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Electric Power Generation

1. ENERGY CONVERSION
2. INPUT ENERGY SOURCES
3. COMBUSTION
4. HEAT AND TEMPERATURE
5. COMBUSTION OF FOSSIL FUELS
6. GASIFICATION OF COAL
7. FUEL OIL
8. NATURAL GAS
9. OTHER FUELS
10. COMPARISON OF FUELS
11. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
12. THE FUEL CELL
13. NUCLEAR FUEL - NUCLEAR
1. ENERGY CONVERSION

consumer
source

fire Boiler/ Engine Shaft generator


fuel steam
furnace turbine turbine

Schematic Diagram of Energy


Conversion
Except for the source of heat they use to create
steam, nuclear and fossil power
plants are basically the same.
2. INPUT ENERGY SOURCES
————————————————————————————————
2.1 Hydro - Depends on availability, volume and head
(distance from the
intake to the water wheels).
2.2 Fossil Fuels - Typical Characteristics (Approximate Values)
Components in Percent
Fuel Btu/lb Carbon Hydrogen
Oxygen Sulphur Nitrogen Ash
————————————————————————————————
Wood 9,000 52.0 6.0 25.0
0.3 15.0 1.7
Coal Lignite 11,000 60.0 6.0 4.0
1.0 1.0 28.0
Oil 18,500 88.0 8.2 0.5 3.0
0.1 0.2
Natural Gas 22,000 69.0 23.5 1.5
0.3 5.7 0.0
2.3. Nuclear Fuels
Fuel Btu/lb
Uranium
Plutonium 38.7 billion
Thorium
2.4 Other Fuels
Fuel
Tar
Garbage Components may
vary widely, but the
Manure Heap Gas combustible
contents generally include
Aquatic & Land Plants carbon and
hydrogen as basic elements.
Biogases
Husks
2.5 Other Energy Sources
Geo-thermal
Wind Variable - from very large
Tides quantities to very small
Solar (Direct Sun Rays) quantities - Some not
Temperature Differences always available.
between Surface & Deep
Layers of Water Bodies
3. COMBUSTION
Elements, Molecules and Atoms

Illustrating Composition of Atoms & Molecules


Atomic and Molecular Weights

• Hydrogen (H) .............. 1


• Carbon (C) ................. 12
• Nitrogen (N) .............. 14
• Oxygen (O) ................ 16
• Sulphur (S) ................. 32
• 1 x 12 + 2 x 16 = 12 + 32 = 44
• that is, the molecular weight of carbon
dioxide ( CO2) is 44.
Chemical Reactions—Combustion
Equations
The principal chemical reactions of the combustion of fossil fuels are
• shown in the following equations expressed in symbols:
(1) Carbon to carbon monoxide 2C + O2 = 2CO

(2) Carbon to carbon dioxide, 2C + 2O2 = 2CO2

(3) Carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide 2CO + O2 = 2CO2

(4) Hydrogen to water 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O

(5) Sulphur to sulphur dioxide S + O2 = SO2

4.HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

Comparison of F & C Temperature Scales


Temperature of Combustion

Ignition Temperatures
5.COMBUSTION OF FOSSIL
FUELS
Classification of Coals
Ultimate Analysis of Coal Sample

Example, if the coal contained 5%


moisture, the heating value would be
14,614 x 0.95 or 13883 Btu.
6. GASIFICATION OF COAL

Variations of Gasification Process (Courtesy Power Engineering)


Comparison of Syngas and Coal
Components
(% volume)
7. FUEL OIL
specifications
• Specific Gravity .......................5 to 14 degrees
API
• Viscosity ...................................300 seconds
Saybolt at 122ฐF
• Btu .............................................Approx. 18,500
Btu per pound
• Water Content .........................Not more than 2.0
percent
• Sediment Content ...................Not more than 0.25
percent
8. NATURAL GAS
Natural gas almost always
accompanies petroleum and is released
when the pressure on the oil is released. The
gas consists mainly of light
hydrocarbons such as methane (CH4), ethane
(C2H6), propane (C3H8)j
butane (C4H10), and others, all of which are
volatile.
9.OTHER FUELS
• Vegetation, both land and aquatic; e.g.
bagasse from sugar cane,corn husks, etc.
• Tars as residue from coal and coke
operations; e.g. from manufactured
gas, steel making, etc.
• Garbage from industrial, commercial and
residential waste, etc.
• Gases from garbage piles and manure heaps,
etc.
10.COMPARISON OF FUELS
The decision as to what fuel should be burned
depends on the individual plant, the equipment and op
erating personnel, local conditions,and principally on the
price of the fuel. The price, in turn, may be affected b
y its availability, transportation and handling costs.
11.DISTRIBUTED
GENERATION
As the name implies, generating units of relatively small
dimensions
and capacity (from 5 kW to 5 MW) are installed at or near
the load
to be served and usually connected to the associated
distribution or
transmission system. These units can serve:
1. to supply base load
2. for peak shaving
3. to supply additional load instead of revamping of
existing supply
facilities
4. as independent producers of electricity in areas remote
from system sources, or where it may be mor
e economic to do so
12. THE FUEL CELL
THE FUEL CELL

• 1. Proton Exchange Membrane


• 2. Alkaline Fuel Cell
• 3. Phosphoric Fuel Cell
• 4. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
• 5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
13. NUCLEAR FUEL - NUCLEAR
REDUCTION
Uranium Isotopes

The Atom: Structure and Parts


Nuclear Fission

In chain reaction, neutrons emitted by fissioning


U-235 can
fission other U-235 atoms. When a U-238 atom
captures a neutron, it
most often transmutes to plutonium after
several days. Fissioning atoms
raise the temperature of the mass of which the
Neutrons thrown out by fission fragments may
(1) convert
fertile U-238 to fissionable Pu-239, (2) fission U
-235 nuclei, or (3) be
captured by nonfissionable or nonfertile material
s, or (4) escape from