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Hybridisation and molecular shapes

Valence shell electron pair repulsion V.S.E.P.R

Chemical bonding
Learning objectives:
Students should be able to Explain the shape of, and bond angles in , molecules by using the qualitative model of electron-pair repulsion( including lone pairs),using as simple examples: BF3( trigonal); CO2 (linear); CH4 (tetrahedral); NH3 (pyramidal); H2 O(non-linear);SF6 (octahedral) Predict shapes and bond angles of molecules and ions following the steps below: (i) dot and cross diagrams to show total valence electrons( including the charge), (ii) state bonded pair electrons and lone pair electrons around the central atom (iii) predict the shape and bond angle Draw the shape of molecules and ions in three dimensional diagrams Explain expansion of octet for those atoms or ions which do not obey octet rule .......continued on next slide

Chemical bonding
Continued from last slide....... Describe covalent bonding in terms of orbital overlap, giving and bonds using ethane and ethene as examples Explain the shape of and bond angle of ethane, ethene and benzene molecules Explain the terms bond energy, bond length and relationship between them Using the examples of ethane and ethene ,relate the bond energy with the reactivities of covalent bonds

Skills to be developed ( TGC)


Students should be able to cultivate, develop and sharpen the following skills: Acquiring knowledge with understanding Problem solving (numerical as well as structural) Handling Information...... Gathering, analysing, evaluating, predicting ,applying and synthesising information Communication......Written as well as spoken

HYBRIDISATION OF ORBITALS - REVISION


The ground state electronic configuration of a carbon atom is 1s22s22p2
2p 2 2s

1s

On providing a bit of energy, one of the s electrons can be promoted into a p orbital. The excited state configuration is now 1s22s12p3

2p 2 2s

1s

The process is favourable because of the arrangement of electrons; four unpaired electrons experience less repulsion and so the arrangement is more stable

HYBRIDISATION OF ORBITALS - REVISION


The four orbitals (one s and three p orbitals) combine or HYBRIDISE to give four new orbitals. All four new hybridised orbitals are equivalent.

2s22p2

2s12p3
HYBRIDISE

4 x sp3

sp3
HYBRIDISATION

HYBRIDISATION OF ORBITALS - REVISION


Alternatively, if only three orbitals (one s and two p orbitals) combine or HYBRIDISE ; they give three new orbitals. All three new hybridised orbitals are equivalent, but one of the 2p orbitals that remains unhybridised remains unchanged.
2s22p2 2s12p3
HYBRIDISE

3 x sp2

2p

sp2
HYBRIDISATION

STRUCTURE OF ALKENES - REVISION

In ALKANES, the four sp3 hybridised orbitals repel each other into a tetrahedral arrangement.

In ALKENES, the three sp2 hybridised orbitals repel each other into a trigonal planar arrangement and the 2p orbital lies at right angles to them

STRUCTURE OF ALKENES - REVISION

Covalent bonds are formed by overlap of orbitals.

An sp2 hybridised orbital from each carbon overlaps to form a single C-C bond.

The resulting bond is called a SIGMA () bond.

STRUCTURE OF ALKENES - REVISION

After the formation of sigma bond, the two unhybridised 2p orbitals come close to each other and also overlap sideways. This forms a second bond; called a PI () bond.
For maximum overlap and hence the strongest bond, the 2p orbitals are in line. This gives rise to the planar arrangement around C=C bonds.

ORBITAL OVERLAP IN ETHENE - REVIEW

two sp2 hybridised orbitals overlap to form a sigma bond between the two carbon atoms

Two unhybridised 2p orbitals overlap to form a pi bond between the two carbon atoms

s orbitals in hydrogen overlap with the sp2 orbitals in carbon to form CH bonds

the resulting shape is planar with bond angles of 120

Molecular shapes
ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION THEORY THE SHAPE ADOPTED BY A SIMPLE MOLECULE OR ION IS THAT WHICH KEEPS REPULSIVE FORCES TO A MINIMUM

ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION THEORY

Molecules contain covalent bonds. As covalent bond consist of a pair of electrons, each bond will repel the other bonds.

Al

Bonds are closer together so repulsive forces are greater Bonds are further apart so repulsive forces are less All bonds are equally spaced out as far apart as possible

Bonds will therefore push each other as far apart as possible to reduce the repulsive forces. Because the repulsions are equal, the bonds will also be equally spaced

Al

ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION THEORY

All bonds are equally spaced out as far apart as possible to give minimum repulsive forces

Because of the equal repulsive forces between bond pairs, most simple molecules, have standard shapes with equal bond angles. However, the presence of lone pairs on the central atom affects the angle between the bonds and thus affects the shape.

REGULAR SHAPES
Molecules, or ions, possessing ONLY BOND PAIRS of electrons fit into a set of standard shapes. All the bond pair-bond pair repulsions are equal. All you need to do is to count up the number of bond pairs and chose one of the following examples...
BOND PAIRS

C
A covalent bond will repel another covalent bond

SHAPE LINEAR
TRIGONAL PLANAR TETRAHEDRAL

BOND ANGLE(S)

EXAMPLE BeCl2
AlCl3 CH4 PCl5 SF6

2
3 4 5 6

180
120 109.5 90 & 120 90

TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL OCTAHEDRAL

BERYLLIUM CHLORIDE

Be

Cl

Cl

Be

Cl

Beryllium - has two electrons to pair up Chlorine - needs 1 electron for octet BOND PAIRS LONE PAIRS BOND ANGLE... 180 SHAPE... LINEAR 2 0

Two covalent bonds are formed Beryllium still has an incomplete shell

180

Cl

Be

Cl

ADDING ANOTHER ATOM - ANIMATION

ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE

Al Cl

Cl

Cl Al

Aluminium - has three electrons to pair up Chlorine - needs 1 electron to complete octet Three covalent bonds are formed; aluminium still has an incomplete outer shell.

Cl

ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE

Al Cl Cl Al Cl

Cl

BOND PAIRS LONE PAIRS

3 0 Cl Cl
120

Al Cl

BOND ANGLE... SHAPE...

120 TRIGONAL PLANAR

ADDING ANOTHER ATOM - ANIMATION

METHANE
H H H C H

H
Carbon - has four electrons to pair up Hydrogen - 1 electron to complete shell Four covalent bonds are formed C and H now have complete shells

BOND PAIRS LONE PAIRS

4 0
109.5

C
BOND ANGLE... SHAPE...

109.5 TETRAHEDRAL

METHANE
H H H C H

BOND PAIRS LONE PAIRS BOND ANGLE... 109.5

4 0

SHAPE... TETRAHEDRAL

PHOSPHORUS(V) FLUORIDE F F F P F F Phosphorus - has five electrons to pair up Fluorine - needs one electron to complete octet Five covalent bonds are formed; phosphorus can make use of d orbitals to expand its octet

PHOSPHORUS(V) FLUORIDE
F F F P F F

BOND PAIRS LONE PAIRS

5 0 F
120

F
90

BOND ANGLE... 120 & 90 SHAPE... TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL

F F

SULPHUR(VI) FLUORIDE
F

F F F

S Sulphur - has six electrons to pair up Fluorine - needs one electron to complete octet Six covalent bonds are formed; sulphur can make use of d orbitals to expand its octet
F F F

SULPHUR(VI) FLUORIDE
F

F F F

S
F F F

BOND PAIRS

F
90

LONE PAIRS
BOND ANGLE... 90

0
F S F

F F

SHAPE... OCTAHEDRAL

SULPHUR(VI) FLUORIDE
F

F F F

S
F F F

BOND PAIRS

LONE PAIRS
BOND ANGLE... 90

SHAPE... OCTAHEDRAL

IRREGULAR SHAPES
If a molecule, or ion, has lone pairs on the central atom,

the shapes are slightly distorted away from the regular shapes.
This is because of the extra repulsion caused by the lone pairs. BOND PAIR - BOND PAIR < LONE PAIR - BOND PAIR < LONE PAIR - LONE PAIR

As a result of the extra repulsion, bond angles tend to be slightly less as the bonds are squeezed together or pushed closer together

AMMONIA
H N H H

BOND PAIRS

LONE PAIRS
TOTAL PAIRS

1
4

Nitrogen has five electrons in its outer shell It cannot pair up all five - it is restricted to eight electrons in its outer shell It pairs up only three of its five electrons 3 covalent bonds are formed and a pair of non-bonded electrons is

left
As the total number of electron pairs is 4, the shape is BASED on a tetrahedron but it is not tetrahedral

AMMONIA
H N H H

BOND PAIRS

LONE PAIRS
TOTAL PAIRS

1
4

The shape is based on a tetrahedron but not all the repulsions are

equal LP-BP REPULSIONS > BP-BP REPULSIONS The N-H bonds are pushed closer together Lone pairs are not included in the shape
N H H H H 107 H H

N H H H

ANGLE... 107
SHAPE... PYRAMIDAL

AMMONIA
H N H H

BOND PAIRS

LONE PAIRS
TOTAL PAIRS

1
4

WATER
H O H H

BOND PAIRS
LONE PAIRS TOTAL PAIRS

2
2 4

Oxygen has six electrons in its outer shell It cannot pair up all six - it is restricted to eight electrons in its outer shell It pairs up only two of its six electrons 2 covalent bonds are formed and 2 pairs of non-bonded electrons are left As the total number of electron pairs is 4, the shape is BASED on a tetrahedron but is not tetrahedral

WATER
H O H H

BOND PAIRS

LONE PAIRS
TOTAL PAIRS

2
4

The shape is based on a tetrahedron but not all the repulsions are the
same
LP-LP REPULSIONS > LP-BP REPULSIONS > BP-BP REPULSIONS

The O-H bonds are pushed even closer together

Lone pairs are not included in the shape


O H 104.5 H

O H H H

ANGLE... 104.5 SHAPE... BENT

XENON TETRAFLUORIDE

BOND PAIRS

Xe

F
F

Xe
F

LONE PAIRS
TOTAL PAIRS

2
6

Xenon has eight electrons in its outer shell It pairs up four of its eight electrons 4 covalent bonds are formed and 2 pairs of non-bonded electrons are

left
As the total number of electron pairs is 6, the shape is BASED on an octahedron

XENON TETRAFLUORIDE

BOND PAIRS

Xe

F
F

Xe
F

LONE PAIRS
TOTAL PAIRS

2
6

F F Xe F F

Xe
F F
ANGLE...

F F
90

SHAPE... SQUARE PLANAR

MOLECULES WITH DOUBLE BONDS


The shape of a compound with a double bond is calculated in the same way. A double bond repels other bonds as if it was single e.g. carbon dioxide C O O C O

Carbon - needs four electrons to complete its shell Oxygen - needs two electron to complete its shell

The atoms share two electrons each to form two double bonds

MOLECULES WITH DOUBLE BONDS


A double bond repels other bonds as if it was single e.g. carbon dioxide

DOUBLE BOND PAIRS LONE PAIRS

2 0
180

O Double bonds behave exactly as single bonds for repulsion purposes so the shape will be the same as a molecule with two single bonds and no lone pairs.

BOND ANGLE... 180 SHAPE... LINEAR