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LOW VOLTAGE SWITCHGEARS

Low Voltage Switchgears

A Switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment. Voltage lesser then 1 kV

Switchgear
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II. III.

The role of switchgear is Electrical protection Safe isolation from live parts Local or remote switching In addition to those functions, other functions namely Over-voltage protection Under-voltage protection

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Electrical protection
Electrical Protection against Overload current Short Circuit current Insulation Failure

Electrical protection assures Protection of circuit elements against the thermal and mechanical stresses of short-circuit currents Protection of persons in the event of insulation failure Protection of appliances and apparatus being supplied (e.g. motors, etc.)

Isolation

The aim of isolation is to separate a circuit or apparatus (such as a motor, etc.) from the remainder of a system which is energized, in order that personnel may carry out work on the isolated part in perfect safety.

Local or remote switching

Switchgear-control functions allow system operating personnel to modify a loaded system at any moment, according to requirements and include Functional control (routine switching, etc.) Emergency switching Maintenance operations on the power system

Tabulated functional capabilities

Rating of switchgears
MCB Fault current of up to 10KA only with operating current range of 0.5 to 63 Amps

ELCB

High sensitivity (HS): 6- 10- 30 mA (for direct-contact / life injury protection) Medium sensitivity (MS): 100- 300- 5001000 mA (for fire protection) Low sensitivity (LS): 3- 10- 30 A (typically for protection of machine)

MCCB

Fault levels of 16KA to 50KA and operating current range of 25A to 1000Amps. They are used for application related with larger power flow requirement. MCCB has replaced ACB in most application due to its low cost.

Air Circuit Breaker


800 A to 6300 A Spring operated.

ACB
Types of Air Circuit breaker 1) Plain air circuit breaker 2) Air blast Circuit Breaker.

Air Blast Circuit breaker requires sufficiently high capacity air compressor.

Types of Air Blast circuit breaker


1.a Axial Blast Air Circuit Breaker

When fault occurs, the high pressure air is introduced into the arcing chamber. The air pressure will counter the spring pressure and deforms the spring hence the moving contact is withdrawn from the fixed contact and nozzle hole becomes open.

Types of Air Blast circuit breaker


1.b Axial Blast ACB with Side Moving Contact

In order to open the circuit breaker the air is admitted into the arcing chamber when pressure reaches to a predetermined value, it presses down the moving contact; an arc is drawn between the fixed and moving contacts.

Types of Air Blast circuit breaker


2. Cross Blast Air Circuit Breaker

When moving contact is withdrawn from fixed contact, an arc is established in between the contact, and at the same time high pressure air coming from blast pipe will pass through the contact gap and will forcefully take the arc into exhaust chamber where the arc is split with the help of arc splitters and ultimately arc is quenched.