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Vejaya Syakirah Nadzirah Fadzleen

What is covert approach?

Teacher gets the pupils involved in using the structure without drawing their attention to the grammatical rules.

Structure to be taught : Do you like? Procedure: TC gets students to interview their friends and write the names of five people who like each of the fruits listed in worksheet. SS have to go round, asking their friends Do you like? to complete the task. Covert Grammar Teaching Grammatical facts are hidden from the students. Students are asked to do the activity where new grammar is presented but their attention will be drawn to this activity not to the grammar rules Errors should be tolerated during the activity but should be noted and dealt later on.

What is overt approach?

Teacher explicitly explains the rules when presenting the new language. The information is openly presented.


Deductive approach Inductive approach

Deductive approach Teacher presents the rules/patterns/generalizations and then provide practice to apply the rules. General rule Specific examples Practice

Inductive approach The students learn the use of the structure through practice of the language in context, and later realize the rules from the practical examples. Specific examples Practice General rule

Example Inductive approach Deductive approach Structure to be taught : Comparative form Structure to be taught: Present Perfect Procedure: 1. TC begins the lesson by saying, Today we are going to learn how to use the present perfect structure. 2. The rules of the present perfect structure are outlined. 3. Students practice using the structure through exercises given.
In this approach, the teacher is the center of the class and is responsible for all of the presentation and explanation of the new material.

Procedure: 1. TC begins the lesson by drawing a figure on the board and saying, This is Jim. He is tall. Then TC would draw another taller figure next to the first saying, This is Bill. He is taller than Jim. 2. TC provides many examples using students and items from the classroom, to create an understanding of the use of the structure. 3. Students repeat after TC and practice the structures meaningfully in groups/pairs.
In this approach, students learn the rules in a real language context.


A grammar rules presented covertly via communicative activity can be supported by an explicit explanation so that students understand the rules. A grammar rules presented overtly or explicitly should be supported by activities which encourage students to use the structures for communicative purposes.