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Lesson 1

Mendeleev proposed his periodic law: The properties of elements vary periodically with their atomic weights.

Mendeleevs periodic table: Arranged the elements according to similar properties and relative atomic mass. Allowed the prediction of undiscovered elements.

Sodium and Potassium Demonstration


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNdij knRxfU

Metals Shiny

and Soft Highly reactive with water and oxygen

Magnesium Demonstration
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2ZP rg9IVEo

Metals Reactive

but less so than group 1

Vanadium

Metals Range

of properties Varying oxidation states

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yP0U 5rGWqdg

Highly

reactive (as you move up more reactive) Non-metals

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JjJOS 0BpgnM

Basically

non-reactive Low boiling points and all gases at room temperature.

Determine the element and whether it is in the ground or excited state. a) 1s22s22p63s1 b) 1s22s22p53s2 c) 1s22s22p63s23p63d2
Name an element with similar properties to: a) Beryllium b) Calcium c) Magnesium

Variations of the chemical properties of elements across a period and similarities down a group are all associated with the electronic configurations of their atoms. In particular, the outershell electron configuration. In general, elements with the same number of electrons in their outershell will react in a similar way!

1c,

2, 4cd, 5, 6c (pg. 42) and worksheet 5

Include: Atomic radius/size Electronegativity Ionisation energy

The sum positive charge of the nucleus acting on the valence (outer shell) electrons. This takes into account the effect of shielding from the inner shell electrons. Core charge= No. Protons - No. inner shell electrons

E.g. Lithium. 3 protons, 2 inner electrons. Core charge, 3-2 = 1 1. What is the core charge on the valence electrons of Period 2: Lithium, Boron, Nitrogen, Neon? Period 3: Sodium, Aluminum, Phosphorus, Argon? 2. Core charge increases across a period and remains the same down a group.

The distance between the outer shell electrons and nucleus. Distance increases as the number of shells increases. As the distance increases, the attraction between the nucleus and outer shell electrons decreases. Distance increases down a group and remains the same across a period.

Period 1

Include: Atomic radius/ size Electronegativity Ionisation energy

This is how we measure the size of an atom. Atomic radius- one half of the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element. It is usually expressed in picometres (1trillion pm is 1 m)

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As core charge increases the outer electrons are more tightly held and therefore the atomic size decreases. Atomic size decreases across a period As distance from the nucleus increases atomic size increases. Atomic size increases down a group

The ability of an atom that is bonded to another atom to attract the bonding electrons towards itself. Can think of it as how much an atom wants electrons.
Oxygen eeHydrogen

The electron attracting power of particular element. As the core charge increases the Electronegativity increases ad electrons are pulled towards the nucleus. Across a period Electronegativity increases As the electrons get further from the nucleus, the nucleus cant pull electrons towards them as strongly. Down a group Electronegativity decreases 1. Where are the most electronegative elements found? In the top right of the periodic table (N, O, F)

Ionisation energy- The amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom. The 1st ionisation energy is the energy needed to remove one outer shell electron from an atom. The 2nd ionisation energy is the energy needed to remove the 2nd electron from an atom.

http://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=ZW LftJBoNc8

Na

The 1st ionisation energy is the energy needed to remove one outer shell electron. As the core charge increases the hold on the electrons increases and ionisation energy increases. As distance increases, ionisation energy decreases.

1. Across a period ionisation energies increase 2. Down a group ionisation energies decrease

As you progress through the electrons they become successively harder to ionize. As you move to the next shell there is a big jump in the energy required to ionize the electron. We can use this to identify the element.

Which element in the periodic table would you expect to have the
- BIGGEST

ionisation energy - SMALLEST ionisation energy


Why?

Draw a Sodium atom and a Sodium ion.


Which is going to be smaller and WHY?

These,

like elements are pure substances. Elements: pure substance made of one type of atom. Compound: Substance made of two or more types of atoms. (atoms bonded together) One type of compound will always have the same ratio of different types of atoms.

Chapter 3 Pg 48: 9bc Pg 51: Chapter review: 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 25, 29. Workbook: Worksheet 6 Read page 50-51 of worksheet textbook.
11F Atomic theory, periodic table and trends test next Tuesday 12/2/13