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Assignment - 6

TOWN PLANNING

Ques1. List down the contributions towards modern city planning by the followinga. b. c. d. Sir Ebenezer Harward Fredrik Olmsted Catherine Clearance Perry

A. SIR EBENEZER HARWARD The garden city movement is a method of urban planning that was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom. Garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry and agriculture. The now well discussed event that initiated practical town-planning in Great Britain and in many parts of the world was the publication in 1898 of the book, "To-morrow: A peaceful path to Real Reform," by Sir Ebenezer Howard. Ironically, concerning the book, The Times wrote "an ingenious and rather entertaining attempt - the only difficulty is to create it.

"... by so laying. out a Garden City that, as it grows, the free gifts of Naturefresh air, sunlight, breathing room and playing room- shall be still retained in all needed abundance
Due to the expense of travel for the working and lower classes of the time, the country offered a very romantic retreat from town life, despite its worse deprivation. Around the early 1800's the more well off classes were becoming more aware of the deprived, as it began to affect them.

It is interesting to note that in all these early ventures, private enterprise was very important, e.g. James Silk Buckingham's plan for "Victoria" in l849; from which Howard obviously derived the radial diagrams for Garden City. Buckingham states that his scheme was designed to "avoid the evils of communism". At this time the technical and the political aspects of town planning thought were very closely related. Howard in his own book thought that his Garden City should be a private enterprise, though he did think that parliamentary powers would be necessary for a larger project.
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Garden City, which is to be built near the centre of the 6,000 acres, covers an area of 1,000 acres, or a sixth part of the 6,000 acres, and might be of circular form, 1,240 yards (or nearly three-quarters of a mile) from centre to circumference. Image 1 is a ground plan of the whole municipal area, showing the town in the centre; and

Image 2, which represents one section or ward of the town, will be useful in following the description of the town itself.

Six magnificent boulevards--each 120 feet wide--traverse the city from centre to circumference, dividing it into six equal parts or wards. In the centre is a circular space containing about five and a half acres, laid out as a beautiful and well- watered garden; and, surrounding this garden, each standing in its own ample grounds, are the larger public buildings--town hall, principal concert and lecture hall, theatre, library, museum, picture-gallery, and hospital. The rest of the large space encircled by the 'Crystal Palace' is a public park, containing 145 acres, which includes ample recreation grounds within very easy access of all the people. Running all round the Central Park (except where it is intersected by the boulevards) is a wide glass arcade called the 'Crystal Palace', opening on to the park. This building is in wet weather one of the favourite resorts of the people, whilst the knowledge that its bright shelter is ever close at hand tempts people into Central Park, even in the most doubtful of weathers. Here manufactured goods are exposed for sale, and here most of that class of shopping which requires the joy of deliberation and selection is done. The space enclosed by the Crystal Palace is, however, a good deal larger than is required for these purposes, and a considerable part of it is used as a Winter Garden --the whole forming a permanent exhibition of a most attractive character, whilst its circular form brings it near to every dweller in the town--the furthest removed inhabitant being within 600 yards.

On the outer ring of the town are factories, warehouses, dairies, markets, coal yards, timber yards, etc., all fronting on the circle railway, which encompasses the whole town, and which has sidings connecting it with a main line of railway which passes through the estate. This arrangement enables goods to be loaded direct into trucks from the warehouses and workshops, and so sent by railway to distant markets, or to be taken direct from the trucks into the warehouses or factories; thus not only effecting a very great saving in regard to packing and cartage, and reducing to a minimum loss from breakage, but also, by reducing the traffic on the roads of the town, lessening to a very marked extent the cost of their maintenance. The smoke fiend is kept well within bounds in Garden City; for all machinery is driven by electric energy, with the result that the cost of electricity for lighting and other purposes is greatly reduced. The refuse of the town is utilized on the agricultural portions of the estate, which are held by various individuals in large farms, small holdings, allotments, cow pastures, etc.; the natural competition of these various methods of agriculture, tested by the willingness of occupiers to offer the highest rent to the municipality, tending to bring about the best system of husbandry, or, what is more probable, the best systems adapted for various purposes. Dotted about the estate are seen various charitable and philanthropic institutions. These are not under the control of the municipality, but are supported and managed by various public-spirited people who have been invited by the municipality to establish these institutions in an open healthy district, and on land let to them at a pepper-corn rent, it occurring to the authorities that they can the better afford to be thus generous, as the spending power of these institutions greatly benefits the whole community.

Garden City

B. FREDRIK OLMSTED Frederick Law Olmsted was an American journalist, social critic, public administrator, and landscape designer. He is popularly considered to be the father of American landscape architecture, although many scholars have bestowed that title upon Andrew Jackson Downing. Olmsted was famous for co-designing many well-known urban parks with his senior partner Calvert Vaux, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City, as well as Elm Park (Worcester, Massachusetts), considered by many to be the first municipal park in America. Drawing influences from English landscape and gardening, Olmsteds principles of design, generally speaking, encourage the full utilization of the naturally occurring features of a given space, its genius; the subordination of individual details to the whole so that decorative elements do not take precedence, but rather the whole space; concealment of design, design that does not call attention to itself; design which works on the unconscious to produce relaxation; and utility or purpose over ornamentation. A bridge, a pathway, a tree, a pasture: any and all elements are brought together to produce a particular effect.Olmsted designed primarily in the pastoral and picturesque styles, each to achieve a particular effect. The pastoral style featured vast expanses of green with small lakes, trees and groves and produced a soothing, restorative effect on the viewer. The picturesque style covered rocky, broken terrain with teeming shrubs and creepers and struck the viewer with a sense of natures richness. The picturesque style played with light and shade to lend the landscape a sense of mystery. Scenery was designed to enhance the sense of space: indistinct boundaries using plants, brush and trees as opposed to sharp ones; interplay of light and shadow close up and blurred detail further away. A vast expanse of greenery at the end of which lies a grove of yellow poplar; a path that winds through a bit of landscape and intersects with others, dividing the terrain into triangular islands of successive new views. 6

B. FREDRIK OLMSTED...contd.. Subordination strives to use all objects and features in the service of the design and its intended effect. It can be seen in the subtle use of naturally occurring plants throughout the park. Non-native species planted for the sake of their own uniqueness defeat the purpose of design, as that very uniqueness draws attention to itself where the intention is to enable relaxation: utility above all else. Separation applies to areas designed in different styles and different uses enhancing safety and reducing distraction. A key feature of Central Park is the use of sunken roadways which traverse the park and are specifically dedicated to vehicles as opposed to winding paths designated specifically for pedestrians. A beautiful example of this mix of principles is seen in the Parks Mall in New York's Central Park, a large promenade leading to the Bethesda Terrace and the single formal feature in Olmsted and Vauxs original naturalistic design. The designers wrote that a "'grand promenade was an essential feature of a metropolitan park however, its formal symmetry, its style, though something of an aberration, was designed so as to be subordinate to the natural view surrounding it. Wealthy passengers were let from their carriages at its south end. The carriage would then drive around to the Terrace, which overlooked the Lake and Ramble to pick them up, saving them the trouble of needing to double back on foot. The Promenade was lined with slender elms and offered views of Sheep Meadow. Affluent New Yorkers, who rarely walked through the park, mixed with the less well-to-do, and all enjoyed an escape from the hustle and bustle of the surrounding city.

Volunteer Park 1913

B. FREDRIK OLMSTED...contd.. The main framework of any city plan is the transportation system, including in that term the public ways, both of local and of general importance, the street railways, the rapid transit railways, where such exist, the longdistance railways with their terminals, and the facilities for waterborne traffic. Comprehensive Planning Necessary. The location and width of the new streets which are daily extending the permanent framework of the city into new territory are now being fixed, in the main, by the local landowners. Their business is simply to market their land, and, so far as their limited control extends, to provide sufficient means of access to it to attract purchasers. Rapid Transit Routes. But whatever the best rapid transit routes may prove to be, these facts are tolerably clear about them:--First, that a paying rapid transit line cannot be built until after a large part of the district through which it is to run is pretty fully occupied--that is, until after most of the streets have been opened and built upon. Second, that the cost of installing a rapid transit line in a district already subdivided and built upon will depend mainly upon whether provision has been made in advance for such a line in the layout of the city, because in the absence of such provision it must either go under the streets, with all the drawbacks of subways, or encumber the streets most objectionably with an elevated structure, or cut its way through private building lots, all very costly operations, and apt to result in bad alignment at that. Third, that the question of how the city or any part of the city can have rapid transit, and how far and how fast the passengers can be carried for five cents will depend largely upon the cost of installing the lines. Fourth, that the speed, the range, and the economy of local passenger transportation is one of the most important factors making for comfortable and healthful homes for the mass of the people, and against the overcrowding of houses on the land and the exaction of excessive ground rents. 8

B. FREDRIK OLMSTED...contd.. Surface Car Routes. Of equal importance with the rapid transit lines properly so called, are the surface car routes, which will become the feeders of the former, and which must be the main agency in extending the residential radius. While in the older part of the city the cars must generally occupy streets laid out before the invention of electric traction. In a 60ft or 66ft. street, unless the sidewalks are excessively and unreasonably curtailed, the roadway cannot be made wide enough for two vehicles to pass between the curb and the street cars. Therefore the main stream of slowmoving vehicles must perforce run upon the tracks. Main Thoroughfares and Local Streets. It is very important in dealing with the subject of city planning to maintain very clearly the distinction between such main thoroughfares as we have been discussing and the local streets, of which the prime object is to give means of access to the lands and houses immediately abutting upon each, and in closebuilt districts to admit light and air to the buildings that line them. General Considerations Affecting the Location of Playgrounds and Parks. In any city closely covering a large area, welldistributed public playgrounds and neighbourhood parks become one of the urgent needs if the health and vigour of the people are to be maintained. And the most important classes to provide for are the children and the women of wageearning families.

Washington Park

Prospect Park

B. FREDRIK OLMSTED...contd.. Activities of Public Recreation Grounds. The size, form, and character of public neighbourhood recreation grounds depend upon the functions to be performed by each. Some of the activities where they are well developed, as, for example, in Chicago are these : 1. The playing of little children in sand piles, and upon the lawn, and in a shallow wading pool, and in open shelters, under the watchful guidance of an attendant, who not only keeps them out of mischief and danger, but plays with them, tells them stories, and stimulates the healthy activity of their little minds and bodies. The mothers may come with their children and sit by them while they play, or may leave them in safety while at work. A plot but 100 ft. square may be of value for such use. 2. For the boys of larger growth, and also for the girls and women, the more active games and gymnastic exercises, with and without apparatus, in the open air when the weather permits, and under cover in the winter, always with the opportunity and inducement to wash and bathe, and sometimes with a swimming pool to boot. Sometimes space is found for the big field games, and regular athletic sports on a running track, sometimes for nothing that takes more space than basketball or fives. 3. For the older and less active people a few pleasant shaded walks and benches to stroll and sit upon, from which to see the youngsters play, and once or twice a week perhaps a band concert.

New York City parks

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B. FREDRIK OLMSTED...contd.. Activities of Public Recreation Grounds. 4. For the use of all a fieldhouse, where the sanitary accommodations are kept to a standard of cleanliness and good order that sets a good example to the neighbourhood where a reading branch of the public library is available, and in which one or more large rooms are at the disposal of the neighbourhood for lectures, entertainments, and dances: clean, healthy recreation given full play amid decent surroundings, instead of being driven to the saloon, dancehall, and the like. A fullfledged recreation centre is a large and elaborate affair, and a costly one to keep in operation, and until the taxpayers have satisfied themselves by tentative experiment that such things are worth their cost, a much more modest scale must be adopted; but there are such advantages in the possibility of gradually building up a group of related activities, that it is extremely desirable to secure rather goodsized tracts, 20 acres if possible, rather than split the same area into a large number of very small squares. As to the total area to be secured, it is so seldom possible to get enough that there is little danger of overdoing the purchase of such local parks. There is a rather general consensus of opinion that about 5 per cent of the total area devoted to local parks, play grounds, and squares is a reasonable minimum standard at which to aim, and that more than 10 per cent. may be uneconomic

New York City parks

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D.CLEARANCE PERRY Clarence Arthur Perry was an American planner, sociologist, author, and educator. He was born in Truxton, New York. He later worked in the New York City planning department where he became a strong advocate of the Neighborhood unit. He was an early promoter of neighborhood community and recreation centers. The concept of the neighbourhood unit, crystallised from the prevailing social and intellectual attitudes of the early 1900s by Clarence Perry is an early diagrammatic planning model for residential development in metropolitan areas. It was designed by Perry to act as a framework for urban planners attempting to design functional, self-contained and desirable neighbourhoods in the early 20th century in industrialising cities. It continues to be utilised (albeit in progressive and adapted ways, see New Urbanism), as a means of ordering and organising new residential communities in a way which satisfies contemporary "social, administrative and service requirements for satisfactory urban existence". The neighbourhood unit was conceived of as a comprehensive physical planning tool, to be utilised for designing self-contained residential neighbourhoods which promoted a community centric lifestyle, away from the "noise of the trains, and out of sight of the smoke and ugliness of industrial plants" emblematic of an industrialising New York City in the early 1900s. A diagram of Clarence Perry's neighbourhood unit, illustrating the spatiality of the core principles of the concept, from the New York Regional Survey, Vol 7. 1929 The core principles of Perry's Neighbourhood Unit were organised around several physical design ideals.

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D.CLEARANCE PERRYContd Principles "Centre the school in the neighbourhood so that a child's walk to school was only about one-quarter of a mile and no more than one half mile and could be achieved without crossing a major arterial street. Size the neighbourhood to sufficiently support a school, between 5,000 to 9,000 residents, approximately 160 acres at a density of ten units per acre. Implement a wider use of the school facilities for neighbourhood meetings and activities, constructing a large play area around the building for use by the entire community. Place arterial streets along the perimeter so that they define and distinguish the "place" of the neighborhood and by design eliminate unwanted through-traffic from the neighborhood. In this way, major arterials define the neighborhood, rather than divide it through its heart. Design internal streets using a hierarchy that easily distinguishes local streets from arterial streets, using curvilinear street design for both safety and aesthetic purposes. Streets, by design, would discourage unwanted through traffic and enhance the safety of pedestrians. Restrict local shopping areas to the perimeter or perhaps to the main entrance of the neighborhood, thus excluding nonlocal traffic destined for these commercial uses that might intrude on the neighborhood. Dedicate at least 10 percent of the neighborhood land area to parks and open space, creating places for play and community interaction" The neighbourhood unit was embraced for its community idealism, and many of the public sectors in those countries which were exposed to the theorem have since adopted its purpose; of protecting and promoting the public health and of considering the safety and welfare of citizens. Furthermore, private developers and investors continue to construct and fund planned communities based upon many of the concepts tenets, due to consumer demand for the idealistic community intimacy associated with living with heteronormative homo reciprocans of similar socioeconomic status. These attractive qualities of the concept of the neighbourhood unit 13 are referred to by Allaire, "as reflecting a nostalgia for rural living".

D.CLEARANCE PERRYContd

The concept of the neighbourhood unit is a notable aspect of designs of the new town movement . The neighbourhood unit seems to have an uneasy relationship to the Garden City Movement of the same period consider garden suburbs. Raymond Unwin an architect working for Ebenezer Howard was an advocate of the neighbourhood unit.

Diagram of Clearance Perry Neighborhood unit

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Ques2. List down the various challanges that a city of world war 2 faced.

The Aftermath of World War II was the beginning of a new era. It was defined by the decline of the old great powers and the rise of two superpowers the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (US) creating a bipolar world. Temporarily allied during World War II, the US and the USSR became competitors on the world stage and engaged in what became known as the Cold War, so called because it never boiled over into open war between the two powers but was focused on espionage, political subversion and proxy wars. Western Europe and Japan was rebuilt through the American Marshall Plan whereas Eastern Europe was in the Soviet sphere of influence and was excluded from the Marshall Plan. The world was divided into an USled Western Bloc and a Soviet-led Eastern Bloc with some nations trying to stay out of the Cold War through the Non-Aligned Movement.

The Cold War also saw a nuclear arms race between the two superpowers, part of the reason that the Cold War never became a "hot" war was that the USSR and the US had nuclear deterrents against each other, leading to a MAD situation. As a consequence of the war, the Allies created the United Nations, a new global organization for international cooperation and diplomacy.
The United Nations agreed to outlaw wars of aggression in an attempt to avoid a third world war. The devastated great powers of Western Europe formed the European Coal and Steel Community (that later evolved into the European Union) in an attempt to avoid another war by economic cooperation and a common market for important natural resources. The war also increased the rate of decolonization from the weakened great powers (Japan and Italy lost their colonies directly because they lost the war), with India and Indonesia becoming independent in the years immediately following the end of the conflict. 15

Ques2. List down the various challanges that a city of world war 2 faced.....contd...

At the end of the war, millions of people were homeless, the European economy had collapsed, and much of the European industrial infrastructure had been destroyed. The Soviet Union, too, had been heavily affected. In response, in 1947, U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall devised the "European Recovery Program", which became known as the Marshall Plan. Under the plan, during 1948-1952 theUnited States government allocated US$13 billion (US$136 billion in 2012 dollars) for the reconstruction of Western Europe. After the end of the war, a conference was held in Potsdam, Germany, to set up peace treaties . The countries that fought with Hitler lost territory and had to pay reparations to the Allies . Germany and its capital Berlin were divided into four parts. The zones were to be controlled by Great Britain, the United States, France and the Soviet Union. The three western Allies and the Soviet Union disagreed on many things and as time went on Germany was divided into two separate countries : East Germany , which had a Communist government and West Germany, which was a democratic state . Berlin was also divided into East and West Berlin. Austria was also occupied by the four Allies from 1945 to 1955. One by one, the Russians started to take over countries in eastern Europe and install Communist governments there. The division of Europe was the beginning of the Cold War, between the democratic nations of the west and the Communist countries of eastern Europe. The Iron Curtain marked the border between these two regions.

German occupation zones afte World War II 16

Ques2. List down the various challenges that a city of world war 2 faced.....contd...

After the war many Nazi leaders were arrested and punished for what they had done in the war. The most famous war trials were held at Nuremberg, Germany. Those who were responsible for brutal crimes were sentenced to death. Many problems arose after the war was over. One of them focused on the city of Berlin which was deep inside the Russian zone. In June 1948, the Soviet Union tried to drive the western powers out of Berlin by blocking all routes to the city. For a whole year the Allies flew in food, fuel and other things that the population needed to survive . Finally , the Russians gave up and the blockade ended. In 1961 the Russians built a wall around Berlin to stop their citizens from escaping to the west. The biggest task was to rebuild Europe, which lay in ruins . In 1948 the United States set up the Marshall Plan to help Europes economy. 18 nations received 13 billion dollars worth of food machines and other goods . During World War II , four of the Allied powersthe United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and China agreed to create an organization that should work for peace . In April 1945 fifty countries signed a charter and gave birth to the United Nations.

Division of Europe : the free western countries (blue) and Coimmunist Eastern Europe (red) - grey countries are neutral

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Ques2. List down the various challenges that a city of world war 2 faced.....contd...

Although the economies of Europe were already achieving near miracles of recovery through their own efforts, Marshall Plan funds played a crucial role in rebuildingbut only in the West and in Yugoslavia, where Josip Broz Tito refused to permit any Soviet interference. Stalin refused to allow any Sovietcontrolled nation to accept what he regarded as a blatant American attempt to buy Eastern European friendship. Thanks to their own superhuman efforts, plus the boost provided by the Marshall Plan, Western European countries returned to normal much faster than anyone would have expected on seeing the destruction wrought by the war. Infrastructure was rebuilt, theatres reopened, and people went back to work. Many difficulties, including food shortages and rationing, continued to exist for some time after the war, but governments took what steps they could to bring their nations back to prosperity. Behind the Iron Curtain, however, conditions were quite different. Although one benefit of Communist rule was full employment, jobs were assigned with- out regard to individual preferences, and wages were low. Housing was over- crowdedan entire family sharing a one-room apartment without a private kitchen or bathroom was typical in all Soviet cities.

Soviet flag on the roof of the Reichstag in Berlin

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Ques2. List down the various challenges that a city of world war 2 faced.....contd... In addition, there were constant shortages of necessities, and luxury goods were a thing of the past. Behind the Iron Curtain, there was never any guarantee that shops would have anything to sell. When people heard that a market had just received a truckload of, say, fresh eggs, a long line of customers would appear at that market as if by magic, because it might be the last chance for eggs for a month or more. People carried shopping bags called perhaps bags everywhere they went, just in caseperhapsthere might be something to buy and carry home. Barter, rather than cash purchases, became common. The state owned and ran all businesses and industries, so no one had any personal pride or vested interest in doing a good job or seeing his or her business succeed.

RUINS AFTER WORLD WAR II

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Ques3. With respect to Indian context identify any Indian city of your choice which has gone through transformation after Independence.

Calcutta (now Kolkata) was the capital of India during the British Raj until December 1911. However, Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient India and the Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire (as it was officially called) from Calcutta to Delhi. Unlike Calcutta, which was located on the eastern coast of India, Delhi was located in northern India and the Government of British India felt that it would be easier to administer India from Delhi rather than from Calcutta. Thanks to their own superhuman efforts, plus the boost provided by the Marshall. CONVERTING DELHI INTO INDIA'S new imperial capital was far more challenging, and retrospectively, far less successful. That has a great deal to do with the fact that the priority of the colonial political class was to provide an urban form to their imperial vision rather than create a capital around the historic identity of Delhi and its requirements. Similarly, as will be soon be evident to the reader, some epochal moments in the transformation of post independence Delhi, would also be shaped by the motives of India's political class - in the guise of national needs and, as with the Commonwealth Games, international aspirations - rather than the character and the problems of the city. To begin with, building the new city took some twenty years, and this was in spite of the fact that the decision to build a 'new Delhi' was taken simultaneously with the decision to transfer the capital. The royal couple had laid the foundation stones of that new capital with great ceremony within the precincts of the durbar camp. Hardinge had also moved quickly. By the end of March 1912 he had departed from Calcutta with all the paraphernalia of the viceregal court. Soon, temporary quarters for the government offices were being built in Delhi and Hardinge was choosing the 20 site where the city would be located.

Ques3. With respect to Indian context identify any Indian city of your choice which has gone through transformation after Independence. ..contd... Several locations were considered, and rejected. The durbar area was declared uninteresting and unhealthy as also liable to flooding. Sabzi Mandi was better, but acquisition of the factory areas would annoy mill owners. Civil Lines, similarly, would antagonize the European population, which would have to be evicted. For reasons of health, for its undulating land, for the space it provided, and for its relationship with many historic sites, the Raisina village area and hill were what appealed to the Viceroy: "From the top of the hill there was a magnificent view embracing old Delhi and all of the principal monuments situated outside the town, with the River at a little distance. I said at once....'This is the site for Government House.' " With the construction of Government House, though, large segments of the magnificent Raisina hill would have to be blasted away. 'Independence Day' dawned on 15th August 1947 but the celebrations started on 14th August. These began in the Assembly hall, when the Constituent Assembly of India, made up of Indians who were drafting a constitution for the new nation, held a special session that started at 11 p.m. The star speaker that night was Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru whose words imparted a strong sense of occasion. "At the stroke of the midnight hour when the world sleeps," Nehru announced, "India will awake to life and freedom". As members of the Assembly listened to the chimes which announced the midnight hour, one of them blew a conch shell to announce the great event. Thousands crowded around the entrance to the Council building that night while shopping centres, public buildings, temples and homes all over Delhi were decorated with lights and with the national flag. How did resettlement of refugees proceed? On the one hand, several thousand 21 refugees 'resettled' themselves in the sense that abandoned Muslim homes

Ques3. With respect to Indian context identify any Indian city of your choice which has gone through transformation after Independence. ..contd... On the other hand, the government sought to rehabilitate Muslims from 'mixed localities' into 'Muslim areas' or what were called 'Muslim zones'. Muslim localities (including Sadr Bazar, Pahari Imli and Pul Bangash) were cordoned off and 'abandoned' houses there were kept empty so that Muslims could return to them or other Muslims could be moved there from 'mixed areas'. A large number, as many as thirty six, rehabilitation colonies for refugees were also created as emergency projects. Rajendra Nagar, Patel Nagar, Tilak Nagar and Lajpat Nagar are among the largest of those colonies, and as the historian Ramachandra Guha pointed out to me, "they are named after Congress Hindus who were not as pro-Muslim as Gandhi and Nehru were thought to be!

Meher Chand Khanna, then Minister for Rehabilitation, apparently named several government colonies on the basis of who the occupants were. Sewa Nagar was so named because it was where peons, daftaris etc. lived while the joint secretaries and directors were housed in Maan Nagar and Shan Nagar. Apparently, it was after Nehru made his annoyance clear that the names of Shan Nagar and Maan Nagar were changed to Bharati Nagar and Rabindra Nagar .
Occupationally, since most refugees in Delhi came from the urban areas of West Pakistan, they moved towards trade and commerce. In many parts of Delhi, shops and businesses were taken over by such refugees. About 90% of the shops in Chandni Chowk's Cloth Market, for example, originally belonged to the old residents of Delhi but over time Punjabi refugees took over the bulk of the business, with a mere 10% eventually remaining in the control of 22 the old

Ques3. With respect to Indian context identify any Indian city of your choice which has gone through transformation after Independence. ..contd... While the dynamism and drive with which refugees rebuilt their lives and the alacrity with which the government rehabilitated them, make for a deeply moving story, it also hastened haphazard urban growth. By the 1950s, this alarmed many in the city - among them Prime Minister Nehru. Unlike recent Prime Ministers, Nehru took a keen interest in Delhi. His Selected Works contain all kinds of nuggets that highlight this - from deciding that government offices and official buildings should be placed on both sides of the Vista (now Rajpath) to the way in which the National Museum jutted out of line with the other buildings ("I hope no other building would be constructed which encoraches on the open space of the Vista"). That a security blanket ought to be created around prized heritage buildings can also be traced back to the ideas of Nehru who in 1955 complained to the Union Minister of Education that India's old and historical places were getting spoilt by new buildings being put around them. In order to protect them from such intrusion, Nehru suggested that the government can "lay down that within a certain area no building should be put up without permission". An example of Nehru's proactive approach on this protective barrier is the enclosure encircling the tomb of Abdur Rahim Kahn-i-Khana in Delhi. This was done after Nehru had visited it and had suggested that the adjacent grounds be converted into a small garden or park because, as he put it, he "did not want what was called by the uncouth name of 'Nizamuddin Extension East' " to extend into the area around the tomb. There are extensive comments on the ways in which Delhi's 'fair' face was being blemished by unplanned growth as well. As Nehru put it, "Delhi will be spoilt completely if there is no overall planning of the city and we do not stop odd structures going up without paying attention to larger considerations of planning, health, sanitation, keeping of open places and the future growth of the city. Profiteering and speculation around land in Delhi during the 1950s was rife, involving all kinds of people, including senior government officials. 23 Nehru's concern about such speculation is captured in this letter which he

Ques3. With respect to Indian context identify any Indian city of your choice which has gone through transformation after Independence. ..contd... By 1956, Nehru had decided that there would be a central authority to control and regulate the expansion of Delhi and that this authority would draw up a detailed plan for this purpose.47 In 1957, institutions which Dilliwallas today associate with the planning, upkeep and problems of their city were created. The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) and the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) were set up that year, with the DDA's objective being "to promote and secure the development of Delhi according to Plan. " Work on the Master Plan for Delhi began even before this and was prepared by a team of Indian planners, most of whom were educated in the U.S., and assisted by consultants of the Ford Foundation. The senior architect and town planner, Kuldip Singh, remembers interning in the summer of 1955 with the Town Planning Organization, the institutional umbrella under which the Indian planners who prepared the plan, worked. I sought out Kuldip Singh, now 76 years old, to speak about his perspective on the Master Plan, whose methodology and space standards later became bench marks for planning cities all over India. Having spent more than half a century studying and designing buildings in India, his description of the postindependence political leaders who have sought to protect the character of Delhi is straightforward and blunt. Three Prime Ministers of India took a keen interest in the planning of Delhi. Nehru would always be remembered, he says, for initiating the Master Plan of Delhi; Indira Gandhi for the establishment of key institutions that went on to play an important role in servicing and regulating the city - Housing Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) in 1970 for dealing with problems of housing for the economically weaker sections as also the Delhi Urban Art Commission (DUAC) in 1974 for regulating the aesthetic and architectural aspects of the city 49 - and for intervening to replan the Connaught Place extension of New Delhi in 1972; and Rajiv Gandhi for ensuring that the Delhi 24 Metropolitan Rail Corporation's (DMRC) rails remained underground across

Ques3. With respect to Indian context identify any Indian city of your choice which has gone through transformation after Independence. ..contd... The Nehru-driven Master Plan aimed at balanced and integrated development to take care of the growth of Delhi till 1981 - thus, it was also a long range plan. It functionally zoned land uses, with the city being divided into a number of planning divisions, each of these being visualized as self-contained in the matter of employment, residential places, recreational areas, shopping and other requirements.50 Commercial activity was decentralized, and consequently, various district shopping centres were proposed so as to be within easy reach of each residential pocket. These were to be composite centres with shopping, business, commercial and professional offices, local government offices, cinemas, restaurants and other places of entertainment. Space came to be provided for the expanding population of the University of Delhi with sites for twenty new colleges being earmarked in the plan and another 2,900 acres for research institutions. For the first time, thanks to the Master Plan, large open areas came to be demarcated around monuments so that they could be better preserved. This was done by developing huge 'greens' around historical monuments including 250 acres around Hauz Khas, 325 hectares in Tughlakabad, 175 hectares in Jahanpanah, 75 hectares in Chirag Delhi and 100 hectares Siri Fort.52 Again, it was this Master Plan which ensured that the Ram Lila grounds which stretched from Delhi Gate to Ajmere Gate would not be built up and would remain a major lung for the Old City.53 In fact, Delhi's urbanisable land itself, as visualized till 1981, was to be surrounded by a green belt of agricultural land to limit the city's physical growth and to prevent it merging with the cities nearby. The government, along with the plan, also set in place what was arguably the largest land nationalization in Indian urban history, where the DDA was 25 empowered to acquire a projected area of 35,000 acres for housing through

Ques3. With respect to Indian context identify any Indian city of your choice which has gone through transformation after Independence. ..contd... Singh is also quick to point out the deficiencies of that plan. A large part of Delhi continued to grow unplanned, notwithstanding all the safeguards, with lakhs of urban working poor living in illegal squatter colonies in the city. The planning process continues in much the same way, in the sense that subsequent Master Plans too have failed to provide adequate authorized housing for millions of Delhi's citizens, even as rich illegal colonies like Sainik farms are on the brink of being granted a legal status. A senior official of the Urban Development Ministry of the Government of India informed me that today in Delhi, three to four million people live lived in unauthorized colonies, about the same number in slums, some one million in recently created 'resettlement' colonies where no planning regulations seem to have been followed, and 2 million or so in rural and urban villages which, by law, are exempt from the planning process. Shahjahanabad, as before, has remained ignored in the planning process and no worthwhile improvement has occurred here after the enforcement of the Master Plan. On the contrary, in the 1960s, congestion only increased with the average gross residential density per acre increasing from 443 in 1961 to 487 in 1971. Similar was the condition of its industrial units. The average space occupied by an industrial worker in Shahjahanabad was only 140 sq ft as against the corresponding figure of 348 sq ft in Okhla and 285 sq ft in the Najafgarh Road Industrial Area. The problems of old Delhi are writ large across the 1961 Master Plan when it notes "almost an absence of community facilities and only sub-standard services there" or when it speaks about the necessity of decogensting the Old City. However, the modes through which there would be a thinning of the 26 population in the Old City through the redevelopment of other areas were

Ques3. With respect to Indian context identify any Indian city of your choice which has gone through transformation after Independence. ..contd... From 2006 till 2009 this Advisory Committee in Delhi alone allowed constructions within the prohibited zone of some 70 odd protected historical monuments ranging from Safdarjung's Tomb and Humayun's Tomb to the Asokan rock edict in Srinivaspuri and Jantar Mantar near Connaught Place. Among the most glaring such permissions was that granted for the construction of the elevated road on Barapullah Nullah which connects the Commonwealth Games Village with the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium This runs just five metres from the early seventeenth century Bara Pulah bridge and within 105 metres from Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khana's tomb (also built in the seventeenth century). K.T. Ravindran, a senior urban planner and presently Chairman of DUAC, had pointed out to the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) that it was too close to the Bara Pulah bridge, and would endanger it and had advised the government to consider another route. The ASI not only ignored the suggestion, it gave the green signal to an elevated road which, for the two-week Commonwealth jamboree, permanently compromised a nearly 400-year-old bridge. And so, as 2011 begins, will Delhi will continue to experience the open spaces around the city's monuments and the planned development that has famously enhanced the visual appeal of large parts of their city? Or will they primarily experience their city in the form of elevated roads and railway tracks outside their homes? Without political will intervening to restore sanity to planning in India's political capital, Kuldip Singh's words, may well turn out to be true: "Known as a 'City of Monuments', Delhi in future could well be called the city of 'Serpentine Concrete.' "

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