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Introduction to Anatomy

IPG Kampus Perempuan Melayu PJM3106 (PJ ELEKTIF)

Anatomy
Gross anatomy: the study of body structures visible to the naked eye (without a microscope) Microscopic anatomy:
Cytology: Analysis of the internal structures of individual cells Histology: examination of tissues (groups of specialized cells that work together to perform a specific function.
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Anatomical Position
Anytime you describe structures relative to one another, you must assume this standard position: Body erect Feet slightly apart Palms facing forward Thumbs point away from body

Anterior Landmarks

Posterior Landmarks

Anatomical Locations
Abdominal: abdominal region Acromial: the point of the shoulder Antebrachial: forearm Antecubital: anterior surface of the elbow Axillary: armpit Brachial: upper arm Buccal: cheek of the face Calcaneal: heel of the foot Carpal: wrist Cephalic: head

Anatomical Locations
Cervical: neck Deltoid: round part of the shoulder Digital: fingers and toes Dorsum: back Femoral: thigh Frontal: forehead Gluteal: buttocks Hallux: big toe Inguinal: groin Lumbar: lower back Mammary: breast

Anatomical Locations
Mental: chin Nasal: Nose Occipital: base of the skull Olecranal: elbow Oral: mouth Orbital: bony eye socket Otic: ear Palmar: palm of hand Patellar: Kneecap Pedal: Foot

Anatomical Locations
Pelvic: pelvis region Perineal: area between anus and external genitals Plantar: sole of foot Pollex: thumb Popliteal: behind the knee Pubic: genital region Sacral: lower back between the hips Scapular: shoulder blade Tarsal: ankle Thoracic: chest Vertebral: spine
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Body Orientation and Direction


These are relative positions Proximal/distal
Used to describe locations on the arms and legs GI tract

Medial/lateral
Medial is closer to the midline Farther away from the midline

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Body Orientation and Direction


Dorsal: Back Ventral: Front Superior or Cephalad is toward the head Inferior or Caudal is toward the feet Anterior: most forward Posterior: toward the backside
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Planes of the Body

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Dorsal Body Cavity


Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system Contains Brain and Spinal Cord

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Cavities
Thoracic Cavity Heart & Lungs Subdivided into the mediastinum and plural cavities Lower border is the diaphragm Abdominal Cavity Stomach, Liver, Intestines Pelvic Cavity Reproductive organs Bladder, Rectum

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Serous Membranes
Serous Membranes have two layers
1. Parietal serosa lines internal body walls 1. Visceral serosa covers the internal organs Serous fluid separates the serosae
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Serous Membranes

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Serous Membranes of the Heart

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Quadrants
RUQ
Liver

LUQ
Spleen

RLQ
Appendix

LLQ
Sigmoid colon
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Abdominopelvic Regions

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The End

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