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HUMAN TISSUES

by: pr ,Dr, Sanaa El-Sherbiny

Tissue: A definition
A group of connected, interdependent cells that cooperate to perform a specific function

Types of tissues
1. Epithelial Tissue 2. Connective Tissue 3. Muscle Tissue 4. Nervous Tissue

General Features

Epithelial Tissues

1- Cellular Layer + Basement Membrane


2- Not Penetrated By Blood Vessels ,get Blood supply from underlying C.T. 3- but nerve fibers ramify between cells. 4- Rapid Rate of Cell Regeneration. 5- Embriologically derived from ectoderm, mesoderm or endoderm.

Special Characteristics of Epithelia

Figure 4.1

** Structural Classification
According to number of layers and Cell Shapes: *2 types ,simple &stratified.

**Functional C lassification:
1-covering-epith. 2-glandular-epith. 3-neuro-epith.

Classifications of Epithelia
stratified simple

Simple epithelium
One layer of cells on a basement membrane

SIMPLESquamus.epithelium **structure: one layer of flat cells on a basement membrane

**Sites

Lung ALVEOLI
ENDOTHELIUM LINING THE BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC VESSELS
SEROUS MEMBRANES LINING BODY CAVITIES

Simple Squamous Epithelium

Figure 4.3a

simple cuboidal epithelium

** formed of one layer of cubical cells on a basement membrane


LINING THE FOLLICLES IN THE

THYROID GLAND

DUCTS OF medium sized glands


SECRETORY ACINI OF MANY GLANDS

Simple Columnar Epithelium


one layer of columnar cells on a basemen membrane

Figure 4.3c

simple columnar epithelium non modified ,lining ducts of glands

Modified:- absorptive ,small intestine - secretory ,stomach. - ciliated, uterus and fallopian tube tube

Simple Columnar Absorptive Epithelium


Function: Absorption Location: Digestive Tract

Microvilli

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium


One layer of overcrowded cells with many levels of nuclei

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar


Epithelium lining trachea and bronchi

Figure 4.3d

Stratified Epithelium

Stratified Squamous Epithelium


Function: Protection (st.sq.keratinized)

Locations: epidermis of the skin

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Many layers Basal one columnar Intermediate layers Polygonal in shape Upper layers are squamous

Stratified Squamous Epithelium non keratinized mouth cavity

Figure 4.3e

Transitional Epithelium

Figure 4.3h

TRANSITIONAL EPITH.
many cell layers stretch cube-shaped and elongated cells line urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra

Transitional Epithelium
6-8 layers in empty bladder 2 layers in full one
Basal layer columnar on ill defined b.m Intermediate layers polygonal Upper layer large may be bi-nucleated Second layer flask shaped covered with mucous like protective layer

GLANDULAR EPITHELIUM
THE CELLS ARE SPECIALISED FOR SECRETION. ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF SECRETORY CELLS WE HAVE: UNICELLULAR GLANDS AS GOBLET CELLS. MULTICELLULAR GLANDS AS SALIVARYGLANDS.

Uni-cellular glands as GOBLET CELLS.

Multi-cellular gland

A-EXOCRIN GLANDS: Have duct system SUCH AS :salivary glands.

1-ACCORDING TO SECRETORY PASSAGES

-ENDOCRINE GLANDS: No ducts ,secrete directly into the blood SUCH AS:THE PITUITARY GLAND.

2-ACCORDING TO TYPE OF SECRETION


MUCOUS GLANDS:SUBLINGUAL. SEROUS GLANDS:PAROTID. MUCOSEROUS GLANG SUBMANDIBULAR. CERUMINOUS:EXTERNAL AUDITORY GLANDS. MILKY:MAMMARY GLANAS. Oily : sebacious glands CELLULAR GLANDS:TESTIS,OVARY.

4-ACCORDING TO SHAPE OF SECRETORY PART


ALVEOLAR GLANDS: AS MAMMARY GLANDS. Tubular GLANDS AS GASTRIC GLANDS TUBULO-ALVEOLAR GLANDS AS SALIVARY GLANDS

EXOCRINE GLAANDS

NEURO EPITHELIUM
THE EPITHELIAL CELLS ARE SPECIALIZED FOR RECEPTION OF EXTERNAL STIMULI SUCH AS: RETINA OF THE EYE,OLFACTORY MUCOSA,TASE BUDS and ORGAN OF CORTI .

TASTE BUDS
Are neuro-epithelial structures formed of: 1- Sensory cells. 2- Supporting cells. 3- Basal stem cells for regeneration of all Types of cells.

Taste buds

Olfactory epithelium

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