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Epoxy resins.

By Vincent Sam jebadurai.s I M.E

Organic compounds Activated with hardening agents to form strong, chemically resistant structures having excellence adhesive properties Used as adhesives or binders to bond new concrete patches to existing surface or to bond together cracked or severed portions

Bonding cracked or severed portions: if section of concrete has been severed from the parent mass, the displaced portion could be reconnected by coating the contact with adhesive compounds Patching spalled surface: ER may be substituted for portland cement and used as binder in the new patch

2.Preparing the existing contact surface

Most important that the surface be strong Epoxy very strong and any weakness in concrete will invalidate the strength Bonding surface clean n dry Complete dryness is required Capillary/hydrostatic-rubber mat PE sheet laid over

Where the patch consists of concrete prepared with an epoxy binder,in general the aggregates must be surface dry, otherwise the mixture will not harden. There should be enough binder in mix so that there s an excess to wet the bonding surface The bonding surface may be primed with adhesive.

4. Mixing n Placing
Thorough mixing (hand or machine) is required Sand or aggregate should not be added until after the binder has been mixed ER applied with squeegees, rollers or brushes Care should be taken to rub it in well enough to avoid entrapped air packets

Hardening of adhesive will occur and they should be inexpensive and disposable Spray application may be considered if suitable precautions are taken to apply the patch after the spray solvent The time required for hardening of epoxy compounds depends on the hickness of the patch and on air temp.

Higher temp and larger masses cause hardening more rapidly Accelerated by application of heat to the compound or patch The patch may be covered with a black polyethylene film to absorb solar radiation Epoxy compounds 70 90 f concrete surface above 60f

A) Thermal compatability: provide frequent joints when patching relatively large areas because there is a indication of substantial thermal incompatability b/w concrete mixed with portland cement and those using ER as binder B)Cold weather: exposed to cold weather to become brittle and it should be thoroughly invesigated

C) strength of bond: Er greater than that of concrete. This has been demonstrated many times in test specimens subjected to bending, tension and torsion. Failure occurs in concre not in adhesive D) Dangers: workman should be protected from direct contact,protective creams and disposable gloves are desirable. Coveralls should be worn. Any skin areas cleaned immediately.fumes are harmful. Indoors proper ventilation

E) fire resistance: deteriorated by heat. Poor fire resistance. Repairs with usual formulations should not be used F) saturation of the patch: it is used to keep the binder content of the patch as low as possible to reduce the cost if mixture. If binder content is not adequate to saturate the patch it will be porous and subjected to freezing and thawing.

Two ways to correct the freezing and thawing 1. design a mix which will be saturated , 2. to go over the patches with the epoxy after they are made and to effect a seal by filling them with as much binder as they

Methods of repair
Bonding with epoxies Routing and sealing Stitching External stressing Blanketing Overlays grouting

Bonding with Epoxies

Cracks -Bonded under pressure Usual procedure drill into the crack from the face of concrete @ several locations --inject water or solvent to flush out defect, surface dry

Routing and sealing

Enlarging the crack along the exposed surface and filling and sealing it with a suitable material

External stressing
Development of cracking in concrete is due to tensile stress and can be arrested by removing this stresses. Further the cracks can be closed by inducing a compression face to overcome the tension. The principal is similar to stitching

Similar to routing and sealing but it s used on larger scale and is applicable for sealing active as well as dormant cracks

It can be performed as same as the injection of epoxyand the technique has the same areas of application and same limitations..

Thank you