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POWER SYSTEM PROTECTIVE RELAYING

Power System

Transducers (PT & CT)

Relay

Circuit Breaker

By: Engr. Ulysses Paguio(P.E.E.) BSEE79/MIT&BSECE80MIT

RELAYING FUNDAMENTALS
by: Engineer Ulysses Paguio

LIST OF DEVICE NUMBER

2 TIME DELAY STARTING OR CLOSING RELAY. 3 CHECKING OR INTERLOCKING RELAY. 21 DISTANCE RELAY. 25 SYNCHRONIZING OR SYNCHRONISM CHECK RELAY. 27 UNDERVOLTAGE RELAY. 30 ANNUCIATOR RELAY. 32 DIRECTIONAL POWER RELAY. 37 UNDERCURRENT OR UNDERPOWER RELAY.

40 FIELD FAILURE RELAY. 46 REVERSE PHASE OR PHASE BALANCE CURRENT RELAY. 49 MACHINE OR TRANSFORMER THERMAL RELAY. 50 INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT OR RATE OF RISE RELAY. 51 AC TIME OVERCURRENT RELAY. 52 AC CIRCUIT BREAKER. 52A CIRCUIT BREAKER AUXILLIARY SWITCH NORMALLY OPEN. 52B CIRCUIT BREAKER AUXILLIARY SWITCH NORMALLY CLOSED. 55 POWER FACTOR RELAY. 56 FIELD APPLICATION RELAY. 59 OVERVOLTAGE RELAY. 60 VOLTAGE OR CURRENT BALANCE RELAY

64 EARTH FAULT PROTECTIVE RELAY. 67 AC DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT RELAY. 68 BLOCKING RELAY. 74 ALARM RELAY. 76 DC OVERCURRENT RELAY. 78 PHASE ANGLE MEASURING OR OUT OF STEP PROTECTIVE RELAY. 79 AC RECLOSING RELAY. 81 FREQUENCY RELAY. 83 AUTOMATIC SELECTIVE CONTROL OR TRANSFER RELAY. 85 CARRIER OR PILOT WIRE RECEIVE RELAY. 86 LOCKING OUT RELAY. 87 DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTIVE RELAY.

LEGENDS
RESIDUAL GROUND OVERCURRENT RELAY 0.5 2.5 A. SUDDEN PRESSURE RELAY. AUXILLIARY RELAY FOR SUDDEN PRESSURE. RECLOSING RELAY, 3 SHOT DC OPERATED TIMER. TRIPPING & LOCKOUT RELAY. BUS DIFFERENTIAL RELAY, HIGH SPEED, HIGH IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE UNIT WITH LOW IMPEDANCE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNIT. 87T TRANSFORMER BANK DIFFERENTIAL RELAY, PERCENTAGE, 2 RESTRAINTS. 51N 63 63X 79 86 87B

LEGENDS
87G RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT RELAY. 94 AUXILLIARY TRIPPING RELAY. A AMMETER KWH BILLING KILOWATT HOUR METER W/ DEMAND INDICATOR. VAR VARMETER V VOLTMETER W WATTMETER AS AMMETER SWITCH VS VOLTMETER SWITCH 67 DUAL POLARIZED, TIME & INSTANTANEOUS GROUND DIRECTIONAL GT OVERCURRENT RELAY. 12 ZONE PACKAGE, MHO CHARACTERISTICS, COMPENSATOR DISTANCE RELAY Z-1 (ZONE 1). 21 ZONE PACKAGED, MHO CHARACTERISTICS WITH OFFSET OPTION, Z-2 COMPENSATOR DISTANCE RELAY (ZONE 2).

LEGENDS
21 Z-3 - ZONE PACKAGED, MHO CHARACTERISTICS WITH OFFSET OPTION, COMPENSATOR DISTANCE RELAY (ZONE 3). 50H HIGH SET NONDIRECTIONAL INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT RELAY. 2 TOW ZONE TIMING AUXILLIARY RELAY (STARTING OR CLOSING). 27 UNDERVOLTAGE RELAY, 115 VOLTS. 27X UNDERVOLTAGE TIMING RELAY FOR TRANSFER SCHEME. 50 INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT RELAYS. 50-51 PHASE OVERCURRENT RELAY WITH INSTANTANEOUS UNIT 1.0 12 A (6 -14 A ITT). 51G TRANSFORMER NEUTRAL GROUND OVERCURRENT RELAY 0.5 2.5 A.

PRINCIPLES OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING

Power System Protection

Part 1:

Electric Power System

Electricity is generated at a power plant (1), voltage is stepped-up for transmission (2). energy travels along a transmission line to the area where the power is needed (3). voltage is decreased or stepped-down, at another substation (4), and a distribution power line (5) carries that electricity until it reaches a home or business (6).

Power System

Delivery Substation
A B

Delivery Substation
Backbone Looped Lines

Distribution Radial Lines

Power System Protection

INCOMING 115kV LINE 1 Bus No. 1

INCOMING 115kV LINE 2

LEGEND: Initial Ultimate

115KV Switchyard

Bus No. 2 Bank #1 Bank #2 Bank #3

83 MVA PXF with OLTC

34.5KV Switchyard

34.5kV switchgear

No. 1

F1

F2

F3

F4
7.2 MVAR Capacitor Bank

Bus tie

F1

F2

F3

F4

7.2 MVAR Capacitor Bank

Bus tie

F1

F2

F3

F4

7.2 MVAR Capacitor Bank

TYPICAL DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION Single Line Diagram

What is Power System Protection?


also known as Protective Relaying branch of Electric Power Engineering Science, Art and Skill in applying and setting protective relays & devices.

What is a protective relay?


Protective relays are devices which monitor power system conditions and operate to quickly and accurately isolate faults or dangerous conditions. A well designed protective system can limit damage to equipment, as well as minimize the extent of associated service interruption.

Purpose of System Protection


To prevent injury to personnel To minimize damage to system components To limit the extent and duration of service interruption

Components of Power System Protection


Relays Circuit Breakers Transducers Tripping and Auxiliary Supplies

Components of Power System Protection


Decides whether system quantities are normal or abnormal (Brain of the System Protection)

Power System

Transducers (PT & CT)

Relay

Circuit Breaker

These devices change electrical quantities to level relays can use, i.e., 5 amperes, 115 volts

* If quantities are normal, no signal is sent to breaker * If quantities are abnormal, signal is sent to breaker to trip

Components of Power System Protection


Sensor (Instrument Transformers)

Feedback Signals

Relay Power Circuit Breaker

Components of Power System Protection

CB
Transmission Line Trip Coil

CT

Station Battery Relay Contacts

Abnormalities in Power Systems


Overcurrent (overload, short circuit, open circuit) Ground Potential (ungrounded equipment, touch potentials, step potentials) Surge Voltages (lightning strokes, switching surges, harmonics)

Frequency of Types of Faults


Type of Fault SLG LL DLG 3L % Occurrence 85 8 5 2 or less

Frequency of Fault Occurrence


Equipment Overhead lines Cables Switchgear Transformers CTs and PTs Control Equipment Miscellaneous % of Total 50 10 15 12 2 3 8

Factors Which Influence Design of a Protective System


Reliability Dependability Security Sensitivity Selectivity Speed Economics Experience Industry Standards

Factors Which Influence Design of a Protective System


Reliability The level of assurance that the relay will function as intended. Reliability denotes: Dependability - certainty of correct operation Security - assurance against incorrect operation

Factors Which Influence Design of a Protective System


Sensitivity Relaying equipment must be sufficiently sensitive so that it will operate when required Must discriminate normal from abnormal conditions.

Factors Which Influence Design of a Protective System


Selectivity Performance of protective devices to select between those conditions for which prompt operation and those for which no operation, or time delay operation is required. Isolate faulted circuit resulting in minimum interruptions. Implemented through Zone of Protection

Factors Which Influence Design of a Protective System


Speed Remove a fault from the power system as quickly as possible Classification: Instantaneous - no intentional delay High Speed - less than 3 cycles Time-Delay - intentional time delay

Factors Which Influence Design of a Protective System


Economics Maximum protection at minimum cost the cost of installation, operation, and maintenance of the protection system which must be weighted against potential losses due to equipment damage or service interruption.

Factors Which Influence Design of a Protective System


Experience History and anticipation of the types of trouble likely to be encountered: Actual Relay Performance Nature of Faults Operation and Maintenance

Factors Which Influence Design of a Protective System


Industry Standards
The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and other organization provides industry standards through ANSI or IEC. These include specific standards for many applications. ANSI-C37.90-1989 Relays and Relay System Associated with Electric Power Apparatus IEEE STD 242-1975 Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power System

Principles of Protective Relaying

Part 2:

Development of Protective Relays

Electro-mechanical relay Solid-state relay Digital relay

Electro-mechanical Relay:

( 1st Generation )

The most commonly used Uses the induction disc principle (watthour meter) Provides individual phase protection

Electro-mechanical Relay:

( 1st Generation )

Spring

Time Adjustment: Tension controlled Contacts Sensing Coil

Operator Rod

Core
Disc

Electro-mechanical Relay:

( 1st Generation )

Critical Components: Composition of the rotating disc & Coil determines the torque produced in the disc per unit current. Rotating & Tripping mechanism Lubrication & alignments. Spring & tension adjusting mechanism Fatigue & Temperature dependence.

Design Approach: Periodic re-calibration & maintenance Draw-out connections. High burden CT, low sensitivity at higher currents.

( 2nd Generation )
Characteristic curve is obtained through use of RC timing circuits No moving parts Used to retrofit electro-mechanical relays Fast reset Less maintenance

Static Relay:

( 2nd Generation )
Set Value
Comparator

Static Relay:

Timing Circuit

Output

AC - DC Conversion

RC Based Timing

Current Sampling From CTs

( 2nd Generation )
Critical Components: RC Timing circuit. Temperature dependence Low repeatability

Static Relay:

Time

( 2nd Generation )
Critical Components: (continued) AC/DC Conversion. Offset problem Effects of harmonics & Noise

Static Relay:

( 2nd Generation )
Design Approach:
Periodic re-calibration & maintenance Draw-out connections. RC & LC Based filters - Slow tripping actions

Static Relay:

Without Filter

With RC Filter

( 3rd Generation )
Computer-based-with CPU Selectable characteristic curves and protection functions Metering and control functions Event and/or disturbance recording Remote communication Self-monitoring All in

Digital Relay:

( MicroProcessor Based )
Crystal
CPU

Digital Relay:

Micro-processor
Data & Address Bus
Memory EPROM Output Control

Control Relay Contacts

AC - DC Conversion
A B C E

Current Sampling

( MicroProcessor Based )
Design Principle: AC/ DC Rectification Analog to Digital Conversion
A to D

Digital Relay:

( MicroProcessor Based )
Critical Components: High Frequency Bus Susceptible to EMI/ RFI. AC/ DC & Digital Conversion Effect of Offset/ Harmonics, etc. CPU RAM

Digital Relay:

EPROM
A/D Hi-Freq Bus

( MicroProcessor Based )
Critical Components: High Frequency Bus Susceptible to EMI/ RFI. AC/ DC & Digital Conversion Effect of Offset/ Harmonics, etc.

Digital Relay:

Noise A to D

( MicroProcessor Based )
Design Approach: RC & LC Based filters Slow tripping actions Shielding & Watch-dog timers Problem reduced not eliminated

Digital Relay:

May reset randomly


CPU RAM EPROM Watch DOG

A/D

( MicroController Based )
Crystal
-controller Output Control

Digital Relay:

Relay Contacts

Steady state data

AC - DC Conversion
A B C E

Current Sampling

( MicroController Based )
Design Principle: Lesser no. of components, hence less chance of failure. All necessary peripherals in-built into the chip. More functions can be built in a compact space.

Digital Relay:

P
Controller RAM EPROM Decoding logic A2D Converter I/O Ports Output driver

C
Controller A2D Converter Output driver

( MicroController Based )
Design Principle: Absence of exposed high frequency bus All necessary peripherals in-built into the chip. Cost effective technology appropriate for MV applications

Digital Relay:

CPU
RAM EPROM

A/D

( Numerical Relay )
To Outside world Relay Contacts

Digital Relay:

Crystal

-controller

Serial Port Output Control

Steady state data

Direct AC Sampling

Current Sampling

( Numerical Relay )
Design Principle: AC attenuation Analog to Digital Conversion Numeric filtering & measurement

Digital Relay:

A to D

( Numerical Relay )
Design Principle: (continued) Digital Signal Processing concepts
Time Domain Representation The normal representation i.e. with time in the X axis The signal is sampled periodically, a different value obtained every time, thus a series of numbers are needed to represent a signal. Amplitude
Disadvantages No Phase Angle information. No Frequency information.

Digital Relay:

Time

( Numerical Relay )
Design Principle: (continued)

Digital Relay:

Digital Signal Processing concepts


Frequency Domain Representation X Axis now represents frequency, instead of time. Thus a pure sine-wave can be represented with only a single numeric. Amplitude

50Hz

Frequency

( Numerical Relay )
Design Principle: (continued) Digital Signal Processing concepts
Fourier Analysis Any signal can be represented by infinite Nos. of Sine waves
Any Arbitrary Signal

Digital Relay:

+
Fundamental (50Hz). 2nd Harmonic (100 )

( Numerical Relay )
Design Principle: (continued) Digital Signal Processing concepts
Fourier Analysis X Axis now represents frequency, instead of time. Thus a arbitrary signal can be represented with a set of numbers. Amplitude

Digital Relay:

50Hz

100Hz

Frequency

( Numerical Relay )
Features: Very quick operation. In-built immunity to DC & harmonics (tuned characteristics) Possibility of providing additional filtering or inhibiting actions without sacrificing speed of

Digital Relay:

response.
Possibility of disturbance recording & thus, post-mortem analysis of fault & relay behavior. Highly stable & repeatable performance. Very less no. of components.

( Numerical Relay )
Additional Features: Communication to external laptop/ computer. Large number of functions that that can be programmed in a single enclosure, instead of a

Digital Relay:

combination of multiple discreet relays.


Possibility of using non-conventional transducers for input sensing. Eg. Hall effect

Current Transducers.
A Bay-level controller instead of just a protection relay.

Comparisons of Different type of Relays


Characteristic Electromechanical Static Microprocessor based MicroController based Numerical

Speed of response
Timing Accuracy Size Draw-out required CT Burden Reset Time Functions Maintenance Deterioration due to frequent operations Reliability SCADA Compatibility

Slow
Temp. Dependant Bulky Required High Very High Single function Frequent Yes High No

Fast
Temp. Dependant Small Required Low Less Single function Frequent No Low No

Fast
Stable Small Not required Low Less Multi function Low No Low Possible

Fast
Stable Small Not required Low Less Multi function Low No High Possible

Very Fast
Stable Very Compact Not required Low Less Multi function Very Low No High Yes

Zones of Protection

Regions (zones) of power system that can be protected adequately with fault recognition and removal resulting in isolation of a minimum amount of equipment. Requirements: All power system elements must be encompassed by at least one zone Zones of protection must overlap to prevent any system element from being unprotected (no blind spots).

Zones of Protection

3
1 5

52 87B 50/51 52 87B 50/51

2 G

CT REQUIREMENTS FOR OVERLAPPING ZONES

Zones of Protection

Overlapping zones of protection

Zones of Protection
3 5 1 2
G
1 - Bus Protection

2 - Generator Protection 3 - Subtrans Line Protection


4 - Feeder Protection 5 - Transformer Protection

Feeder Protection

Fault

Bus Protection

Fault

Transformer Protection

Fault

Subtransmission Line Protection

Fault

Generator Protection

Fault

Primary and Back-up Protection


Primary Protection - Main protection system for a given zone of protection Back-up Protection - Alternate protection system in case the primary protection fails

Back-up Protection

Local Back-up - Alternate protection at the same substation when its main protection fails. Remote Back-up - Alternate protection at the remote substations in case the main protection fails.

Local Back-up Protection


B1 B4 B2 B5 B3 B6

B7 L1

B8

B9

F1 L2

Fault F1 Main: B8,B9, L2 remote protection Local Backup: If B9 fails, trips B6 and B3 If B8 fails, trips B7 and sends signal to trip L1 remote protection

Remote Back-up Protection


B1 B2 F1 F3 F2 B7 B8

B5
B3 B4

B6 B9 B10

Fault F1 Main: B5,B6 Backup: B1,B3,B8,B10 Fault F3 Main: B3,B4 Backup: B1,B6

Fault F2 Main: B2,B4,B5 Backup: B1,B3,B6

Methods of Discrimination
Current Magnitude

100 A

60 A

20 A

Time

1.0 sec

0.35 sec

Inst.

Methods of Discrimination
Current Direction

Distance Measurement Z = V/I ohms

Methods of Discrimination
Time and Current Magnitude
Time

Current

Methods of Discrimination
Time and Distance
Time
Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone 3

Distance

Methods of Discrimination
Current Balance

87T

Methods of Discrimination
Phase Comparison

Types Of Protective Relays

Overcurrent Relays - are operated when


not directional in nature.
Bus

the current passing to the relay exceeds a preset value. They are

51

Radial Line Protection


A B C
CT

52

51N 51 Phase Relays Ground Relay

Types Of Protective Relays


Directional Overcurrent Relays - are operated
when the current passing to it exceeds a preset value but with the addition of another condition and that is provided that the direction of the fault is correct
A
1 2
I @ CB2

B
3
I @ CB3

Directional Overcurrent Relays


I @ CB4

3
I @ CB3

So for a fault just after CB4 a directional over-current relay at CB3 will see the fault in reverse while at CB4 the fault is forward looking thus it will trip CB4 only to isolate the fault

The scheme is now selective and a little secure

Types Of Protective Relays


I @ CB4

1 G1

3
I @ CB3

4 G2

Suppose G1 generation becomes stronger, the directional overcurrent relay of CB2 might see the fault. Therefore, the scheme is now not secure.

The use of distance relay is preferred.

Types Of Protective Relays


Distance Relays
Measures the impedance of the line it being proportional to the distance of the line from the substation hence the name implies. Widely used protection scheme for DoubleEnded Transmission Line from 69 kV up to as high as 500 kV by Transco & MERALCO.

Types Of Protective Relays


Differential Protection
Differential Relay A relay that by its design or application is intended to respond to the difference between incoming and outgoing electrical quantities associated with the protected apparatus.

Input

Output

Transformer Protection

CT
PCB

50/51

86T

POWER TRANSFORMER

87T

TRIPS AND LOCKS-OUT HS AND LS PCB

PCB CT

151G

Busbar Protection

Typical Bus Arrangements: Single bus Double bus, double breaker Breaker-and-a-half Main and transfer buses with single breaker Ring bus

Busbar Protection
Bus differential connection (single-bus)
87B 86B TRIPS AND LOCKSOUT ALL BREAKERS CONNECTED TO BUS

BUS

NOTE: All CTs connected to the bus differential must have same ratios.

Differential Protection Load or External Fault Case


Primary Element 600/5 600/5

600A

CT

5A

5A

CT

600A

Relay

0A

5A

5A

Differential Protection Internal Fault Case


Fault 600/5 600A CT 5A 5A Primary Element 600/5 CT 600A

Relay

10A

5A

5A

Relaying Philosophy

Part 3:

Power System

Delivery Substation B A

Delivery Substation Looped Lines (System Backbone)


C

Power Transformer 34.5kV Bus Distribution Radial Lines Capacitor Bank

Standard Protection

Radial Lines Looped Lines Power Transformer Bus Bar Capacitor Bank

Radial Line Protection


ELECTRO-MECHANICAL OVERCURRENT RELAY
BUS TARGET INST.
3 50 51 50N 51N

TARGET TIME

CT

52

43R

79

LEGEND:
CT

50 INSTANTANEOUS, PHASE OVERCURRENT RELAY 51 TIME, PHASE OVERCURRENT RELAY 50N INSTANTANEOUS, GROUND OVERCURRENT RELAY 51N TIME, GROUND OVERCURRENT RELAY 43R RECLOSER SWITCH 79 AUTO RECLOSER RELAY 52 POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER CT CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Radial Line Protection


A B C
CT

Four (4) units of single-phase overcurrent relays are needed to protect a feeder

52

Ia Ib In=Ia+Ib+Ic

Ic

Ground Relay

Phase Relays

Looped Line Protection


BUS

21 CT

21G

79

85

CT

67

67N

52

43R

METERING

BUS PROTECTION

LEGEND: 21 PHASE DISTANCE RELAY 21G GROUND DISTANCE RELAY 67 PHASE DIRECTIONAL OC RELAY 67N GROUND DIRECTIONAL OC RELAY 43R RECLOSER SWITCH 79 AUTO RECLOSER RELAY 85 TELEPROTECTION 52 POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER CT CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Looped Line Protection


Distance Relay A relay that measures the impedance of the line Principle of Operation ZLINE
IFAULT

FAULT

VFAULT

IFAULT = VFAULT / ZLINE


X ZLINE

Therefore: ZLINE = VFAULT / IFAULT ZRELAY = ZLINE * CTR/PTR


Impedance Relay is non-directional

Looped Line Protection


Types of Distance Relay
Impedance - Used mainly as a fault detector in most of micro-processor based relay. Reactance - Needs the supervision of mho to obtain its directionality. Mho - Most widely used distance characteristic curve due to its inherent directionality. Quadrilateral - Made possible by combining reactance type principle rotated along different axes. Composite - Combined mho and quadrilateral characteristic.

Looped Line Protection


Types of Distance Relay
X X

Zone 2 X Zone 1

REACTANCE

MHO

Looped Line Protection


Types of Distance Relay
X X

R R

QUAD

COMPOSITE

Looped Line Protection


Standard Protection Mho Distance Relay, 21 for phase-phase or 3-phase faults Quad Distance Relay, 21G for line-to-ground faults to cover arc resistance Phase Directional OC Relay, 67 back-up for phasephase or 3-phase faults Ground Directional OC Relay, 67N back-up for lineto-ground faults Teleprotection, 85 - POTT (Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip) Auto-Reclosing, 79 instantaneous (300msec), single shot

Looped Line Protection


Implementing Distance Relay Characteristic with Time Graded Scheme also called Step Distance Scheme
Z3 Z2 Z1

Z3 Z2 Time Delayed

Time Delayed

Time = 1.0 sec

Z1 Instantaneous
A

Time = 0.35 sec


B C D

Time = 0.0 sec

21

Relay Location

Looped Line Protection


Distance Relay - First Zone Setting
21

21

No intentional delay-for speed Must under-reach end of the line for selectivity Typically set for 80-90% of line impedance

Looped Line Protection


Distance Relay - Second Zone Setting
21

21

Time delay of 0.35 second Must over-reach end of the line Must not over-reach the Zone 1 of adjacent line Typically set for 100% ZL1 + 20-50% of shortest adjacent line impedance

Looped Line Protection


Distance Relay 3rd Zone Setting

ZL3 ZL2 ZL1

Time delay is 1.0 second Typically set for 100% ZL1 + 100% ZL2 (longest) + 0% - 120% ZL3 (shortest) Relay setting must be higher than the load impedance.

Looped Line Protection


90% of ZL = instant A B 90% of ZL = instant 120% of ZL = 0.35 s
What if the fault occurs as shown?

21

21

On this condition CB B will trip instantaneously via Zone 1 operation while CB A will trip after 0.35 second via Zone 2. This is not good since the fault has to be cleared immediately.

So there is a need to solve this problem to cover the protection of the remaining 10% of the line!

Looped Line Protection


Communication-Aided Protection
Z1 = 90% of ZL = instant Z2 = 120% of ZL = 0.35 s

21 B

A 21
Z1 = 90% of ZL = instant Z2 = 120% of ZL = 0.35 s

TRIP Z2
XMTR A

TRIP

XMTR B

Z2

AND
RCVR A

AND

RCVR B

Looped Line Protection


Communication-Aided Protection
Z1 = 90% of ZL = instant Z2 = 120% of ZL = 0.35 s

21 B

A 21
Z1 = 90% of ZL = instant Z2 = 120% of ZL = 0.35 s

No TRIP Z2
XMTR A

No TRIP

XMTR B

Z2

AND
RCVR A

AND

RCVR B

Looped Line Protection


Back-up Directional Overcurrent Relay
67 67N

67 67N

Relay is set at fault at the adjacent bus 3-phase fault for 67 while SLG fault for 67N Time is 0.70 second Instantaneous unit is blocked (distance relay must initiate first the tripping) No auto-reclosure when tripping initiated by back-up protection

Looped Line Protection


Auto-Reclosing
With Auto-Reclosing Zone 1 Tripping Zone 2 Communication-Aided Tripping Without Auto-Reclosing Zone 2, Zone 3 or Zone 4 (reverse zone) Tripping Back-up Protection Tripping Note: Auto-reclosing is single-shot and 300 msec time delay to give time for the PCB to extinguish the fault

Transformer Protection Overheating


Normal maximum working temp. = 95 C 8-10 C rise will halve the life of the transformer.

Overcurrent
Fuses for distribution transformer Overcurrent relaying for 5MVA and above Characteristics: Must be below the damage curve Must be above magnetizing inrush

Transformer Protection
Differential - 87T Overload - 51 Back-up Ground - 151G Overheating - Thermal Relay Gas Detection - Buchholz Relay Sudden Pressure - Pressure Relief Valve

Transformer Protection
CT 52 50/51

86T 87T

POWER TRANSFORMER

LEGEND:
52 CT 151G 87T TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL RELAY 86T AUXILIARY LOCK-OUT RELAY 50 INSTANTANEOUS OC RELAY 151G BACK-UP GROUND RELAY 52 POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER CT CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Transformer Protection
Differential Relay A relay that by its design or application is intended to respond to the difference between incoming and outgoing electrical quantities associated with the protected apparatus.

Transformer Protection
Percentage Differential Protection
Constant Percent Slope Characteristic Differential Relay
K = 40 %

Operate I1-I2

K = 25 %

K = 10 %

Min. Pick-up Restraint = (I1+I2)/2

Transformer Protection
Percentage Differential Protection
Variable Percent Slope Characteristic Differential Relay

Operate I1-I2

TRIP ZONE

Slope 2

Pick-up

Slope 1

NO TRIP ZONE

Restraint = (I1+I2)/2

Busbar Protection
Typical Bus Arrangements: Single bus Double bus, double breaker Breaker-and-a-half Main and transfer buses with single breaker Ring bus

Busbar Protection
Bus differential connection (single-bus)

87B 86B TRIPS AND LOCKSOUT ALL BREAKERS CONNECTED TO BUS

BUS

NOTE: All CTs connected to the bus differential must have same ratios.

Busbar Protection
Bus differential connection (double-bus, doubleTRIPS AND LOCKSOUT ALL BREAKERS breaker) CONNECTED TO
BUS 1 86B 87B

87B
86B

TRIPS AND LOCKSOUT ALL BREAKERS CONNECTED TO BUS 2

BUS 1

BUS 2

Busbar Protection
Bus differential connection (breaker-and-a-half)
86B TRIPS AND LOCKS-OUT ALL BREAKERS CONNECTED TO BUS 1 87B

87B 86B TRIPS AND LOCKS-OUT ALL BREAKERS CONNECTED TO BUS 2

BUS 1

BUS 2

Busbar Protection
Bus differential connection (main and transfer bus)
BUS 1 BUS 2

TRIPS AND LOCKS-OUT ALL BREAKERS CONNECTED TO BUS 1

86B1 87B1 87B2 BUS IMAGING RELAY 86B2


TRIPS AND LOCKS-OUT ALL BREAKERS CONNECTED TO BUS 2

Busbar Protection
Bus differential connection (ring bus)

NOTE: No bus differential protection is needed. The busses are covered by line or transformer protection.

Busbar Protection
Two Busbar Protection Schemes: Low Impedance - using time overcurrent relays

inexpensive but affected by CT saturation. low voltage application; 34.5kV and below

High Impedance - using overvoltage relays


(this scheme loads the CTs with a high impedance to force the differential current through the CTs instead of the relay operating coil.) expensive but provides higher protection security. 115kV and above voltage application or some 34.5kV bus voltages which require high protection