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Positive-displacement pump

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Principle of Operation:
Check valves in the suction and discharge ports allow flow in only one direction.

Section

Discharge

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Principle of Operation:
During the discharge stroke, the piston moves to the right, seating the check valve in the suction line and opening the check valve in the discharge line.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Principle of Operation:
During the suction stroke, the piston moves to the left, causing the check valve in the suction line between the reservoir and the pump cylinder to open and admit water from the reservoir.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Principle of Operation:
The volume of liquid moved by the pump in one cycle (one suction stroke and one discharge stroke) is equal to the change in the liquid volume of the cylinder as the piston moves from its farthest left position to its farthest right position.

Principle of Operation

BROAD CLASSIFICATIONS

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Direct-Acting and Indirect-Acting Pumps: Direct-acting pumps have a plunger on the liquid (pump) end that is directly driven by the pump rod (also the piston rod or extension thereof) and carries the piston of the power end.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Direct-Acting and Indirect-Acting Pumps: Indirect-acting pumps are driven by means of a beam or linkage connected to and actuated by the power piston rod of a separate reciprocating engine.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Simplex and Duplex Pumps: A simplex pump, sometimes referred to as a single pump, is a pump having a single liquid (pump) cylinder.

A duplex pump is the equivalent of two simplex pumps placed side by side on the same foundation.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Simplex and Duplex Pumps:

The driving of the pistons of a duplex pump is arranged in such a manner that when one piston is on its upstroke the other piston is on its down stroke, and vice versa. This arrangement doubles the capacity of the duplex pump compared to a simplex pump of comparable design.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Simplex and Duplex Pumps:

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Single-Acting and Double-Acting Pumps: A single-acting pump is one that takes a suction, filling the pump cylinder on the stroke in only one direction, called the suction stroke, and then forces the liquid out of the cylinder on the return stroke, called the discharge stroke.

A double-acting pump is one that, as it fills one end of the liquid cylinder, is discharging liquid from the other end of the cylinder.

On the return stroke, the end of the cylinder just emptied is filled, and the end just filled is emptied.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Single-Acting and Double-Acting Pumps: One possible arrangement for single-acting and double-acting pumps is shown :

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Power Pumps: Power pumps convert rotary motion to low speed reciprocating motion by reduction gearing, a crankshaft, connecting rods and crossheads.

Plungers or pistons are driven by the crosshead drives. Rod and piston construction, similar to duplex double-acting steam pumps, is used by the liquid ends of the low pressure, higher capacity units.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Power Pumps: The higher pressure units are normally single-acting plungers, and usually employ three (triplex) plungers. Three or more plungers substantially reduce flow pulsations relative to simplex and even duplex pumps.

Power pumps typically have high efficiency and are capable of developing very high pressures. They can be driven by either electric motors or turbines.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Power Pumps: They are relatively expensive pumps and can rarely be justified on the basis of efficiency over centrifugal pumps. However, they are frequently justified over steam reciprocating pumps where continuous duty service is needed due to the high steam requirements of direct-acting steam pumps.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Power Pumps: In general, the effective flow rate of reciprocating pumps decreases as the viscosity of the fluid being pumped increases because the speed of the pump must be reduced.

In contrast to centrifugal pumps, the differential pressure generated by reciprocating pumps is independent of fluid density. It is dependent entirely on the amount of force exerted on the piston.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Piston/Plunger Pump: A tight-fitting piston in a closed cylinder or a loose-fitting plunger acting as a displacer are familiar versions of the common reciprocating pump.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Piston/Plunger Pump: Piston/plunger pumps have the following characteristics:

Capable of almost any pressure, and of large flow capacity.


Capable of almost any pressure, and of large flow capacity.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Piston/Plunger Pump: Piston/plunger pumps have the following characteristics:

NPSH requirements for these pumps are more complex than for rotary or kinetic pumps due to the pulsed nature of the suction.
Are expensive in large sizes. Easily controlled by stroke adjustment or variable speed.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Piston/Plunger Pump: Advantages include the following:

The ability to develop pressures in a single stage. High reliability.


The ability to develop pressures in a single stage.

high

high

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Piston/Plunger Pump: Disadvantages include the following:

The necessity of slow speed operation The necessity of slow speed operation

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Diaphragm Pump: Fluid is transferred by the pressure of a diaphragm that flexes to form a cavity that is filled by liquid.

A diaphragm pump has the following characteristics:

Transfers virtually any liquid. Designs can temperatures. Designs can temperatures. handle handle high high

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Reciprocating pumps:
Diaphragm pump : The diaphragm pump is a lightweight portable positive displacement pump commonly used to pump liquids, slurries or sludge's.

The reciprocating diaphragm pump contains diaphragms which are driven forwards and backwards by a compressed air supply.
The diaphragm forms a barrier between the fluid and the mechanical workings of the pump. The reciprocating movement of the diaphragm: draws liquid into the pump through the suction valve on the suction stroke forces liquid out through the discharge valve at high pressure during the discharge stroke.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:
Rotary pumps displace a known quantity of liquid with each revolution of the pump shaft Rotary pumps are used in a wide range of applications -- liquids, slurries, and pastes.

They can accommodate thin to high viscosity liquids, high vacuums to high pressures, and minute doses to high capacities.
Rotary pumps are available in a number of different pumping principles, each with its own unique set of advantages and disadvantages.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:
The following principles comprise the majority, but not all of the rotary pump market. Internal Gear External Gear Lobe Vane

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps: Internal Gear Pump Overview


Internal gear pumps are exceptionally versatile. While they are often used on thin liquids such as solvents and fuel oil, they excel at efficiently pumping thick liquids such as asphalt, chocolate, and adhesives. The useful viscosity range of an internal gear pump is from 1cPs to over 1,000,000cP. pump has a wide temperature range as well, handling liquids up to 7500F . The internal gear pump is non-pulsing, self-priming, and can run dry for short periods. They're also bi-rotational, meaning that the same pump can be used to load and unload vessels. Because internal gear pumps have only two moving parts, they are reliable, simple to operate, and easy to maintain.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps: Internal Gear Pump Overview


How Internal Gear Pumps Work 1. Liquid enters the suction port between the rotor (large exterior gear) and idler (small interior gear) teeth.

2. Liquid travels through the pump between the teeth of the "gear-within-a-gear" principle.
3. The pump head is now nearly flooded, just prior to forcing the liquid out of the discharge port. 4. Rotor and idler teeth mesh completely to form a seal equidistant from the discharge and suction ports. This seal forces the liquid out of the discharge port.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps: Internal Gear Pump Overview


Advantages

Disadvantages

Only two moving parts Only one stuffing box Non-pulsating discharge Excellent for high-viscosity liquids Constant and even discharge regardless of pressure conditions Can be made to operate with one direction of flow with either rotation Low NPSH required Single adjustable end clearance Easy to maintain

Usually requires moderate speeds Medium pressure limitations One bearing runs in the product pumped Overhung load on shaft bearing

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps: Internal Gear Pump Overview (Applications)


Common internal gear pump applications include, but are not limited to: All varieties of fuel oil and lube oil Resins and Polymers Alcohols and solvents Asphalt, Bitumen, and Tar Polyurethane foam (Isocyanate and polyol) Food products such as corn syrup, chocolate, and peanut butter Paint, inks, and pigments Soaps and surfactants Glycol

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps: Internal Gear Pump Overview


(Materials Of Construction / Configuration Options)
Externals (head, casing, bracket) - Cast iron, ductile iron, steel, stainless steel, Alloy 20, and higher alloys.
Internals (rotor, idler) - Cast iron, ductile iron, steel, stainless steel, Alloy 20, and higher alloys. Bushing - Carbon graphite, bronze, silicon carbide, tungsten carbide, ceramic, colomony, and other specials materials as needed. Shaft Seal - Lip seals, component mechanical seals, industry-standard cartridge mechanical seals, gas barrier seals, magnetically-driven pumps. Packing - Impregnated packing, if seal not required.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps: External Gear Pump Overview


External gear pumps are a popular pumping principle and are often used as lubrication pumps in machine tools, in fluid power transfer units, and as oil pumps in engines. External gear pumps can come in single or double (two sets of gears) pump configurations with spur (shown), helical, and herringbone gears.

Small external gear pumps usually operate at 1750 or 3450 rpm and larger models operate at speeds up to 640 rpm.
External gear pumps have close tolerances and shaft support on both sides of the gears. This allows them to run to pressures beyond 3,000 PSI / 200 BAR Not well suited to handling abrasive or extreme high temperature applications. Tighter internal clearances provide for a more reliable measure of liquid passing through a pump and for greater flow control.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps: External Gear Pump Overview


How External Gear Pumps Work The external gear pump uses two identical gears rotating against each other -- one gear is driven by a motor and it in turn drives the other gear. Each gear is supported by a shaft with bearings on both sides of the gear. 1. As the gears come out of mesh, they create expanding volume on the inlet side of the pump. Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped by the gear teeth as they rotate. 2. Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the pockets between the teeth and the casing 3. Finally, the meshing of the gears forces liquid through the outlet port under pressure.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps: External Gear Pump Overview


Advantages

Disadvantages

High speed High pressure No overhung bearing loads Relatively quiet operation Design accommodates wide variety of materials

Four bushings in liquid area No solids allowed Fixed End Clearances

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps: External Gear Pump Overview (Applications)


Common external gear pump applications include, but are not limited to: Various fuel oils and lube oils Chemical additive and polymer metering Chemical mixing and blending (double pump) Industrial and mobile hydraulic applications (log splitters, lifts, etc.) Acids and caustic (stainless steel or composite construction) Low volume transfer or application

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps: External Gear Pump Overview


(Materials Of Construction / Configuration Options)
Externals (head, casing, bracket) - Iron, ductile iron, steel, stainless steel, high alloys, composites (PPS, ETFE) Internals (shafts) - Steel, stainless steel, high alloys, alumina ceramic Internals (gears) - Steel, stainless steel, PTFE, composite (PPS) Bushing - Carbon, bronze, silicon carbide, needle bearings Shaft Seal - Packing, lip seal, component mechanical seal, magnetically-driven pump

A composite external gear pump performs well in corrosive liquid applications.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:

Lobe Pump Overview

Lobe pumps are used in a variety of industries including, pulp and paper, chemical, food, beverage, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology.
These pumps offer a variety of lobe options including single, bi-wing, tri-lobe (shown), and multi-lobe. Rotary lobe pumps are non-contacting and have large pumping chambers, allowing them to handle solids such as cherries or olives without damage. They are also used to handle slurries, pastes, and a wide variety of other liquids. They also offer reversible flows and can operate dry for long periods of time. Flow is relatively independent of changes in process pressure, so output is constant and continuous.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:
How Lobe Pumps Work

Lobe Pump Overview

1. As the lobes come out of mesh, they create expanding volume on the inlet side of the pump. Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped by the lobes as they rotate.
2. Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the pockets between the lobes and the casing -it does not pass between the lobes. 3. Finally, the meshing of the lobes forces liquid through the outlet port under pressure.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:
Advantages

Lobe Pump Overview


Disadvantages

Pass medium solids Requires timing gears No metal-to-metal contact Requires two seals Superior CIP/SIP capabilities Reduced lift with thin liquids Long term dry run (with lubrication to seals) Non-pulsating discharge

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:
Polymers Paper coatings Soaps and surfactants Paints and dyes Rubber and adhesives Pharmaceuticals Food applications

Lobe Pump Overview (Applications)

Common rotary lobe pump applications include, but are not limited to:

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:

Lobe Pump Overview

(Materials Of Construction / Configuration Options)


Externals (head, casing) - Typically 316 or 316L stainless steel head and casing Externals (gearbox) - Cast iron, stainless steel Internals (rotors, shaft) - Typically 316 or 316L stainless steel, non-galling stainless steel Shaft Seal - O-rings, component single or double mechanical seals, industry-standard cartridge mechanical seals

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:

Vane Pump Overview

Vane pumps can handle moderate viscosity liquids such as LP gas (propane), ammonia, solvents, alcohol, fuel oils, gasoline, and refrigerants.

Vane pumps have no internal metal-to-metal contact and self-compensate for wear, enabling them to maintain peak performance on these non-lubricating liquids.
Vane pumps are available in a number of vane configurations including sliding vane (left), flexible vane, swinging vane, rolling vane, and external vane. Vane pumps are noted for their dry priming, ease of maintenance, and good suction characteristics over the life of the pump. Each type of vane pump offers unique advantages. For example, external vane pumps can handle large solids. Flexible vane pumps, on the other hand, can only handle small solids but create good vacuum. Sliding vane pumps can run dry for short periods of time and handle small amounts of vapor.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:

Vane Pump Overview

How Lobe Pumps Work 1. As the rotor rotates (yellow arrow) and fluid enters the pump, centrifugal force, hydraulic pressure, and/or pushrods push the vanes to the walls of the housing. 2. The housing and cam force fluid into the pumping chamber through holes in the cam (small red arrow on the bottom of the pump). Fluid enters the pockets created by the vanes, rotor, cam, and sideplate. 3. As the rotor continues around, the vanes sweep the fluid to the opposite side of the crescent where it is squeezed through discharge holes of the cam as the vane approaches the point of the crescent (small red arrow on the side of the pump). Fluid then exits the discharge port.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:

Vane Pump Overview

Advantages

Disadvantages

Handles thin liquids at relatively higher pressures Compensates for wear through vane extension Sometimes preferred for solvents, LPG Can run dry for short periods Can have one seal or stuffing box Develops good vacuum

Can have two stuffing boxes Complex housing and many parts Not suitable for high pressures Not suitable for high viscosity Not good with abrasives

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:

Vane Pump Overview (Applications)

Aerosol and Propellants Aviation Service - Fuel Transfer, Deicing Auto Industry - Fuels, Lubes, Refrigeration Coolants Bulk Transfer of LPG and NH3 LPG Cylinder Filling Alcohols Refrigeration - Freons, Ammonia Solvents Aqueous solutions

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Rotary pumps:

Vane Pump Overview

(Materials Of Construction / Configuration Options)


Externals (head, casing) - Cast iron, ductile iron, steel, and stainless steel. Vane, Pushrods - Carbon graphite

End Plates - Carbon graphite


Shaft Seal - Component mechanical seals, industry-standard cartridge mechanical seals, and magnetically-driven pumps. Packing - Available from some vendors, but not usually recommended for thin liquid service