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Chapter 8

Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Race and Ethnicity

Race and ethnicity are ascribed characteristics that define categories of people. Each of these characteristics have been used as bases of social stratification that is, cultures have thought it right and proper that some people receive more scarce resources than others simply because they belong to one category rather than another.

Understanding Racial and Ethnic Inequality

The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity

refers to a category of people treated as distinct based

on physical characteristics to which social importance has been assigned.


an ethnic group is a category whose members are

thought to share a common origin and important elements of a common culture.
The social construction of race and ethnicity is the process by which a culture defines what constitutes a race or an ethnicity.

Understanding Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Majority and Minority Groups
A majority group is culturally, economically, and politically dominant.

A minority group is culturally, economically, and politically subordinate.

Although minority groups are usually smaller than majority groups, that is not always the case.

Understanding Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Patterns of Interaction
Pluralism is the peaceful coexistence of separate and equal cultures in the same society. Assimilation is the process by which members of a minority culture lose their defining cultural features and adopt those of the majority culture.

Understanding Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Patterns of Interaction
Downward assimilation is the process in which descendants of immigrants become assimilated not into mainstream America, but instead into the underclass world of long-term poor, U.S.-born minorities.

Racial and ethnic conflict can take the form of slavery, concentration camps, or exile. In the extreme, conflict results in genocide: mass killing to destroy a population. For much of the 20th century in the U.S., conflict was reflected in laws and customs that forbade social, political, and economic participation by minorities.

Understanding Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Patterns of Interaction
Since 2003, the Sudanese government has promoted racial stereotyping of Sudanese Africans as inferior in order to control valuable lands and water supplies. The slaughter of Sudanese Africans by Sudanese Arabs like these Janjaweed militia members has been encouraged. Before the conflict over resources in Sudan, ethnic identity was fluid and intermarriage was common.

Theoretical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Structural-Functional Theory

Explains how some groups benefit from racial

Acknowledges dysfunctions of social conflict. Focus on how societies change gradually and
continue to function smoothly without conflict.

and ethnic inequality.

Theoretical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Conflict Theory

Examines inequalities between majority and

minority groups from conflict over scarce resources Suggests that some groups have advantages due to historical circumstance
ex. access to technology; existence of slavery

Documents how disadvantaged groups are

kept from gaining access to social advantages such as good schools, jobs, housing, etc.

Theoretical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Symbolic Interactionism

Focuses on how everyday interactions

Contributes to our understanding of the

changing meanings of basic concepts like race and ethnicity over time because of social interaction.

reinforce racial and ethnic inequality.

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Prejudice: Refers to an irrational, negative attitude toward a category of people. Racism: the belief that inherited physical traits associated with racial groups determine abilities and characteristics of a group member and provide a legitimate basis for unequal treatment. Color-Blind Racism: the belief that all races are created equal and that racial equality has been achieved. Failure to succeed is the fault of the minority member.

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality


A stereotype is a preconceived, simplistic idea

about the members of a group. Explaining Prejudice: Research focuses on three factors: socialization scapegoating competition over scarce resources

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Factors Contributing to Prejudice

Socialization learning hate and fear as social

norms directed at racial or ethnic categories. Scapegoating when people or groups who fail in their own goal attainment blame others for their own failures. Competition for scarce resources attitudes of prejudice related to the belief that gains for other racial and ethnic groups mean losses for ones own group.

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Maintaining Prejudice: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy The belief that a situation exists causes the situation to become real. This is an important mechanism for maintaining prejudice.

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality


The unequal treatment of individuals on the basis

of the category they belong to.

Prejudice is an attitude

Discrimination is behavior Discrimination treating various categories of people unequally.

This can be either negative or positive. Prejudice and discrimination often occur together. Robert Merton classified four types.

Mertons Typology
All-weather liberalism not prejudiced, doesnt discriminate Fair-weather liberalism not prejudiced, does discriminate Timid bigotry prejudiced, but doesnt discriminate Active bigotry prejudiced and openly discriminates

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality

The physical separation of minorities from the rest of the population. In the U.S., discriminatory housing has been illegal since 1960s. Segregation still remains common for two reasons: 1. economic differences across groups 2. unfair treatment of certain groups

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Institutional Racism

Refers to situations in which everyday

practices and social arrangements are assumed to be fair, even though they systematically reproduce racial or ethnic inequality.

Institutional racism produces unequal results

School segregation and tracking reinforce
racial inequality in the United States. for majority (dominant) and minority groups.

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Institutional Racism
Discrimination and prejudice against Gypsies or Roma remain common in parts of Europe. Forced evictions, terrible housing conditions, and substandard schooling result. Almost all Roma children are placed in schools for the mentally handicapped. Officials argue that placements are based on standardized tests. This policy makes it impossible for Roma children to succeed.

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Multiplying Disadvantages

Prejudice, discrimination, segregation, and

Racial and ethnic groups display similar
internal patterns of stratification. institutionalized racism construct inequality, which is reinforced and multiplied by social class inequality.

While non-Hispanic white median income is

1.5 times higher than other groups, the median net worth (wealth) of non-Hispanic whites is 18 times higher.

Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U.S.

White Americans

Ethnicity is no longer a primary standard for The place of unhyphenated whites in the
stratification among whites due to mixed heritage.
multicultural mix of the United States is less a melting pot and more an assimilation to a dominant language and culture. Ethnic identities have declined. whites rarely think of themselves as having a race. simply because they are white.

More of a focus on white racial identity as invisible White privilege refers to the benefits whites receive

Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U.S.


Arrived involuntarily as slaves. Most African Americans

today are descended from slaves. After slavery ended, legal (i.e. poll taxes) and violent illegal (i.e. lynchings) barriers systematically excluded African Americans. Comprise 12.6% of the U.S. population. Current concerns: neighborhood segregation infant mortality short lifespan for males continued economic disadvantage educational attainment lag Economic disadvantages due to two factors: 1) African American workers earn less than whites. 2) African American families are less likely to have two earners.

Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U.S.


Hispanic Americans (Latinos) are an ethnic group rather than a racial category. Majority (~66%) are of Mexican heritage. Latinos have also arrived in America from Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other Central and South American nations. Experiences of different Hispanic groups vary.
(i.e. Wealthy exiled Cubans were welcomed as refugees, whereas other Hispanic groups face prejudice and discrimination)

Hispanics constitute 16.3% of the U.S. population, making them the largest minority group in the country.
Current Concerns: most poorly educated group greatest likelihood of living in poverty

Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U.S.

Asian Americans

About 3.6% of U.S. population. Segmented immigration: descendants of 19th-century immigrants (Japan & China); post-WWII immigrants (Philippines, Korea, India); recent refugees from Southeast Asia. Historical experiences of Asian immigrants went from hostility, violence, and internment to being a desirable group with high mobility and educational attainment. Current concerns: entrance to Ivy League schools difficult income and promotional disparity

Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U.S.

Native Americans
Less than 1% of U.S. population. Nearly half live in Oklahoma, Arizona, California, and New Mexico. Historical experiences of subjugation, forced relocation, removal of children to boarding schools, Trail of Tears More than 200 tribal groups with different cultures and languages.

Current concerns: most disadvantaged group lowest rates of education highest rates of alcoholism and premature death impoverished and isolated reservations prejudice and discrimination persists

Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U.S.

Arab Americans

Much less than 1% of U.S. population. Immigrants or children of immigrants from North Africa and Middle East (Morocco, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Lebanon)

Diverse traditions, but share common linguistics and cultural and historical traditions.
66% Christian; 33% Muslim

High education attainment and median income levels.

Current concerns: anti-Arab views since 9/11 hate crimes against them more common discrimination

Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U.S.

Multiracial Americans

Comprise about 2.9% of American population. Absolute number of multiracial Americans has increased more than 20 times over last half century; significant numbers of mixed race individuals now selfidentify as multiracial rather than choosing only one parents race. Current concerns: social and systemic resistance to multiracial identification pressure to identify a single racial slot

The Future of Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the U.S.

Combating Inequality: Race versus Class

Minority group social status has improved overall in

U.S., yet inequality remains. Current debate: Can inequality better be reduced by focusing on race or on class? Double jeopardy is having low status on two different dimensions of stratification (i.e. race and social class). Effect of double jeopardy disadvantages snowball. Some strategies promote full employment and better jobs for all Americans (class focus); others focus on race and ethnicity.

The Future of Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the U.S.

Strategies for Ending Inequality
Most sociologists focus on strategies aimed at reducing racial and ethnic discrimination.

Antidiscrimination laws: outlaw discrimination on the

basis of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin.

Affirmative action laws: require employers, schools,

and others to increase the representation of groups that historically have experienced discrimination.

Affirmative action has proven much more contentious than antidiscrimination laws.

The Future of Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the U.S.

Affirmative action categorization of racial/ethnic groups Some evidence suggests that country is dividing into
(nonwhite) as people of color implicitly reinforces longstanding white/nonwhite divide. three groups: whites, African Americans, and Hispanics.

A New Racial/Ethnic Divide?

Most evidence reveals a new divide: black/nonblack. Intermarriage between whites and Hispanics, Asians, Children born to white/African American parents are
and Native Americans is more common. identified as only one race/ethnicity: African American

This does not happen to children of other mixed parents.

Chapter 9

Sex, Gender, and Sexuality

Understanding Sex and Gender

Sex and Gender

Sex is the biological distinction between male or female. Gender refers to the attitudes, behaviors, and roles that cultures assign to each sex. Gender roles refer to the rights and
obligations that are normative for men and women in a particular culture. Although biology provides two distinct and universal sexes, cultures provide almost infinitely varied gender roles.

Understanding Sex and Gender

Gender roles vary widely across cultures. Some similarities exist in almost all cultures:
Men tend to have more power. Preference for male children. Power difference produces widespread violence against women: Violence and discrimination against women are global social epidemics.
(Human Rights Watch, 2004)

Gender Roles Across Cultures

Understanding Sex and Gender

Gender Roles Across Cultures
Violence Toward Women:

Each year, about 1.5 million American women are

raped or physically assaulted by intimate partners.

Between 100 and 140 million women, mostly in

African countries but also in Asia, South America, and Europe, have undergone genital mutilation.

In Afghanistan, Islamic fundamentalists have thrown

acid onto the faces of girls who dare to go to school, disfiguring and sometimes blinding them.

Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Inequality

Structural-Functional Theory: Division of Labor
A gendered division of labor is functional because specialization will:
1. Ensure that each sex is well-trained in its own tasks and that all necessary tasks get done. 2. Prevent potentially disruptive competition between men and women. 3. Strengthen family bonds by forcing men and women to depend on each other.

Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Inequality

Conflict Theory: Sexism and Discrimination
According to conflict theorists, womens narrow and low-valued options benefit men.

Sexism is the belief that women are biologically

Discrimination is the natural result of sexism.

inferior to men and so it is justified to treat them unequally. Sexism continues because it reduces womens access to scarce resources and thus helps men stay in power.

Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Inequality

Symbolic Interactionism: Gender Inequality in Everyday Life

Study of preschoolers (1998) found that:

discipline that reinforce gender differences.

Teachers structure childrens play and impose Boys are actively discouraged from playing dress-up,
and girls are discouraged from running, crawling, or lying on the ground.

Gender Status beliefs:

Broadly shared within a culture and identify

one gender (men) as more respected, worthy, and competent than the other (women).

Gender as Social Construction and Social Structure Reinforcing Biological Differences

The belief that males and females are biologically different can become a self-fulfilling prophecy that keeps males and females biologically different. (Lorber 1994)

Belief in the naturalness of biological difference is

reinforced when we are kept from seeing similarities.

Gender as Social Construction and Social Structure

Doing Gender

Refers to everyday activities that individuals

engage in to affirm their commitment to gender roles.

Compulsive heterosexuality consists of

Male nurses sometimes talk about their athletic interests or heterosexual conquests to keep others from questioning their masculinity.

continually demonstrating ones masculinity (which in mainstream culture includes ones heterosexuality).

Gender as Social Construction and Social Structure Gender as Social Structure

Gender is also a social structure, a property of society. Gender is built into social structure when: workplaces have no daycare; fathers dont get paternity leave power tools, executive chairs, sports equipment is sized to fit the average man men who do housework are ridiculed by friends there are differences in pay for men and women

Gender Inequality in Health, Education, and Income

Gender disadvantages work both ways in the US:
Life expectancy for men = 77.1 yrs; women = 81.9 yrs
(probability estimate for birth year 2020)

Young men more likely to die in auto accidents than women; men more likely to be killed by guns. Men more vulnerable to stress-related disease Men are four times more likely to commit suicide

Gender Inequality in Health, Education, and Income


Today, men and women are equally likely to be high

school graduates and get bachelors, masters and doctoral degrees.

As a result, concern about graduation rates has shifted

from women to men. Poor African American males are least likely to graduate from high school or college.

Studies show that differences are largely socially

constructed and structurally reinforced: Working class boys may learn that real men work with their
muscles and soft men focus on schooling. Teachers hold low expectations for African American boys.

Gender Inequality in Health, Education, and Income

Among Americans age 16 and over, 72% of

men compared with 59% of women are in the labor force. The gap is far smaller than it used to be and will likely continue to shrink.

Work and Income

Yet despite growing equality in work force

involvement, major inequalities in pay ratios persist. Women earn less than men even in the same occupations.

Gender Inequality in Health, Education, and Income

Work and Income
Different Occupations, Different Earnings: 1. Gendered occupations Lower-paying jobs tend to be womens work. 2. Different qualifications Women are less likely to have as much experience or education as men. 3. Discrimination works against womens options in the world of work.

Gender Inequality in Health, Education, and Income

Work and Income
Same Occupation, Different Earnings: 1. Different titles janitor and junior executive (male titles) earn more than maid and executive assistant (female titles). 2. Discrimination even women with the same titles earn less than men.
Ex: Male lawyers earn more than female lawyers; men are hired more by large firms to specialize in prestigious areas of law.

Glass Ceiling an invisible barrier to womens promotions Glass Escalator an invisible advantage that rapidly moves
men into administrative positions and prestigious specialties

Gender and Power

Womens subordinate position is built into most social institutions. In colleges, womens basketball coaches

are paid less than mens basketball coaches. In politics, prejudice against women leaders remains strong, and women still comprise only a minority of major elected officials in the United States and around the world.

Unequal Power in Social Institutions

Gender and Power

Unequal Power in Interaction

It is men who ask women on dates; sexual Womens chances of marriage decrease with
behavior is generally initiated by men.
age much more than mens.

Men take up more of the speaking time, they Women are more placating and less assertive in
conversation than men, and women are more likely to state their opinions as questions. interrupt women more often, and most important, they interrupt more successfully.

Gender and Power

A Case Study: Sexual Harassment
Consists of unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.

As many as half of all working women

experience sexual harassment during their lifetime. Two types: 1. Quid pro quo expectation of sexual favor in exchange for something else (keeping your job, better grades)
2. hostile sexual climate makes it impossible to do your job (pornographic materials posted, sexual jokes)
Sexual harassment remains common if illegal in work environments

Gender and Power

Fighting Back Against Sexism
The Feminist Movement has united women in the fight against sexual harassment, woman battering, job discrimination and other equal rights issues. First Wave mid-nineteenth century. Issues: right to own
property, right to vote, right to education, right to enter into contracts. Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.

Second Wave 1960s. Liberal feminist issue was equal rights;

radical feminist issue was violence war protests, violence against women, rights of womans own body.

Third Wave 1990s. Focus on different effects of inequality

among different groups of women.

The Sociology of Sexuality

Sexual Scripts
Sexual scripts refer to the cultural expectations regarding who, where, when, why, how, and with whom one should have sex. There is variation between the sexual scripts of different cultures; and there is some variation in sexual scripts within a culture. We are exposed to sexual scripts from multiple sources: parents, teachers, friends, religious leaders, mass media. The sexual scripts we adopt often change over time.

The Sociology of Sexuality

Premarital and Adolescent Sexuality

Premarital intercourse has become largely accepted for adults over the last few decades. The proportion of never-married teenagers
Since then, rates of sexual intercourse
casual sexual encounters. who say they have had sexual intercourse increased from 40% in the 1950s to 50% for girls and 60% for boys by the late 1980s. among teens have declined to about 46% among both boys and girls.

Teens and adults may engage in hook ups

The Sociology of Sexuality

Premarital and Adolescent Sexuality
Explaining the Decline in Sex Among Teens

Research consistently finds no credible evidence that

abstinence-only sex education programs work they only delay sexual intercourse in the first few months. The drop in teenage sexual activity more likely reflects the growing awareness of the threats posed by AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. In a 2011 study, 80% boys and 69% girls reported using a condom the last time they had sexual intercourse. Yet condom use is rare once individuals are in a relationship.

The Sociology of Sexuality

Marital Sexuality
Sexual scripts followed by married couples have changed little over time in some ways.

Most couples find that the frequency of intercourse declines with the length of the marriage. The decline appears to occur regardless of the couples
age, education, or situation.

Important changes in sexual scripts followed by married couples in recent years include:

Oral sex has become more common. Extramarital affairs are now equally likely among men
and women.

The Sociology of Sexuality

Sexual Minorities
Homosexuality in Society: Homosexuals are also known as gays and lesbians. Homosexuals are people who prefer sexual and romantic relationships with members of their own sex. Somewhere between 2-6% of Americans describe themselves as homosexual and as many describe themselves as bisexual. Rates are about two times as high among men as women.

The Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement

Growing acceptance of homosexuality is a direct result

of the gay and lesbian rights movement.
Movement evolved out of civil rights and feminist activism in late 1960s and early 1970s.

Stonewall Riots were sign of change patrons fought

back when police raided a New York City gay bar. Police retaliation only increased numbers of rioting gays and lesbians over 2000 people involved over a few days. Riot gave birth to the modern gay rights movement. heterosexuals realizing how many friends, relatives, coworkers, and neighbors were affected.

Identification of the AIDS epidemic in 1981 had

The Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement

Today, 21 states and DC outlaw discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. In 2011, the repeal of the militarys dont ask, dont tell policy was a major victory for the gay rights movement. Gays and lesbians can now openly serve in the U.S. Armed Forces. Heteronormativity is the ideology that heterosexuality is the only normal sexual identity, so society should be organized to reflect this. In the U.S., the norm remains heterosexuality.

The Sociology of Sexuality

Sexual Minorities
Transgender in Society:

Transgendered persons are individuals whose

sex or sexual identity is not definitively male or female. There are two types of transgendered people: Intersex persons are individuals who are born with ambiguous genitalia, such as a small penis as well as ovaries. Transsexuals are persons who psychologically feel they are trapped in the body of the wrong sex.

Chapter 10

Health and Health Care

Health and Health Care as a Social Problem

Health, illness, and health care are affected by social forces and social status. 45 million Americans under age 65 lacked health insurance in 2007. Current economic conditions increase concerns about health care. Health-related debt is a major cause of personal

Theoretical Perspectives on Illness

Structure-Functionalist Theory: The Sick Role

How does society control illness so that it increases rather than decreases social stability?

Parsons sick role allows society to sympathize with

non-productivity and excuse it temporarily. Defining the sick role four social norms attach to sick people: 1. legitimately sick 2. not held responsible 3. should work to get well 4. seek and follow medical advice

Theoretical Perspectives on Illness

Critiquing the sick role
Elements of the Sick Role
Illness is a valid reason to not fulfill obligations Ill persons are not held responsible for illness Ill persons should strive to get well

Model fits well:

Appendicitis, cancer Measles, hemophilia Tuberculosis, broken leg

Model fits poorly:

Undiagnosed chronic fatigue AIDS, lung cancer Rheumatoid arthritis, epilepsy

Ill persons should seek medical help

Strep throat, syphilis

Alzheimers, colds

Sick Role does not work well for: chronic illness; those who cannot afford medical services; people who have habits causing disease

Theoretical Perspectives on Illness

Conflict Theory: Medicalization

The process through which a condition or behavior becomes defined as a medical problem requiring a

medical solution. One hundred years ago, masturbation, homosexuality, and, among young women, the desire to go to college were considered symptoms of illness.

These conditions are not now considered illnesses because social ideas about them have changed. Today, male sexual dysfunction, restless leg syndrome, and alcoholism are medicalized Social groups with social power define what is to be medicalized.

Theoretical Perspectives on Illness

Symbolic Interaction Theory: The Experience of Illness
Symbolic interaction theory is useful for understanding what it is like to live with illness and what happens when doctors and patients have different definitions of the situation. To doctors, any patient who does not follow their medical orders is engaging in medical noncompliance.

The Social Causes of Health and Illness

Doctors have few opportunities to focus upstream and ask why their patients get sick in the first place.

Sociologists approach this question at two

micro individuals making high-risk choices macro social structure limiting choices

Both of these have to do with individuals risk

and identifying what those risks are.

Underlying Causes of Preventable Death in the United States

The Social Causes of Health and Illness

The Health Belief Model
Predicts whether individuals will adopt behaviors that protect their health.

Individuals must believe they are at risk for a health problem. They must believe the problem is serious. They must believe that adopting preventive measures will reduce their risks. They must not perceive any significant barriers
to adopting the preventive behaviors.

The Social Causes of Health and Illness

Macro-Level Answers: Manufacturers of Illness The manufacturers of illness are groups
that promote and benefit from deadly behaviors and social conditions.
Examples: Car manufacturers fought against bumpers that would make SUVs less dangerous to other cars. Soda manufacturers fought for the right to sell their high-calorie products in schools. Tobacco producers implicitly promote smoking to teens.

The Social Distribution of Health and Illness

In the beginning of the 20 century, average life expectancy was less than 50 years. In the U.S., the average resident now lives to be a senior citizen. Not all benefit equally men, African

Americans, and poor people die younger on average when compared to women, whites, and more affluent people. Gender, social class, and race/ethnicity are related to illness and mortality.

The Social Distribution of Health and Illness


On average:

U.S. women live ~5 years longer than men Women experience more disability and
discomfort than men

Men engage in riskier behaviors than do


Women have higher rates of illness

The Social Distribution of Health and Illness

Social Class

The higher ones social class, the longer

ones life expectancy and the better ones health. Environmental, economic, and psychosocial factors appear to play even stronger roles in linking poverty with ill health.

The Social Distribution of Health and Illness

Race and Ethnicity

African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and

Native Americans suffer disproportionately from status-related effects on health

More likely to lack health insurance More likely to work in toxic environment Less likely to have life-preserving treatment
due to discrimination

The Social Distribution of Health and Illness


Very young and very old at highest health risk In poor countries, the death rate for infants and children under 5 years is high By 65 years, most people have one longlasting health problem 68+ years: 80% white non-Hispanic, 65%
Hispanics, and 63% African Americans report good health

Infant Mortality Rates per 1,000 Live Births

Mental Illness
How Many Mentally Ill?

During the course of any given year in the U.S.,

The most common illnesses are major
symptoms, not on medical diagnoses.

approximately 11% of working age adults experience a minor but diagnosable mental illness, and another 20% experience a moderate or severe illness.
depression and problems with alcohol use.

These estimates are based on reports of

Mental Illness
Who Becomes Mentally Ill?

Two significant factors:

1. Social Class Differences lower class

experiences more social stress that can lead to mental illness. Lower class receive less effective treatment and are hospitalized longer.

2. Gender Differences overall rates of

mental illness higher among women. Men have higher rates for substance abuse and personality disorders.

Working in Health Care

Physicians: Fighting to Maintain Professional Autonomy

Less than 5% of medical staff are physicians. Until about 100 years ago, anyone could claim

to be a doctor training and procedures were variable and mostly bad. American Medical Association was created in 1848 and by 1910, strict medical training and licensing standards were adopted.

Working in Health Care

Physicians: Fighting to Maintain Professional Autonomy

Understanding Physicians Income and Prestige Current income averages: family practitioners $163,510, general surgeons $225,390. Structural-functionalists: high salaries due to short supply of persons who have the ability to become physicians or surgeons. Conflict theorists: the high prestige accorded physicians has more to do with use of power of AMA to promote self-interest than with what is best for society.

Working in Health Care

Physicians: Fighting to Maintain Professional Autonomy

Changing Status of Physicians

A growing proportion of physicians work in

Getting a second opinion is now general practice; malpractice suits are commonplace. Fees and treatments are increasingly regulated
by government agencies and insurance companies concerned about reducing costs.

group practices or corporations. Fees, procedures, and working hours are determined by bureaucrats.

Working in Health Care

Of the nearly 10 million people employed in

Nurses: Fighting for Professional Status

health care, 1.8 million are registered nurses. No hospital could run without nurses; no doctor could function without them. Their contribution to health care is enormous, yet their status remains far lower than might be expected.

Working in Health Care

Nurses: Fighting for Professional Status

Nurses current status

Relatively little autonomy even the most junior

physicians can give orders to senior nurses.

Median income: $62,400; a little more than 1/3 the income of doctors Because of the female tradition of nurturance, nursing is seen as an extension of female duty. Cost controls mean fewer nurses with heavier

Understanding Health-Care Systems

Paying for Health Care in the US

Americans paid an average $372 per person to

doctors and hospitals in 1970. By 2006, they spent an average of $6,561. By 2013 it will likely be twice that. The three primary modes of financing health care in the United States are: Paying out of pocket Private insurance Government programs

Understanding Health-Care Systems

Paying for Health Care in the US

Private Insurance via employers

(government, large companies, corporations). Private insurance providers are for profit corporations.

Government Programs state public health

clinics and hospitals; Medicaid (need-based) and Medicare (people 65+). Medicare could go bankrupt by 2017 if taxes are not raised or if costs are not lowered. Out of Pocket only the very rich can afford to pay for anything beyond minor problems.

Understanding Health-Care Systems

The Struggle to Expand Health Insurance Coverage

In 2010, Congress passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, based on the Massachusetts health insurance program. It will:
1.Require all Americans to obtain health insurance 2.Require employers to subsidize employee health care 3.Expand Medicaid to include all poor and near-poor Americans younger than 65 yrs 4.Require insurers to insure individuals with pre-existing health problems; to allow young people to remain on parent insurance policies until age 26.

But program costs are high; many will still not be able to afford health care insurance.

Percentage of Americans Who Are Uninsured

Close to 20% of Americans less than 65 years of age lack health insurance. People are most likely to be uninsured if they are: young adults poor or near poor racial minorities have no full-time workers in their household

Health Care in Other Countries

National Health Care Systems
In the rest of the industrialized world, medical care is regarded as something that all citizens should receive regardless of ability to pay. Single-payer system: paid from a single source the government. Doctors can be paid on a salary or fee for service basis. Reduced costs from: administrative efficiencies; being non-profit; control of ancillary costs (i.e. pressure pharmaceutical, medical services, etc., to keep costs down). Examples: Canada and U.K.

Health Care in Other Countries

Good Care at Low Cost
Primary focus on prevention:

Use of less-expensive care providers such as

nurses and midwives

Improved sanitation, housing, and food Raise education levels and thereby incomes Use of traditional healing practices.
Example: China has life expectancy only 4 years lower than the U.S. and spends several times less on health care.

Chapter 11

Marriage and Family Around the World

Universal Aspects

Replacing population through reproduction Regulating sexual behavior Caring for dependents children, elderly,
disabled Socializing the young Providing intimacy, belongingness, emotional support

Marriage and Family Around the World

Universal Aspects Family:
A group of persons linked together by blood, adoption, marriage, or quasimarital commitment.
Marriage: The formal socially or legally recognized union of two people.

Marriage and Family Around the World

Family Patterns: Extended a family in which a couple and their children live with other relatives. Nuclear a family in which parents and children form an independent household. Blended a family that includes children born to one parent as well as children born to both parents. Cross-household children shift back and forth between more than one household. Stepfamily- a household where one or both members of the couple have pre-existing children who live with them Fictive kin people regarded as family even though they are not related by blood, adoption, or marriage.

Marriage and Family Around the World

U.S. Childrens Living Arrangements
Although the majority of U.S. children still live with two married parents (biological or adoptive), many live in other circumstances. Children born outside of marriage are more vulnerable. Fewer people are expected to care for the child.

Marriage and Family Around the World: Cross-Cultural Variations

Marriage Patterns: Monogamy a marriage in which there is only one wife and one husband. Serial monogamy -individuals marry several people but only one at a time Polygamy any form of marriage in which a person may have more than one spouse at a time. Two forms: Polygyny -A form of marriage that unites one man and two or more women Polyandry -Unites one woman and two or more men

The U.S. Family over the Life Course


U.S. norms call for childhood to be a sheltered 28% U.S. children are born to single mothers. About 66% of mothers of pre-school children
time, but about 1 in 5 children are raised in poverty and many are abused.

Studies show that the preparatory benefits of

day-care outweigh the disadvantages, but the quality of the program makes a difference.

work and children spend time in day-care.

The U.S. Family over the Life Course


Contemporary society has ambiguous,

often contradictory expectations. Adolescents are under constant pressure about the future. This is a difficult transition time filled with mixed messages.

The U.S. Family over the Life Course

Transition to Adulthood

Rites of Passage Some societies have

formal rituals that signal the end of one status and the beginning of another. In the U.S., transition to adulthood usually means getting a job, living away from parents, becoming financially independent. Transition period has slowed because of:
Economic crisis unemployment and high cost of living. Many live with or get money from parents. Changing attitudes extend schooling; delay marriage

The U.S. Family over the Life Course Early Adulthood

A key issue is deciding if and whom to marry. Seeking Sexual and Romantic Relationships: Expectation of early marriage has decreased By their late 20s, 40% women and 30% men have never married. Ambivalent about marriage, but most looking for at least a temporary partner. Propinquity (spatial nearness) is a big factor frequent interaction, sign of social similarities

The U.S. Family over the Life Course

Sorting through the marriage market

Homogamy choosing a mate similar in status to oneself. Heterogamy choosing a mate who is different in status from oneself. Endogamy choosing a mate from within ones own racial, ethnic, or religious group. Exogamy choosing a mate from outside ones racial, ethnic, or religious group. **Homogamy and Heterogamy imply more of a choice whereas endogamy and exogamy imply following a traditional practice or requirement.

Early Adulthood

The U.S. Family over the Life Course

Responding to Narrow Marriage Markets

Early Adulthood

African American women are much less likely to marry than white women. African American men (stereotyped as hypermasculine) are more likely than women to find exogamous spouses. Asian women (stereotyped as hyperfeminine) are more likely than men to marry exogamously. Among all groups, a shortage of males employed in good jobs with adequate earnings sharply reduces the likelihood that a woman will marry or even live with a man outside of marriage.

Marriage and Family: Residence Patterns and Authority Patterns

Patrilocal a newly married couple lives with the husbands family Matrilocala newly married couple lives with the wifes family Neolocalthe newly married couple sets up its own residence Matriarchalthe oldest females control cultural, political, and economic resources Patriarchalthe oldest men control cultural, political, and economic resources Egalitarianboth partners share power and authority equally

Intermarriage and dating have become far more common over time, especially between white men and Asian American women. Differences in the availability of marriageable men account for at least 40% of the racial difference in overall marriage rates.

The U.S. Family over the Life Course

Between 45-60 is a quieter time expectation of empty nest (children leave home) Many families do not experience empty nests:
Economic crisis many adult children live in their parents home and many middle-aged parents have moved in with their adult children. Extended families are increasing with cultural preferences of immigrant families and the effects of an aging population care for aging parents.

Middle Age

The U.S. Family over the Life Course

Age 65 and beyond

Men have shorter life spans and tend to marry

younger women marriage is not equally available to aging women. 78% of men aged 65-74 are still married; 57% of women of the same age are still married. Grandparent role is important to satisfaction; also in provision of childcare and financial help. Elderly prefer to live alone; 50% of old old will develop memory and thinking problems and rely heavily on family or care workers.

The U.S. Family over the Life Course

As people move into the oldest old group, most come to rely heavily on their daughters for assistance. This can create considerable strain when the daughters find themselves simultaneously responsible for their parents and their children.

Roles and Relationships in Marriage

Gender roles in marriage

Men are considered primary providers for their Women do about 66% of housework; chances Paid domestic labor reinforces gender, race
and social class divisions. Most employers are white middle-class women; most labor is minority working-class women. of happiness for both husband and wife greatest when housework is evenly split. families, but in 25% of dual-earner families, the wives outearn the husband.

Roles and Relationships in Marriage

Gender roles in marriage

The right for husbands to beat or rape wives was

built into U.S. law and only was challenged in the 1960s. About 1 in 10 women have been raped by an intimate partner. 1 in 3 women have been assaulted (1 out of 4 has been assaulted severely). Violence against men occurs but less often and less severely. Violence is more common in male homosexual relationships, but rarer among lesbians.

Roles and Relationships in Marriage

Although violence among married couples has declined, it remains distressingly common. Men are more likely than women to beat their spouses because men are more likely to believe that it is their right to control their spouses. Relationship violence is not restricted to any class or race.

Roles and Relationships in Marriage

The Parental Role

Children are expensive and time-consuming. Having children reduces marital happiness. Most people desire and have children to guarantee love and affection for years to come. Parenting roles remain disparate: women still hold more responsibilities to childcare than men. But there are changes: Stepparent estimates: about 1/3 of all children
will live with a stepparent before age 18 More fathers raising children on their own Growing numbers of stay-at-home dads

80% of mothers work. Fathers now take more responsibility for child care and household tasks than they did in previous generations. Mothers still bear far more of household and childcare burdens, leaving many mothers overworked and feeling underappreciated.

Contemporary Family Choices Marriage or Cohabitation

Cohabitation means living with a romantic or

sexual partner before marriage. More than half of all Americans are expected to cohabit at some point in their lives. Whether couples cohabit before marrying has no effect on their marital satisfaction or stability. Deinstitutionalization of marriage the gradual disintegration of social norms that defined marriage as essential. The fight for (and against) gay rights to marry suggests that marriage is still very important.

Contemporary Family Choices

Having Childrenor Not
Non-marital Births

Half of all U.S. births are non-marital. Most of these are to women 20 years of age and older. Many women are electing to be single parents. Many women having non-marital births cohabit with the fathers. Teen childbearing has declined considerably since 1991. Teen mothers are more likely to be poor. Infant
health problems and death are more likely with teen mothers.

Percentage of Births to Girls and Women Under Age 21

Births to teenage mothers are least common in wealthier states as well as in Utah, which has an unusually high Mormon population. They are most common across the southern tier of the country, an area with many poor African Americans and poor Hispanic immigrants.

Contemporary Family Choices

Having Childrenor Not
Delayed Childbearing

Many women are electing to delay having children 5-10 years after marriage. ~25% women ages 30-34 are childless.
Choosing Childlessness While many women will eventually want children, increasing numbers have decided that they are uninterested in having children.

Contemporary Family Choices

Birth control and abortion have reduced the number of unwanted babies, and fewer single mothers give up their babies. The availability of healthy white or Asian babies for adoption is low.

Overseas adoptions raise serious issues about the commodification of children where children are treated as goods available for purchase or theft.

Contemporary Family Choices

Blending Work and Family

Couples spend less time together today.

Reasons for this are: 69% of married women aged 25 to 34 work. Workweeks and workdays are getting longer. Many working class work more than one job. Despite the time crunch, mothers spend as much time with children as they did 40 years ago; fathers spend more. Mothers cut back on housework and have fewer children; those who can afford it hire help.

Contemporary Family Choices


Estimates indicate that 40-50% of first

marriages today will end in divorce. Predictors of divorce within the first 10 years of marriage:
1. Age at marriage
2. Parental divorce 3. Premarital childbearing

4. Education
5. Race 6. Religion

Societal factors include: cultural changes to

expectations in marriage; divorce is socially accepted; economic crises; women have options.

Chapter 12
Education and Religion

Educational and Religious Institutions

Education and religion are central components Almost all people in the U.S. have attended
of these two institutions. of any nation and have profound effects on our society and individuals. school, and a strong majority practice a religion.

All people are affected by the norms and values

Theoretical Perspectives on Education

The educational institution is the social

structure responsible for the formal transmission of knowledge. Nearly 3 of every 10 people in the U.S. participates in education daily as students or staff. As taxpayers, parents, students, or educational professionals, we are all involved in the institution of education in some way.

Theoretical Perspectives on Education

Structural-Functional Theory: Functions of Education

Concerned with the consequences of

Educational system is designed to keep society

running smoothly: Training and knowledge of each generation Socialization discipline, obedience, cooperation,
punctuality, cultural knowledge Sorting channel students based on their abilities Promoting Change critical and analytical skills

educational institutions for the maintenance of society.

Education and Culture

In all societies, education is an important means of reproducing culture. In addition to skills such as reading and writing, children learn many of the dominant cultural values. In Japan, school uniforms emphasize group solidarity over individual achievement.

Theoretical Perspectives on Education

Education as a Capitalist Tool hidden curriculum teaches obedience and conformity. Education as a Cultural Tool teaches the cultural perspective of the dominant culture. Education as a Status Marker credentials are Unequal Education and Inequality use of
education as a status marker reinforced by unequal opportunities for education across society. often a surrogate for race, gender and social class. Credentialism is a social bias based on credentials.

Conflict Theory: Education and the Perpetuation of Inequality

Theoretical Perspectives on Education

Focus on the processes. The learning process can vary greatly across society. Teachers may hold racist and classist views common in U.S. society resulting in bias. Students possess disparate cultural capital which helps or hinders interactions with teachers. Teachers grew up in a society with racist, sexist and
classist biases. Biases are embedded in their views and result in assumptions and perpetuate bias.

Symbolic Interactionism: The Selffulfilling Prophecy

Current Controversies in American Education


Use of early evaluation to determine the

educational programs a child will be encouraged to follow Based primarily on reading ability: Some directed to college preparatory tracks
Some directed into general/vocational education Others directed into special (remedial) education

Research shows modest benefit if students are

assigned to high-ability groups and significant disadvantages for students placed in low-ability groups.

Current Controversies in American Education

High-Stakes Testing

Federal law now requires schools to measure student performance using standardized tests. Students now must pass high-stakes tests before they can move to a higher grade. Teachers and schools are evaluated and
Often programs in art music, physical education,
and languages are dropped as more resources put into tested areas. punished or rewarded on the basis of these tests.

Current Controversies in American Education

School Choice

Concern about the quality of American public education has led to support for school choice. Options including tuition vouchers, tax credits,

magnet schools, charter schools, and home schooling. The best current research suggests that children sent to charter schools do no better and sometimes do worse than children in public schools. (Renzulli & Roscigno, 2007) Opponents of school choice point to negative consequences of reinforcing social inequality and segregation. (Saporito & Sohoni, 2006)

College and Society

Who Goes?

Until recently, non-Hispanic white males were

the group most likely to be enrolled in college. Rates of women in all ethnic groups attending college increased steadily. White men are still most likely to receive professional and doctoral degrees and be in field with highest income. Ethnic and social class differences affect college attendance greater than sex differences.

Percentage of High School Graduates Ages 18 to 21 Enrolled in College, by Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, 1975 and 2009

As depicted in this chart, differences in high school graduation rates among racial and ethnic groups is an important factor in who attends college.

College and Society

Learn logic, critical thinking, civic engagement College prepares students for middle class
jobs: shapes demeanor, language, and belief in their intellectual abilities.

Why Go?

Socioeconomic Consequences of Higher Education

Going to college pays off. Those who graduate college earn twothirds more than high school graduates, are much more likely to be employed, and are more likely to have a professional job.

Understanding Religion
What is Religion?

The institution of religion is an important part

of social life. It is intertwined with politics and culture and involved in integration and conflict. Religion is a system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things that unites believers into a moral community. Sociologists examine how culture, society, and other social forces affect religion, and how religion affects individuals and social structure.

Understanding Religion
Why Religion?

Every society has forms of religious activity

and expressions of religious behavior. Religion is a fundamental feature in all societies. It helps individuals interpret and cope with events beyond our control and understanding. Beliefs and rituals develop as a way to appease the greater force.

Distribution of World Religions

Christianity is the dominant religion in the Americas, Europe, and Australia, but elsewhere other religions are far more common.

Understanding Religion
Why Religion Now? The Rise of Fundamentalism

Until the 1970s, scholars thought that as

science advanced, secularization would increase.

Secularization is the process of transferring

objects, ideas, or events from the sacred realm to the non-sacred (secular) realm.

While there has been some drop in

American religiosity, fundamentalism has grown dramatically in the last 30 years.

Changing Religious Commitment 19622010

During the last 40 years, there has been a small drop in the proportion of Americans who belong to a religion, a bigger drop in those who say religion is very important in their lives, and a sharp drop in the proportion who think that the Bible is the actual word of God.

Understanding Religion
Why Religion Now? The Rise of Fundamentalism
Fundamentalism refers to religious

movements that:
Believe heir most sacred book or books to be the literal word of God Accept traditional interpretations of those books Stress the importance of living in ways that mesh with those traditional interpretations

Theoretical Perspectives on Religion

Durkheim: Structural-Functional Theory of Religion
Three elementary forms of religion: 1. Human experience is divided into: Profane all that is routine in everyday world; that we understand and control. Sacred events and things we hold in awe and
reverence; that we cannot understand or control

2. A set of beliefs about the supernatural that help people cope with the uncertainties of life. 3. A body of rituals or practices.

Theoretical Perspectives on Religion

Durkheim: Structural-Functional Theory of Religion
The Functions of Religion: At the societal level, religion gives tradition a moral imperative. At the personal level, religion provides support, consolation, and reconciliation in times of need. Religious participation gives feeling of belongingness which creates the moral community, or community of believers.

Theoretical Perspectives on Religion

Marx saw religion as an opiate of the

Marx and Beyond: Conflict Theory and Religion

masses. Modern conflict theorists are more interested in how religion may contribute to or reduce conflicts between social groups. Focus on the dialecticthe contradictions between existing institutions that lead to social change. Social change can foster change in societys religions.

Theoretical Perspectives on Religion

Weber: Religion as an Independent Force

Weber combined ideas from structural and conflict perspectives. Religion is the search for knowledge about what is unknown. Changes in religious ideology can stimulate social change. Charismatic leadership is influential. Protestant Ethic: the belief that rationalism,
work, and plain living are moral virtues; idleness and indulgence are sinful.

Tension between Religion and Society

Each religion confronts two contradictory yet complementary tendencies: 1) The tendency to reject the world 2) The tendency to compromise with the world
i.e., if it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God, must a church require that all its members forsake wealth?

How religions resolve these dilemmas is central to their eventual form and character.

Tension between Religion and Society

Religious organizations that are institutionalized, have endured for generations, are supported by and support societys norms and values, and are an active part of society are called churches. State church strongly supported or mandated by the government

Denomination a church that accommodates the state and other churches

Structure and function formal bureaucracy; hierarchal positions, official creeds, formal rituals

Tension between Religion and Society

Religious organizations that arise in active rejection of changes they find repugnant in churches are called sects. Structure and function of sects: Membership is often the result of conversion or emotional experience.

Services are more informal than in churches. Doctrines emphasize otherworldly rewards; Like primary groups: small, informal, loyal.

scriptures considered literal and divine in origin.

Tension between Religion and Society

New Religious Movements (NRMs)
Religious or spiritual movements begun in recent decades and not connected to mainstream religions; also known as cults. Structure and function of NRMs:

Strongly resemble those of sects Members elect to join NRM rather than follow
parents religion

Attract people whose needs have not been met

by mainstream religions.

Religion in the United States

Trends in U.S. Religious Membership
The Rise of Emerging Churches are linked by: 1) the belief that Americans and modern Christian churches are impersonal, bureaucratic, and inauthentic 2) an emphasis on informal rituals; a more open perspective toward scripture and behavior; and living a life of mission, faith, and community

Religion in the United States

Trends in Religiosity

Religiosity is an individuals level of

commitment to religious beliefs and to acting on those beliefs.

Religious economy refers to the competition

between religious organizations to provide better consumer products thereby creating greater market demand for their own products.
College graduates and non-graduates are equally likely to hold conservative religious beliefs.

Religion in the United States

Consequences of Religiosity

People who are more religious tend to be:

Healthier, happier and more satisfied with their lives
benefits from sense of belonging to a religious community

More conservative in attitudes about family; in

Religion and church can promote social Church members dont always adopt the views
of their church; sometimes this results in a split from the central church. change.

supporting conservative political movements

Religion in the United States

U.S. Civil Religion

Civil religion is the set of institutionalized

rituals, beliefs, and symbols sacred to the U.S. nation. Important source of unity for the U.S. Beliefs: The U.S. operates under God Symbols: The flag Rituals: Pledge of Allegiance Singing of National Anthem Sacred principles: liberty, justice, and freedom

Chapter 13
Politics and the Economy

Introducing Politics and the Economy

Politics and the economy are two separate

social institutions, but they are interwoven.

Both should be considered when answering

questions such as: How do people earn their living? Why are wages so much higher in some types of work and in some countries than others? How do government leaders get elected, deposed, or assassinated?

Power and Politics Coercion


The exercise of power through force or the

threat of force is coercion.

Power supported by norms and values that

legitimate its use is authority. 1. Traditional Authority the right to make

decisions for others based on the sanctity of timehonored routines 2. Charismatic Authority the right to make decisions based on perceived extraordinary personal characteristics 3. Rational-Legal Authority the right to base decisions on rationally established rules

Power and Politics

Traditional Authority
Traditional authority, like that enjoyed by King Mohamed VI of Morocco, exists when an individuals right to make decisions for others is widely accepted based on time-honored beliefs. Monarchies and patriarchies are classic examples. In America in the 1950s, husbands had the authority in the family (patriarchy). Even today, traditional families hold to this.

Power and Politics

Combining Bases of Authority:

An elected official who adds charisma to his

rational-legal authority will increase his power. Ex. John McCain or Barack Obama can
serve as examples.

A charismatic leader who establishes a rationallegal system to manage her followers will also increase her power. Ex. L. Ron Hubbard founded the Church of
Scientology and turned it into a large, bureaucratic organization.

Power and Politics


Politics is the social structure of power within

a society. Political Institutions concerned with the social structure of power; the most prominent political institution is the state. claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of force and coercion within a territory.

The state is a social structure that successfully

Power and the State

The State
The state is distinguished from other political institutions by two characteristics:

1.Its jurisdiction for legitimate decision making is broader than that of other institutions. 2.It controls the use of legalized coercion in a society.

Power and the State

The State
Nationalism is the belief that the citizens of an areas are one peoplea nationunited by a common culture and history.
A nation-state is a legally constituted state that bases its authority on public belief that it exists to benefit a nations citizenry.

Power and the State

State Jurisdiction
The state exercises power over society as a whole.

State Coercion
A state holds a monopoly on the legitimate use of three different types of coercion:
1. Arrest, attack, imprison and even kill citizens

2. Take money from citizens with taxes and fines 3. Negotiate with other countries and use its military to attack and kill in other countries

Power and the State

State Coercion
Political systems in which the leadership is not selected by the people and legally cannot be changed by them are authoritarian systems.

Also known as totalitarian states, dictatorships,

military juntas, monarchies, and theocracies.

Some authoritarian governments, such as monarchies, govern through traditional authority; others have no legitimate authority and rest their power almost exclusively on coercion.

Power and the State

State Coercion
Democracies are political systems that provides
regular, constitutional opportunities for a change in leadership according to the will of the majority.

May occur in wealthier nations with a large

middle class who have enough social and economic resources to organize effectively can hold government accountable

May rise in countries with competing interest

groups, which must negotiate with each other

Power and the State

Globalization and State Power

Some argue that globalization has resulted in

Other theorists argue that globalization is not new. The power of the state is greater than ever. With the current global economic crisis many
nations are protecting themselves firstthey have withdrawn from agreements that fostered globalization (i.e., import tax treaties).

multinational corporations and international organizations hold power once held by states

Power and the State

Globalization and Citizenship

Citizenship is a legal status conferring a broad

range of rights (i.e., voting, owning property, employment, and attending public school). Globalization has meant increasing immigration. Nations are debating citizenship for immigrants. Immigrants who do not have citizenship face serious disadvantages: ineligible for legal employment

ineligible for social benefits face constant risk of deportation children of immigrants with no legal status, may have no knowledge of their home culture, and would face severe hardship if deported

Who Governs? Models of U.S. Democracy

Structural-Functional: The Pluralist Model
for the good of all. Focus on checks/balances within government Limits to the theory interests of powerful wealthy coalesce. Programs designed to distribute wealth and rewards succeed only when elites favor change

Assumes the parts of the system run smoothly

Who Governs? Models of U.S. Democracy

Conflict: Power-Elite Model

Contends that a relatively unified elite group

makes all major decisions, based on its own interests The power elite are the people who occupy the top positions in three bureaucraciesthe military, industry, and the executive branch of governmentand who make decisions on national and international issues. The median net worth of members of Congress is 9x greater than of U.S. citizens overall.

Comparison of U.S. Political Models

Characteristic Unit of analysis Pluralist
Interest groups

Power Elite
Power elites

Source of power

Situational; depends on issue

Inherited/positional; key positions in economic/ social institutions Concentrated in fairly homogeneous elite
Limited when other groups unite in opposition

Distribution of power
Limits of power

Dispersed among competing groups

Limited by shifting and crosscutting loyalties

Role of State

Arena where interest groups compete

One of several sources of power

Individual Participation in U.S. Government

Who Votes?
Characteristics influencing political participation:

Social Class people with more education,

income, and prestigious jobs more likely

Age middle aged/older persons more likely Race and Ethnicity whites more likely than
African Americans; hispanics and Asians least likely.

Individual Participation in U.S. Government

Which Party?

In the U.S., whoever receives the most votes wins winner take all process. As a result, in practice two parties share almost all political power: Democrats and Republicans Both parties are basically centrist with different
philosophical views:

Democrats associated with liberal morality, social

service, interests of poor, working class, minorities Republicans associated with conservative morality, tax cuts, interests of industry and wealthy

Individual Participation in U.S. Government

Why So Few Voters?

Scholars suggest that Americans believe the

political process is corruptthe parties are similar and it doesnt matter who gets elected. Others suggest that politicians have made it difficult for people to vote. Still others argue that no major political party has involved poor minority and Americans are disenchanted (voting rates increased through grassroots outreach during Obama campaign).

Individual Participation in U.S. Government

Ex-felon disenfranchisement: Loss of voting

Case Study: Ex-Felon Disenfranchisement

rights by those who have ever been convicted of a felony. In some states, it applies only to those in prison; in other states, it is lifelong. Ex-felon disenfranchised are overwhelmingly poor. The number is high enough to significantly decrease the chances of electing politicians who favor helping the poor.

Modern Economic Systems

The economy includes all social structures

involved in the production and distribution of goods and services.

There are basically two types of systems in

the modern world:

1. Capitalism
2. Socialism

Because economic systems must adapt to

different political and natural environments, there are few instances of pure capitalism or pure socialism.

Modern Economic Systems


The economic system based on competition in which most wealth (land, capital and labor) is private

property, to be used by its owners to maximize their own gain. Based on market competition. Encourages hard work, technical innovation, and meeting or creating consumer demand. Limitations:

1. Does not attend to distribution and does not provide for the public good. 2. Those who have neither labor nor capital lose out. 3. Public services such as parks, paved streets, sanitary water system hold no interest for capitalists because these generate no profit.

Modern Economic Systems

The economic system in which the means of Social resources can benefit all society rather than The key limitation is lack of incentivesocialist
economies tend to be more equitable but less productive economies.
Socialism is often confused with communism: a theoretical political economic system where the means of production are publically owned and each individual works and is paid according to ability and need.


production (land, labor, capital) are owned and managed by the community or government and used for the good of all.

just those with wealth and access.

Modern Economic Systems

Mixed Economies

Most Western societies today have a mixture Vital services such as mail and industries such Other services (i.e., health care) have been
as steel might be socialized to ensure the continuation of services or availability of goods. partially socialized because societies judge the denial of such services to the poor unethical and the provision of such services from open market too inefficient. of capitalist and socialist economic structures.

Modern Economic Systems

The Political Economy
within a nation

The interaction of political and economic forms The term communist refers to societies in Both capitalism and socialism can coexist with
either authoritarian or democratic systems. which a socialist economy is guided by a political elite and enforced by a military elite.

Ex. UK and Sweden: socialism / democracy

China and Cuba: socialism / authoritarianism U.S. and Japan: capitalism / democracy Saudi Arabia and Singapore: capitalism / autocracy

Modern Economic Systems

The Political Economy
Privatization and the U.S. Political Economy
Privatization refers to farming out government services to corporations, redesigning those services to fit a corporate mold, or redefining them as private choices rather than government responsibilities.

The U.S. Economic System

Primary sector extracts raw materials from the

Secondary sector processes raw materials into Tertiary sector provides services for sale.
goods for sale. Economies shift from the primary to the secondary sector with industrialization.
Postindustrial economies focus on the tertiary sector (i.e., physicians, schoolteachers, hotel maids, short-order cooks, police officers, billing services, airlines, etc).

The Postindustrial Economy

environment. Preindustrial economies are characterized by these activities.

The U.S. Economic System

The Corporate Economy

While over 250,000 businesses operate in the U.S.,

Corporate power can influence U.S. foreign policy.

most of the nations capital and labor are tied up in a few giant, transnational corporations.

Ex. U.S. supported Guatemalan and Honduran dictatorships to protect interests of Dole and United Fruit.

At the local level, one major employer can hold

municipal and county governments hostage in bargaining for tax advantages and favorable zoning regulations.

The U.S. Economic System

The Wal-Mart Economy
it affects the entire U.S. economy.

This corporation is so large and powerful that

Until the 1980s, federal law prohibited

monopolies (a corporation that holds so large a market share for a given good/service that it controls the market).

Wal-Mart earns profit selling cheap; both

suppliers and competitors are driven out of business if they fail to deliver goods at a cheap price. Suppliers shift to foreign labor markets to meet price demands. U.S. production suffers.

The U.S. Economic System

o o o

The Economy in Crisis

Economic trends of less regulation and more risk have created a system in crisis.
Over 1 million homes are in foreclosure.

Because of globalization, the crisis has spread around the world with devastating effects. The crisis strongly suggests that free-market
works only when balanced by government regulation.

Unemployment rates soar. Some pension funds and municipalities have gone bankrupt.

Work in the United States


Professional occupations specialized skills, autonomy, and public trust. Non-professional occupations require fewer

years of education, lack autonomy to set their own educational and licensing standards, and lack public confidence that they are motivated primarily by a code of ethics and a sense of service. Underground economy associated with workers who attempt to hide from state regulation. Can occur in profession and non-professional occupations.

Work in the United States

Unemployment and Underemployment

Unemployed are those who lack a job, are available for work, and are actively seeking it. This definition leaves out people who have Underemployed are those who cannot find fullgiven up looking for work and people who work part-time because they lost full-time jobs. time work or are working in jobs below their skill level. underestimated.

Many argue that unemployment levels are

Work in the United States

Precarious work:

The Future of Work

Shift toward jobs with little long-term stability
(i.e., contract work by year or month, hourly hires)

Changing economy:

Shift to service jobs and declining prospects even

for college graduates (although they still have less
prospect of being unemployed than the non-degreed)

Impact of technology:

Information technology jobs; increase in monitoring;

far more personal information in systems; work at home and fluid work hours because of Internet.

Work in the United States

The Future of Work

Globalization and the Future: Globalization has

led to a process of reverse development (export raw

Protecting U.S. Jobs

materials; import manufactured products)

Conservative approach: Free Market proposes that the way to keep jobs in the U.S. is to reduce wages and benefits.This approach adopted across the nation. Liberal approach: Government Policies oversee corporate mergers; build industries with good jobs; make U.S. goods more competitive by taxing imports and subsidizing domestic goods. Social investment approach stop high-education jobs from going overseas by adequately educating American students.

Chapter 14

Population and Urban Life

Populations, Large and Small

Demography is the study of populationits

size, growth, and composition. Demographers focus on births, deaths, and migration patterns. Currently, the world population is 7 billion more than 2.5x as many people as in 1950. Population has increased for two basic reasons: 1. Mortality has declined rapidly. 2. Fertility rate has decreased only slowly.

Populations, Large and Small

Mortality rate number of deaths per every 1,000 people in a population in a given period. Fertility rate number of births per 1,000 women in a population in a given period. Birth rate number of births per 1,000 persons in a population in a given period. Migration movement of people from geographic area to another. Internal migration people move to different homes within a country. Immigration people move to a different country.

Understanding Population Growth

Human population continues to grow every day. World birth rate 2011: 20 births per 1000 people World mortality rate 2011: 8 deaths per 1000 In 2011, world population grew by 1.2%. At this rate, another 2.6 billion people will be
added to the planet by 2025. Most growth happens in poorer nations; i.e., Africas population growing; Europes population shrinking.

Understanding Population Growth

Population in Former Times

Birth rates and mortality rates were about 40

The average women spent ages 20-45
per 1000 throughout most of human history. Populations were stable.

About 25% to 33% of all babies died before 1 Infant mortality rate the number of babies
who die during or shortly after birth. year of age. Average life expectancy was 3035yrs

pregnant or nursing and would produce between 6-10 children if she lived to 45.

Understanding Population Growth

Demographic Transition in the West

From the 1700s, nutrition, hygiene, and living

conditions improved in Europe and the U.S. The results were a decline in mortality rates. The late 1800s saw better sanitation and medical advances that improved life expectancy. Industrial Revolution changed work no longer needed as many children for agricultural labor or to replace those that died. Demographic transition is the process through which a population shifts from a high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates.

Understanding Population Growth

Less developed nations: birth and death rates remained at preindustrial levels until 1900s. Development in Latin America, Taiwan, South
Korea, and Singapore improved living conditions death rates decreased. Latter 20th century, poorest countries had better sanitation and healthcare. Death rates lowered but birth rates did not change population rose. have increased in some areas due to AIDS.

Demographic Transition in the NonWest

Now birth rates have declined and death rates

Demographic Transition in the West

In the preindustrial West, both birth and death rates were high. As living conditions improved and death rates began to fall, the population grew. Eventually birth rates also fell and population size stabilized. This is known as the demographic transition.

Population and Social Structure

Ghana: Is Fertility Too High?
Birth rate: ~31 / 1000; death rate: ~8 / 1000

Effects of Social Roles on the Fertility Rate:

Effects of High Fertility Rates on Society:

Children are important in Ghanawomen who do not bear children, particularly sons, are not valued. It is believed that that 4 children must be born for 2 to survive. Children are needed for agricultural and to care for aging parents.

Policy Response: contraception, education

Schools, sanitation systems, or adequate infrastructure cannot be maintained under such great population pressures.

Population and Social Structure

The Effects of Social Roles on Fertility Rates:

Italian women are educated and many work. Womens status is close to mens. Children are less necessary. Birth rate is 1.3 / 1000. Zero population growth is when fertility rate is about 2.1 per woman replacement of parents and a bit to spare.

Italy: Is Fertility Too Low?

The Effects of Low Fertility Rates on Society:

Older generation is as large / larger than younger aging work force, graying society, high social costs.

Policy Responses: birth incentives, immigration

Population Change in Europe

Population and Social Problems

Environmental Devastation: A Population Problem?
Deforestation is devastating tropical rainforests in Brazil, the Philippines, and elsewhere. Deforestation creates more land for food production, but top soils are soon eroded, leaving desert or barren rock.

Population pressures can contribute to numerous social problems including: environmental devastation overuse and misuse of resources poverty

Population and Social Problems

Poverty in the Least Developed World

Poverty and malnutrition result from: war corruption inequality in nondemocratic countries exploitive world economic system Policy Responses: family-planning programs economic and educational development improving the status of women

Population in the United States

Fertility Rates
Zero population growth has been accompanied by sharp reductions in social class, racial, and religious differences in fertility rates.

Mortality Rates

Average age at death is in the late 70s. Many

people who live to age 65 can expect to live another 20 years and more. AIDS remains leading cause of death in people aged 25-44. This trend is more significant in African Americans and Latinos.

Population in the United States

Migration patterns

Immigration accounts for an increase of about 1

million people per year.
Two groups of immigrants: 1) educated, Englishspeaking professionals 2) Low skilled, non-English speaking workers. The Hispanic population has grown markedly in recent years. Because of the economic downturn, immigration has declined slightlythe U.S. is less attractive to immigrants.

The Changing U.S. Population

If immigration and fertility rates remain stable, the proportion of Hispanic and Asian Americans will likely increase and the proportion of non-Hispanic whites will likely decrease.

Population in the United States

Internal Immigration

In 2010, internal migration was the lowest in 60

years. National economic conditions did not favor relocation. Since the 1970s, trends have been movement to the South and West from the Midwest and Northeastern states.

A case of internal migration:

In 2005, Hurricane Katrina drove about 1 million people from the New Orleans area. While some have been able to return, the population of New Orleans remains 40% lower. Many hurricane refugees sink into deeper povertymany still living in temporary mobile homes 7 years later.

Population in the United States

populations in cities.

Urbanization is the process of concentrating

Suburbs are communities (primarily

residential) that develop outside of cities.

Suburbanization is the growth of suburbs.

1850 only 2% world population lived in cities
with 100,000 or more people.

Today more than half the world population and

over 80% of U.S. population lives in cities or metropolitan areas.

Theories of Urban Growth and Decline
Structural Functional Theory: Urban Ecology:

Urban development is seen as evolutionary and functional; efficient for distributing goods and services.

Conflict Perspective: White Flight and Government Subsidies

Finds nothing natural in urban growth and decline. Competing economic and political forces lead to growth or decline of cities.

Urbanization The Nature of Modern Cities

The Industrial City: Density of housing, retail, and manufacturing Central business district

Yorkshire, England 1950

The Postindustrial City: Move from secondary to tertiary production Easier communication and transportation Urban sprawl and edge cities

Urbanization in the United States

A metropolitan statistical area is a county that has a city of 50,000 or more in it, plus associated neighboring counties. A nonmetropolitan statistical area is a county that has no major city in it and is not closely tied to such a city.

Edge cities are suburban centers that have

an existence largely separate from the cities that spawned them.

Urbanization in the Less-Developed World
Problems: fast paced growth; inadequate infrastructure (roads, schools, sewers)
Differs from developed world: 1.high rate of births over deaths 2.many cities are primarily government, trade, and administrative centers offer few workingclass jobs. Unskilled become part of informal economy of artisans, peddlers, and beggars.

Urbanization Trends Around the World

Urbanization is growing around the world. It is more common in the more developed nations but is grown more rapidly in the less developed nations. SOURCE: United Nations 2010

Place of Residence and Social Relationships

Urban Living
Theoretical Views: Earlier theorists viewed the greater size, heterogeneity, and density of urban living as leading to a breakdown of the normative and moral fabric of everyday life. Today, theorists believe that individuals experience the city as a mosaic of small worlds that are manageable and knowable.

Urban living
Many people enjoy the excitement of city life. In the city, they are freed from the necessity of liking the people they live next to. They are selective with intimates. So many activities are within walking distance.

Urban farming
The decline of industrial cities like Detroit is being replaced by urban initiatives. Community gardens now stand on the sites once occupied by Victorian mansions, homes, and businesses.

Place of Residence and Social Relationships

Urban Living
Realities of Urban Living: Social networks no evidence that urban people

are disproportionately lonely, alienated, or estranged.

Neighborhood integration physical proximity is

no longer a primary basis of intimacy; family and friends remain intimates.

Quality of life cities are exciting and convenient.

They also have liabilities of noise, crime, and higher cost of living. Many opt for suburbs and small towns.

Place of Residence and Social Relationships

Suburban Living

Growth of suburbs;
Suburban problems:
1. weak governments 2. car dependence 3. social isolation crowded small lots; singles, childless, and empty nesters

Place of Residence and Social Relationships

Small Towns and Rural Living
About 17% of the nations population lives in rural areas or small towns. Some are mostly white, others African American, and still others Hispanic. Rural living ranges from the poorest to the wealthiest.

In desirable rural areas, good-paying jobs are scarce and housing expensive. Many rural families live in inexpensive trailers or manufactured homes.