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A.

IMTHIY AZ ALI
(imthiyazece@sify.com) R F OP T IM I ZE R HUAWEI BTS

SYNOPSIS:
Birth of HUAWEI BTS. Green BTS a fresh breath. Features CDMA-Timing system. GSM-Hopping implementation.

BTS 3601C. BTS 3012. BTS 312. MINI BTS. TCO reduction method. Comparison of HUAWEI BTS. Satellite transmission by HUAWEI. CONCLUSION

Birth of HUAWEI:
In 1995-started its critical technology on CDMA and ETS In may 1996-c&c08 platform for MSC and BSC In sep 5,1997-made the first call (via)GSM Sep 1966 to may 1997-period of product design In dec 1997-huawei attented(PT/wireless) network exhibition in berijing

Green BTS a fresh Breath:


A real green BTS should incorporate environmental pollution in to product design and produce to significantly lower the Total Coast of Ownership(TCO) Green BTS benefits the mobile operators mainly in this important areas Auxiliary equipment Network deployment Environmental pollution Reducing sites and saving auxiliary cost, power consumption cut by 50% Easier installation

Fourth generation BTS


Based on the customer oriented innovation HUAWEI presents the 4th generation BTS Technologies Multiple radio access technology(RATS)convergence Multiple carrier on one radio carriers(RC) Convergent single RAN network (all the RAT can be applied to a type of BTS)

Merits
Piloting mobile network to IP era:
Minimized transmission coast Advanced transmission efficiency

Green communication design:


The number of cabinets reduced-combination loss reduced The total number of sites are reduced

Multi carrier high integration:


The occupied equipment rooms are reduced Site acquisition and future expansion is flexible

GSM/UMTS/LTE convergence:
Makes the technology choice and network evolution simple Reduces the investment of building manifold wireless access network

Features :
Enhancing competitiveness via all IP BTS: For CDMA mobile operators BTS takes 60% of total operation costs HUAWEI believes in continuous innovation of BTS-To reduce TCO Enriching BTS series to reduce networking coast: Right BTS according to actual situation-Reduces the operation cost For large and medium cities(high integration with 12 carrier capacity) BTS3606E-for indoor type BTS3606AE-for outer type For low and medium capacity areas ( low conception and compact design) BTS3606C-for indoor type BTS3606AC-for outdoor type Rural and remote areas :(radio frequency unit(RFU)) Mini BTS

Improving the output power :


when BTS capacity reaches max-each sector ensure 20w output power on top of cabinet Power will have 1.5 3 db attenuation on the top of cabinet HUAWEI BTS 30% more area when compared to other ,therefore number of BTS can be reduced by 30% High transmitter power-can support high sector load.

Enhancing Integration:
Adopting IP based transmission to reduce the transmission coast:
All IP BTS series adopts carrier class broad band platform A-bis interface support IP over E1 and IP over FE Transmission line supports-future oriented data networks,support E1+FE mixed transmission Designed using HUAWEI patened and enhanced technology Each CDMA BTS can improve transmission efficiency by 30%,support 240 voice channels on an E1 link exceeding the industry average of 180) Local indian operator demonstrated-HUAWEI BTS series support 253 voice channel on E1.

Adopting innovative power amplifier to reduce power conception:


All IP BTS series adopts-DPD and dohertz power amplification-enables 33% efficiency BTS power consumption between 48% and 58%(generate less heat in BTS) Lower power consumption reducing the necessity for air conditioning If calculated for 100 BTS it can save $280000 of electric bill

User friendly maintenance coast:


To relieve the maintenance pressure- it shares a uniform base band All spare cards are in common use, and benefits from a consistent software version and maintenance interface

Adopting creative architecture to guarantee future smooth evolution:


HUWAEI BTS adopts modular design and based on advanced all IP platform After the operator deploys(CDMA 2000/XEV-DO)-BTS can provide VOIP,video thelephony,mobile broad band access service(UMB)

Leap wireless for reducing TCO by 30%:


The BTS can connected using IP over STM-1 and IP over E1. Network capacity has increased Transmission usage-50% down Power consumption reduced by 40

Base transceiver station(BTS) operations:


BTS provides air interface between mobile station and wireless solutions. Their task encode/decode and encryption/decryption Apart from these thing modern HUAWEI BTS performs the following two function.

CDMA- BTS Timing system GSM Implementing Frequency hopping

HUAWEI CDMA BTS Timing system:


HUAWEI BTS adopts mature BITS technology. The clock board adopts the highly stable voltage controlled oven controlled crystal oscillator(ocxo). It confirms the specification in terms of stability,drift,phase,noise,aging,as well as international standard of enhanced stratum 2 clock(ST2E). Advanced phase lock (APL) technology and unique APL algorithm are employed to track the external reference. Multi source synchronization technology to remove the potential risk in clock synchronization source stability HUAWEI clock system can track GLONASS APL is adopted to guarantee the stability of clock system Hardware counting, software phase discrimination and filter state estimation.

APL Algorithm:
The comparison of the two adjacent phase difference counts and the APL algorithm processing are used to output analog control values. APL algorithm improve system clock stability and hand over performance. APL algorithm guarantees the clock anti-jitter capability. APL algorithm guarantees the long term stability of the BTS clock

Clock holdover technology and in phase switching technology:


These are adopted to avoid service interruption due to BTS de synchronization. When satellite synchronization is lost ,the aging curve estimation (prediction) algorithm is adopted. Hot back up active/stand by clock inter locking to realize clock in phase switching-increases system reliability Patent technology is used to prevent call drop during clock switchover. Big deeds: From 400kg to 20kg From 200m to 1.5m From us $2000 to us $ 200

Frequency Hopping and its application in base station:


Concept of frequency hopping:
Um interface the radio interface of the GSM system adopts slow frequency hopping There are two types of hopping, fast and slow Fast frequency hopping rate at which the frequency change is higher than the signal modulation rate. In GSM system the frequency is required to be u changed during burst period hence slow frequency hopping is deployed here. Slow frequency hopping is used to improve anti interface and anti fading performance. Analyzing SFH in GSM: Frequency Diversity-over come Raleigh fading improve transmission quality Interference diversity average carrier interference (C/I) increase system capacity. Frame 0 Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3

The MS/BTS changes the frequency from burst to burst

Frequency A
Frequency B Frequency C Frequency D 4,615 millisec.

Implementing frequency hopping on HUAWEI BTS:


Classification by implementation method:
Base band frequency hopping RF frequency hopping HUAWEI BTS supports both of the above

When RF frequency hopping is used ,the combiner must be broad band, but the combiner must have very large power consumption., which cannot be afforded when there are too many transmitter in the combiner. To lower the combiner insertion loss resonant cavity combiner technology can be adopted (only for base band hopping). Fast conversion and high quality are contradictory Gap between timeslots is over 20ms,to complete RF frequency hopping the system must switch rapidly from one frequency point to another during the protection period of 20ms

Implementation of RF frequency hopping:


In earlier technologies the fast frequency hopping bring the following negative effects:
1. 2. 3. 4. lowered modulation precision deteriorated receiving sensitivity increased stray degradable blocking performance

The above problems are solved in HUAWEI BTS by analyzing the phase lock loop first.

Analyzing RF phase lock loop:



Locking duration of phase lock loop depends upon bandwidth. Wide the bandwith,shorter the locking duration. The quality of the local oscillator is determined by the reference clock(phase discrimination frequency),VCO,and loop band width. The phase noise of the local oscillator is decided by the reference clock. Selection of optimal loop band width.

There are two ways to broaden the optimal loop bandwidth


compromise the performance of VCO- obviously unacceptable enhance the reference performance.

Since the diagram has reached the reference thermal noise-only way to enhance the performance of reference clock is by lowering the phase discrimination frequency.

GSM adopts 200khz bandwidth- the phase discrimination frequency (N) can neither be too high or too small for the DCS 1800 system.

f1

f2

f3

f4

It is very difficult to increase the loop bandwidth or to lower the frequency locking duration in GSM.To over come this problem the following unique sets are used to remove the dilemma between the fast conversion and signal quality. Dynamic loop bandwidth . Ping-pong switch over expertise. Dynamic loop bandwidth:

The loop band width is not fixed it varies with needs of system. When system switches rapidly- the phase lock uses very wide band width. At this moment the system is in non-operating mode, quality of local oscillator will not affect the system performance. The frequency point switches rapidly, the loop band width return to optimal bandwidth to ensure optimal system performance.

Ping pong switch over expertise:


To enhance the system performance and to prevent instant system deterioration at the beginning and the final of the time slot.

There are two local oscillator deployed ,and a switch is used to select either of the two local oscillator. When one oscillator is working, the other locking rapidly to the next needed frequency point. The two oscillator switch back and forth through the switch during the interval of time slot.

By virtue of the unique dynamic loop bandwidth and ping-pong switch technologies the system is capable of frequency hopping within 25mhz for M900 and 75mhz for M1800 with all frequency hopping index.

The implementation of base band frequency hopping:


The challenge of base band frequency hopping to switch information rapidly while reaching the hopping speed of 217 hops per second, and the data transmission rate of 271 kbit/s.

Effectuating baseband frequencies:


Each TRX is modulated to a fixed frequency and allocated with a fixed ID. The codes of transceiver codes the downlink signals in to burst data. After calculating the frequency channel(i.e TRX ID),the code will add related information such as power control to burst data packets and sends them in a fixed (sub-time slot). The modulator checks the TRX ID of data packets at each sub timeslot. If TRX ID is different-go to receive next time slot. Other wise it will receive all the data packets In this time slot and delay for a time slot before sending the data packets to air interface. In this way base band frequency is implemented, as high demand for being real time are placed on the identification of TRX ID.

HUAWEI BTS experts the advanced ASIC technology to enable the high- speed and reliable TRX ID identification function.

BTS 3601C-Self made low cost power Amplifier:


The HUAWEI CDMA2000 1x system consist of network elements(NE),MS,CBSS,CNSS,and M2000. BTS 3601C outdoor one carrier CDMA BTS. ODU 3601C outdoor one carrier soft base station (shares the resources of its upper lever BTS including main control unit and clock unit)

Key feature and benefits: Flexible coverage:


BTS 3601C support 450mhz and 800mhz band. when operates in 450mhz-o/p is 20w 800mhz o/p is 50w

Convenient operation and maintenance:


It improves remote centralized maintenance and alarm reporting. TELNET server is provided-logon to BTS 3601C for operation and maintenanace(via local Ethernet interface.). Modularized structure reduces internal cost. In case of system interruption it can restart automatically.

Flexible configuration and networking:


Its a-bis interface can support 1E1 or 1synchronization transfer mode(STM-1). BTS 3601C can be configured as omni or directional BTS. Its supports various configuration (s(1/1) and s(1/1/1) through cascading ODU3601CS. For optical transmission, it supports chain and ring networking mode.

Hierarchical power supply:


BTS 3601C- 40A storage battery. It can keep working for 1hour after AC power off Then power amplification will be switched off- BTS can maintain transmission for next 8 hours.

Easy installation small size it can be installed on metal post Excellent protection performance-dust proof, burglary, water proof, noise less. Pleasing apperance-asthetically designed.

BTS 3012 - Dual density EnerG BTS


HUAWEI cost effective energ GSM solution can promote subscriber ARPU. HUAWEI BTS 3012 is an important member of energ family. It adopts dual density technology and supports full frequency band (850M,900M,1800M,1900M).

Advantage:
High density with small footprint. Various intelligent RF technologies. Powerful service bearing capability. 2G/3G co-cabinet, low opex and high reliability. One cabinet support 12TRX or 6 sectors. Foot print-key factor for site acquisition and expansion of capacity. HUAWEI BTS 3012 adopts dual density two transceiver are integrated in one board EnerG BTS can save 20% foot print comparing with traditional. BTS 3012 can be co-site with old generation and flexible expansion . High performance with smart RF technologies. Due to reduction of baseband demodulation limitation decrease of noise figure and improvement of baseband demodulation algorithm. BTS 3012 adopts ICC(interferance counteract combining) technology to improve frequency efficiency. ICC uses optimized maximal ratio combining(MRC) algorithm-to reject coherent and adjacent channel interference. ICC can earn 1.5db in Um interface.

Enhanced capacity with eMLPP + HR:


HR(half rate) is a well known technology to double the system capacity, but it can also decrease the voice quality. Emlpp(enhanced multi-level precedence and preemption)-it can guarantee high priority users to acquire radio resources preferentially. Emlpp+HR-preferred strategy that allows operators to categorize subscribers by different priorities. With this algorithm FR channel-high priority users. HR channels- low priority users. If there is no radio resource available at a moment, high priority user can seize from low priority users. BTS 3012-powerful service bearing capability.

It can support-EDGE,HR,AMR,EMLPP+HR,extended cell. In full configuration-it enables full service channel in EDGE MCS9 coding scheme and 220kbps user data speed with 4 time slot.

Enhanced coverage with ultra coverage Technologies:


Transmitting diversity and PBT(power booster technology) are important technologies to enhance downlink coverage. With this technology BTS 3012-high o/p to 80w,extra 3~5db downlink gain can be activated. 4way diversity can be used to enhance uplink coverage,3~5db uplink gain. Receiver sensitivity reach up to -117. AMR and concentric cell technologies to improve the utilization of frequency spectrum resource. Increase in 20% coverage radius and 40% coverage area, BTS 3012 provides many convenient O&M functions. online board detection environment monitoring interfaces. Electronic adjustable antenna VSWR feed back interface VSWR value reporting. Real time detection of o/p power.

Low OPEX with convenient O&M:

Flexible 2G&3G cabinet solution:


BTS 3012 can be co-cabinet with WCDMA node B. There are two ways to realize 2G/3G co-cabinet. Distributed mode Embedded mode

Distributed mode:
BTS 3012 reserves 2u space for BBU(base band unit of WCDMA node B). Power supply and transmission can be shared by BBU and BTS 3012. BBU is connected to RRU(remote radio unit of WCDMA node B)by optical fiber This mode supports S4444 and 12 cells of WCDMA.

Embedded mode:
MTRU and MAFU of WCDMA node B can be installed in DTRU and DAFU slots of BTS 3012. This mode supports S222 of GSM and 6 Cell of WCDMA.

BTS 3012:Its obvious characteristic is dual density design and to migrate towards 3G.

BTS 312-large capacity macro cell BTS:


Designed to meet the requirements of capacity,configuration,installation,power supply.S BTS 312-indoor type macro cell BTS. Its one rack can support 12TRX and transmit 15TRX BTS signal over an E1 link. One rack consumes only 2400W at full configuration, with 200W per TRX. BTS 312- supports both GPRS and EDGE services.

Application environment:
The indoor large capacity macro cell application supports the high density large traffic cell.

Main features:
Proven RF technology. Large capacity 12 TRX per rack. 15 TRX at A- bis interface enjoying an E1 interface (15:1). Various transmission mode, topological structure, including satellite and SDH by use of E-Abis (enhanced Abis technology). Integrated optimal transmission-solution for broadband access. Integrated RF component mode-smooth capacity expansion, stable and reliable operation. Supports -48/+24/-220v power supply modes.

Market demands:
As analogy network dwindles GSM1800 enjoys abundant frequency resource and wider bandwidth. Expensive transmission resource denser multiplexing capability at the Abis interface. BTS equipment with more abundant service. Better voice quality and faster handover speed.

BTS 312 satisfies the market demand:


Proven RF technology, stable and excellent RF performance. High integration, low power consumption design and less supporting equipment. It uses the advanced traffic control algorithm for statically multiplexing of Abis signal and to raise signaling density. E-Abis supports multiple transmission mode. E-Abis technology is suitable for SDH,PDH.HDSL/MDSL,E1/T1.

E-Abis technology includes four aspect:


APL(advanced clock phase lock)- solves clock jitter problem-HUAWEI uses high precision clock.. Tolerance of up to 1E -4 transmission BER. Anti flash transmission interruption. Resists the A-bis interface long delay and supports satellite networking. Integrating the RF component to save investment. Intelligent CDU:in case LNA(low noise amplifier)fault,the remote control cutoff the power supply to bypass the LNA and ensure the normal operation. Mature and reliable power supply system. Supporting up to S24/S24/S24 synchronization configuration. One minute quick start up.

MINI BTS-isite integrated mini BTS:


Now days operators are looking for broad customer base in climate that is seeing a decrease in average network investment. HUAWEI has introduced isite for both indoor and outdoor for all weather condition.

Installation:
It can be installed unilaterally. The isite can be installed on a pole or wall. Isite support multiple transmission mode, including E1,HDSL and microwave. With built in SDH and embedded primary power supply. It supports optical fiber access to the station and direct access of alternating current. It workes on 150-300VAC and can stand up to 500VAC.

Wide application:
HUAWEI integrated isite has an integrated MINI BTS. HUWAEI isite integrated with MINI BTS on hilltop. HUAWEI BTS products supports GSM dual band network. And can be software upgrade to support GPRS services.

TCO reduction method:

COMPARISION OF HUAWEI BTS:


S.NO BTS 3606/AEV300ROO6
Full frequency band(450M/1800M/1900M/ 2100M/AWS) 1TRX-6carriers 1 single cabinetS12/S12/S12. 1 PA-100W TOC power(800mhz) 60W(450/1900/100MHZ/A WZ) 1CSM-Upto 6 FA,support BCCM(Abis interface board) Support Abis interface BER measurement

BTS3606C/V300R00 6
Supporting band(450mhz/800mhz) 1 cabinet S(3/3/3) RF-subrack-S(6/6/6)

BTS3606AC/V 300R006
Support all features of BTS 3606C Indoor BTS,excluding additional RF cabinet.S(3/3/3) Foot print less than 0.5m2.

BTS3812/3806/V100 R003
Multiple network technology Can support up to 6 cell, high receiver sensitivity

1PA-60W TOC-800mhz. 40W TOC-450mhz

BTS 3812 cabinet-1536 equivalent voice channel of 12.2 kbits/s. BTS 3806-768 of 12.2 of kbits. Three transmission modeE1,T1,STM-1. Remote electric tilt antenna

1CSM 6800-up to 6FA

Operating temperature49,52deg Four hour back up.

Support Abis interface BER measurement

Satellite Transmission by Huawei E-Abis Interface:


There are two problems to be solved:
1) 2) What transmission solution is both economical and convenient. Whether it matches the existing mobile communication. Comparison among different communication solution:

3)

Estimation of time limit:

Customized Solution of HUAWEI:


The task is on the basis of powerful R&D strength. One set of BSC,OMC,TCSM is deployed here. Two BTS(S2/S2/S2) are used respectively. Satellite transmission at Abis interface is adopted to connect BSC and BTS. At Abis interface -15:1 multiplexing mode is adopted, data band width -13*64kbps. BSS equipment communicates with satellite equipment via DDN. By setting signal timer between BTS and BSC-call failure due to timeout release because of transmission delay at Abis interface is avoided. Delay of 540ms will degrade the voice quality during handover-this problem can be solved by adjusting the function of filtration,interpolation,PNjudgement. Adaptive adjustment is adopted for CCU (channel codec unit)-to replace frame adjustment. For synchronization technology-HUAWEI uses core technology of BITS and clock control algorithm. E-Abis interface- to avoid error bit in both software and hardware. E-Abis interface support -15:1 Multiplexing mode. Adopt TCH configuration to save satellite bandwidth.

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