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QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCHES

JILLIAN A. BEJOC,RN, MSN College of Nursing Cebu Normal University jillian_bejoc@yahoo.com

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Distinguish

experimental and nonexperimental research the flow and sequence of activities in quantitative and qualitative research terms associated with quantitative and qualitative research

Describe

Distinguish

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD


Formal,

using measurement hypothesis testing data analysis Tight controls over the research situation and the ability to generalize findings Traditional approaches such as experiments, questionnaires, surveys

objective, systematic process

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD


1.
2.

3.

Is a vigorous, systematic, & objective method. Involves phenomenon that can be measured: pain, wound healing, drug effectiveness, etc. Data is numerical a. statistical analysis T tests or Chi-square to compare two or more groups b. controls for bias.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH : TYPES


1.

Experimental Study = aka: controlled trial or clinical trial a. Tightly controlled variables b. Involves: 1. An Experimental Group who gets the new intervention 2. A Control Group who does not get the new intervention, but receives the current standard of care c. Random Selection subjects are randomly assigned to groups

Quantitative Research : Types


2.

Survey Study a. Used to obtain information from the population regarding prevalence, distribution, & interrelation of variables within the study population b. Statistics used: mean, median, mode, & percent c. Uses questionnaires &/or interviews (Pre-test research tool before using it.)

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH : TYPES


3.

Evaluation Research
a. Determines how well a program, practice, procedure or policy works

b. Simple statistics - percent

THE RESEARCH TERMINOLOGY


Variable

Data
Rigor

Control
Sampling

Setting

CONCEPT OF VARIABLE
Measurable

characteristic that varies among subjects is conducted because this variance occurs!
Independent Dependent

Research

Types:

presumed cause

presumed effect

DATA
Pieces

study

of information obtained in a

Are

the actual values of the study variables


Quantitative

- numeric values

Qualitative

- narrative descriptions

Types of Data / Variables


Continuous BP Height Weight Age Discrete Children Age last birthday colds in last year

Ordinal

Nominal

Grade of condition Positions 1st 2nd 3rd Better- Same-Worse Height groups Age groups

Sex Hair color Blood group Eye color

INTRO TO THE RESEARCH PROCESS

CONCEPT OF CONTROL
Using

rules to decrease error and increase probability that study findings are an accurate reflection of reality results that reflect true relationship among variables of the influence of unwanted extraneous variables

Ensure

Reduction

CONCEPT OF RIGOR
Striving

for excellence in research. Involves:


Discipline Adherence Strict Uses

to detail

accuracy!

precise measurement tools

CONCEPT OF SAMPLING
Who/what Choosing

do you want to study?

subjects who are representative of the study population


& Non-Random Sampling

Random

CONCEPT OF SETTING
Location
Natural

of the study - can affect results

Setting: Uncontrolled, real life situation Controlled: Manipulated or modified in some way Controlled: Artificial environment for sole purpose of doing research. Decreases effects of outside influences.

Partially

Highly

SOME MYTHS ABOUT RESEARCH

The purpose of research is to prove or confirm a theory. findings are presented as complete and conclusive answers. is a hierarchy of research methodology that places true experimental research at the top.

Research

There

INTRO TO THE RESEARCH PROCESS


Involves

decision making - what methods will help to answer a research question/test a hypothesis?
flexible - multiple possibilities, each with its own strengths/weaknesses a circular /cyclical process

Is

Is

MAJOR PHASES IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS


1.

Selecting and defining the problem in need of investigation Selecting a research design
Collecting data Analyzing data Utilizing the Findings

2.
3. 4. 5.

PHASE 1= CONCEPTUAL PHASE

ID

theoretical framework for interpreting results research question and/or hypothesis

Propose

PHASE 1= CONCEPTUAL PHASE


Selecting

and defining the problem (area of research) a question or area where knowledge can be advanced related literature for rationale to do study

ID

Review

PHASE 2 = DESIGN AND PLANNING PHASE


Selecting

a research design intervention protocol

Developing ID

Study Population Sampling Plan

Design

PHASE 2 = DESIGN AND PLANNING PHASE


Specifying

variables
How

methods to measure research

Setting

data will be collected - tools

Developing Pilot

methods to safeguard participants Study Revisions, finalizing the research plan

PHASE 3 = THE EMPIRICAL PHASE


Organization

of the data How do you analyze the data? (must be appropriate form)

May

be the longest phase of the research process

PHASE 3 = THE EMPIRICAL PHASE


Data

Collection - according to pre-established plan (implements the plans designed in Phase I & II)
recruiting

obtaining consent training staff collecting data

PHASE 4 = THE ANALYTIC PHASE


Data

Analysis

Interpret

findings Draw conclusions Hypothesis is supported or rejected How best to utilize findings? New question formulated? (can lead to new questions that can stimulate further study)

PHASE 5 = DISSEMINATION PHASE


Disseminate

findings - Share findings with colleagues


May

report findings in journal articles,

oral presentations, poster


presentations
Utilize

findings - use in nursing practice

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
Uses

questionnaires, surveys, interviews or observations to collect data

EXPERIMENTAL VS. NONEXPERIMENTAL

Experimental: Researcher manipulates or controls variable(s) and observes effect in other variable(s) Evaluates cause and effect relationship Ex: Does a pre-op intervention program to self efficacy affect self care measures post-op?

Nonexperimental: Describes or looks at relationships(s) or correlation between variables. Variables are not manipulated by the researcher Ex: Correlation between HRT use and breast CA

CORRELATION RESEARCH
Relationships

variables Collection of data on at least 2 variables for the same group of individuals Calculator-the correlation between the measurer Highest number of research studies in nursing are classified as description correlation design

between and among

TIME DIMENSION: RETROSPECTIVE VS. PROSPECTIVE


Retrospective:

Examines data already collected in the past Review of medical records to examine previous history of cholesterol levels in s/p MI patients

Prospective:

examines data being collected in the present

Ex:

Ex:

Study describing social support and coping mechanisms of women with ovarian CA

TIME DIMENSION: CROSS-SECTIONAL VS. LONGITUDINAL


Cross-sectional:

Collects data at one point in time exists today?

Longitudinal:

What

Studies examines variables of interest over a period of time Advantage ability to collect data on the same individual over time

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: TYPES

4. Exploratory Research 5. Descriptive Research 6. Grounded Theory > Seeks to describe and understand key social, psychological, and structural process that occur in social setting.

ACTIVITIES IN QUALITATIVE STUDIES


The

flow of activities in a qualitative study is more flexible and less linear as a result it is difficult to define the flow of activity precisely

Major activities: Identifying the research problem

ACTIVITIES IN QUALITATIVE STUDIES


Major activities:

-Doing a literature review (questionable) Selecting and gaining entre into research site Developing an overall approach (emergent design) - Addressing ethical issues

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
1.

2. 3.

Used to explore little known phenomenon that are not easily identifiable. Looks at the clients perception of: health, disease, and care. Uses open ended interviews and case studies.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
Evaluate

subjective life experiences on understanding phenomena observation, in-depth

and give meaning to them


Focuses

from an individuals perspective


Approaches:

interviews, case studies, narrative

analyses

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: TYPES


Ethnography Provides a framework for studying the patterns , lifeways and experiences of a defined cultural group in a holistic way(examples studying a tribe, nursing group working in ICU 2. Phenomenology > Concerned with the lived experiences of humans 3. Historical Research
1.

ACTIVITIES IN QUALITATIVE STUDIES


Selecting

informants Collecting data and analyzing and interpreting them. Early analysis lead to refinements in sampling and data collection until saturation is achieved. analysis involves a search for critical themes Dissemination of finding through publishing or conferences

TRIANGULATION
Using May

both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data

combine various research designs/data collection techniques in the same study combine psychosocial surveys, interviews, observations
approaches are complimentary and can give an accurate reflection of reality.

Two

QUANTITATIVE VS. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH


Scenario: patients who are experiencing chronic pain. Quantitative research level of pain that these people were experiencing Qualitative research what it means to be living with chronic pain.