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Satellite remote sensing :

Satellite remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon, without making physical contact with the object. The term generally refers to the use of aerial sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth by means of propagated signals .

Satellite remote sensing :

Satellite remote sensing :


The modern discipline of remote sensing arose with the development of flight. The balloonist G. Nadar made photographs of Paris from his balloon in 1858. Messenger pigeons, kites, rockets and unmanned balloons were also used for early images

Importance of sensing :
Measuring and sensing data provide us with information to make sound decisions in situations as diverse as economics, ecology, security, and health. Example : Thermometers ,Radar guns ,Global positioning satellite receivers.
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Importance of sensing :
Measuring and sensing devices are classified as either in-situ (in direct contact) remote (not in direct contact) with regard to the medium .
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Sensing the climate change :


Satellites work by passively sensing energy. A weather satellite senses two forms of energy, visible (reflected sunlight) and infrared (for example, microwave and heat energy), from the earths surface, clouds, and atmosphere.

Infrared energy is emitted 24 hours a day and is sensed by satellites continuously

visible energy is available only during daylight hours since sunlight is reflected only during that period.

Electromagnetic Energy Thermonuclear fusion on the surface of the Sun yields a continuous spectrum of electromagnetic energy. The 6,000 K temperature of this process produces a large amount of short wavelength energy (from 0.4 -0.7 mm; blue, green, and red light) that travels through the vacuum of space at the speed of light

Types of remote sensing :


Passive : Suns energy which is reflected (visible) or Absorbed and re-emitted as thermal infrared wavelengths ASTER, Landsat, AVHRR Active : Emit radiation Radiation reflected is detected and measured LIDAR, RADAR, and SONAR

Active remote sensors :


Active remote sensors emit electromagnetic waves that travel to an object and are reflected back toward the sensor. Example of active remote sensors include , X-rays that use electromagnetic waves to produce images of the human body;

Active remote sensing :

Passive remote sensing :


Passive remote sensors observe electromagnetic waves emitted by objects. An example of this is the camera. For us, sight is a passive remote sensor because light waves are scattered toward our eyes

Visible channel sensing :


The visible channel senses reflected solar (sun) radiation that has a wavelength of .52 to .75 micrometers. Since this is the wavelength interval over which the human eye is sensitive, the channel is called visible.

Clouds, the earth's atmosphere, and the earth's surface absorb and reflect incoming solar radiation. Occurs in daylight .

Sample reading taken by a satellite :


Time Zone Eastern Central Mountain Pacific Alaskan Hawaiian Standard (hours) 5 6 7 8 9 10 Daylight (hours) 4 5 6 7 8 9

Clouds take on a multitude of shapes and features when viewed from satellite.

Meteorologists not only track thunderstorms, they also track tropical and mid-latitude storms.

What the IR Channel Senses


The earths surface absorbs about half of the incoming solar energy.
Clouds and the atmosphere absorb a much smaller degree of solar energy. The earths surface, clouds, and the atmosphere then re-emit part of this absorbed solar energy as heat. The satellite senses heat in the infrared wavelength of 10.2 to 11.2 micrometers.

What the IR Channel Senses


As some of this re-emitted energy passes up through the atmosphere, clouds and atmospheric gasses absorb a portion of the energy.
The energy can then be re-emitted in the same wavelength range.

Thus, the infrared channel is sensing radiation emitted by the earths surface, earth's atmosphere, and cloud tops.

Infrared imagery provides us with temperature information that forecasters use to estimate cloud-top heights. This is important because taller clouds correlate to more active weather, such as stronger thunderstorms or heavier snow..

Areas of snow will appear light gray in comparison to snow-free land areas, which appear to get darker as the land warms during the day.
Another clue for identifying snow on satellite imagery is that snow areas are stationary while clouds are in motion.

Satellite loops are essential in tracking weather phenomena. Forecasters use them to predict the weather condition of a particular place on the earth . From the loop they could understand how fast the cloud moves or the storms move .

The VIS Channel Because the VIS channel senses reflected sunlight (solar radiation), it is available only during daylight hours In VIS imagery, clouds tend to be a brighter white than in IR imagery When severe weather is threatening during daylight hours, the VIS channel can provide imagery of the threatened area every minute (the typical time interval is every 15 minutes)

The IR Channel The IR channel is available 24 hours a day

IR satellite imagery is often colorized to highlight different cloud-top temperatures In the absence of clouds, IR satellite imagery provides surface temperature information Temperature information from the IR channel illustrates storm intensity and determine cloud top height.

Satellites :
The Soil Moisture Active passive (SMAP ) mission is expected to be the first satellite to provide high spatial resolution soil moisture JAXA is making a major commitment to monitoring climate with its GCOM satellite series. GCOM will involve two polar-orbiting satellite

Aq u a r i u s is a Path finder program in co-operation with the Argentine Space Agency and NASA Earth Science System. The E SA has a long history of Earth observation from space that began with meteorological missions

Advanced Land Observing Satellite ALOS launched in 2006 by JAXA was a successful launch .

RADARSA T -2 is the second in a series of Canadian space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites and was launched in 2007.

Image captured by ASTER , a passive sensor