve also can be used to sustain upstream pressure to a preset pressure value Use to control pressure

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SYSTEM


a) Valves
xi. Constant flow valve To provide an accurate way of controlling flow configuration. Use to set flow rate

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3.SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM b) Storage reservoirs


Main function o To provide treated water for emergency use like power shortage, pump malfunction, fire fighting o To act as a break pressure tank o To equalize flow rate because of changing in demand rate and supply rate Two types i. Balancing tank o To distribute water to the service tank o To provide adequate pressure and flow to the service tank o Design must fulfill the water inlet (from main/plant) and the water outlet (to the service tank) o Built near water treatment plant ii. Service tank o To supply treated water to the reticulation pipe o Normally can supply for one day use

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION 3. SYSTEM COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


b) Storage reservoirs i. Storage reservoir construction Selection factors of material construction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Lifespan of material and its advantages Volume needed Strength of material Location and surrounding condition resistance to internal and external corrosion and abrasion

Materials are : 1. Reinforced concrete 2. Prestressed concrete 3. Galvanized pressed steel 4. Fibreglass reinforced plastic 5. Steel fused with glass

3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM b) Storage reservoirs i. Storage reservoir construction Materials are : 1. Reinforced concrete Low cost maintenance and longer lifespan Grounded or elevated Volume less than 13,500 m3 round shape ( rectangle also does) But high construction cost Must meet BS 5337, 1976 ( code of practice for structural use of aqueous liquid

3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM b) Storage reservoirs


i. Storage reservoir construction Materials are : 2. Prestressed concrete More than 13,500m3 Grounded or elevated Round or rectangle

3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM b) Storage reservoirs i. Storage reservoir construction Materials are : 3. Galvanized pressed steel As storage tank Fast construction Low cost construction but high cost maintenance Avoid rusting surrounding such as beach/coast Grounded or elevated

3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM b) Storage reservoirs i. Storage reservoir construction Materials are : 4. Fiber glass reinforced plastic Low cost construction Fast and easy installation Minimum maintenance Light weight can customize for order

3. COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM b) Storage reservoirs i. Storage reservoir construction 5. Steel fused with glass Smooth, low friction, hard and water tight Minimum maintenance Grounded or elevated Modular size

3.

COMPONENTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM b) Storage reservoirs ii. Main component in storage reservoir

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Inlet pipe Outlet pipe Overflow pipe Scouring pipe Ventilator Manhole Ladder Water level indicator 9. Float valve

TOPIC 4 :WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


4. NON REVENUE WATER a) Leakage factors b) Leakage procedure measurements i. Direct leakage measurements ii. Indirect leakage measurements c) Methods to control leakage d) Methods to detect leakage e) Piping design with Hazen Williams formula

4. NON REVENUE WATER Definition - water that has been produced and is lost before it reaches the customer Why we have to deal with it : o Almost distribution pipes experiencing leakage o it is not worthy to install water tight system o It makes cost for water treatment escalates o Minimizing NRW not only good for companies, but less microorganism penetration thru crack

Methods of Reducing NRW o Control system to reduce pressure at the very beginning of distribution o New and comprehensive water distribution system o Specific department for NRW related problem solving o Strict punishment for illegal connection and water leeching

4. NON REVENUE WATER a) Leakage factors


i. Pressure Pressure surge - main, danger, cause pipe to burst when the pump stops or the valve closes suddenly pressure changes minor , neglected Ground movement expansion and contraction of the soil will cause metal (pipe) fatigue

ii.

iii. Rusting in pipe from electrolysis ---process internal ( high chlorine and acidic ) ---process external ( different water characteristic) _ iron and copper volt (potential different) iv. Soil condition Leakage water in the soil tend to appear on the soil surface because of capillary rise. wet soil causes the plants look and green indicating enough water even in the drought season

4. NON REVENUE WATER a) Leakage factors


v. Traffic load Vibration will cause tiny crack to the pipe if the bedding is not strengthened and improper depth vi. Material and work -> poor quality Fitting material such as valves and joints are not suitable/poor quality Also installation, fixing, setting up are not a good workmanship vii. Pipe lifespan Depend on material property like durability, internal/external corrosion resistant , impact load, tensile/bending due to the weak bedding

4. NON REVENUE WATER b) Leakage procedure measurements i. Direct leakage measurements 1) Leakage at water tank/reservoir Test to water tank valves for not leak Using depth sensor to measure drop of in water level 12 hours duration test Easy to detect leaking Small and neglected.
2) Leakage at main/delivery pipe. For each pipeline (vessel), end to end valves are closed. Leaking = Final reading (water out) early reading (water in) Sometimes, slightly significant leak and need fixing 3) Leakage at distribution pipe This is significant leak and need to be concerned Measure Q night where most possible minimum flow rate Must be separated from other supplied area Leaking = reading (dist. pipe) reading (user) Factors > piping system, meter, illegal connection

4. NON REVENUE WATER b) Leakage procedure measurements ii. Indirect leakage measurements M metered reading (billed usage) + U -- Under recording ( meter inaccuracies) + D -- Domestic use such as firefighting, scouring work,
I -- Illegal > theft, unauthorized use, leeching

Leaking = Water in ---- water out ---

4. NON REVENUE WATER c) Methods to control leakage i. Pressure control


Used in the area ---that is have high pressure changes Small reducing pressure will reduce leakage significantly But most of the old piping material like metal made, pressure reducing will could become a problem due to the internal pipe crusting. Typical method used are: Pressure reducing valves Reducing pumping head Pressure break tank

4. NON REVENUE WATER c) Methods to control leakage ii. Passive control Leakage will be fixed based on report from concerned community Fixing based on complaint/report Sometime considering the new piping in old area
iii. Listening

4. NON REVENUE WATER c) Methods to control leakage iv. Waste and combined metering A waste meter measures the total flow into a waste area by isolating the area into a few area. And it is called waste meter area, WMA.

The waste meter area is valved in for the test so that it is only supplied by the waste meter.
In district metering, a single DMA may be divided into several WMA, sometimes using the same meter revalved into different areas. Waste meters are used specifically to record the minimum night flow rate, this measurement being used to judge whether there is significant level of leakage by comparison with previous readings. Alternatively, when used with district metering, they are run only when the district meters indicate a significant level of leak. If it is judged that action is required, waste meters can be used to perform further tests to locate the leakage within a still smaller area

4. NON REVENUE WATER d) Methods to detect leakage i. Visual inspection using clues to detect leak like Wet soil surface Green grass when drought season There is a clean water flow into drain detect using chlorine test
ii. Sounding Same as listening

4. NON REVENUE WATER d) Methods to detect leakage iii. Leak noise conductor More efficient/accurate in iron pipe, not plastic Measuring at two suspected point by vibration/sound Vibration are transmitted from sensor to the conductors

4. NON REVENUE WATER d) Methods to detect leakage iv. Tracer gas a portable gas sensor is used to detect nontoxic gas as it escaped thru leaks in pipe and rises thru the surrounding soil to the ground surface

4. NON REVENUE WATER e) Piping design with Hazen Williams formula Factors affecting the design Flow velocity - normal 2.5 m/s, in pump station must below 1.2 m/s to cope cavitations problem Peak demand - because of difference in hourly demand Fire fighting flow Recommended pressure residue - to balance the demand and supply Minimum diameter - 150mm for housing area Easy to use for pressured pipe because of simple calculation only use scientific calculator and need no graph chart However, it has range of accuracy because limitation factor Not suitable in diameter less than 50mm and velocity 3 m/s