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Public Health Administration and Management

Maribel U. Cruz M.D.

Session Objectives
At the end of the session the students should be able to: 1. Define the following terms: Organization Management Goal Manager Administration 2. Enumerate and explain the functions or concerns of an agency 3. Explain the functions of management

Session Objectives
4. Discuss the management levels, roles and skills 5. Discuss the general principles of management 6. Discuss the Organizational Chart to include the following; a. Definition b. Kinds of Organizational charts c. Guidelines in designing an organizational chart

Definition of Terms
Organization

Social units formed together to obtain a specific goal Two or more people who work together in a structured way to achieve a specific goal or set of goals

Definition of Terms
Goal

The purpose that an organization strives to achieve

Definition of Terms
Administration

Overall governing power of an organization/enterprise responsible for the policy and major decisions concerned with the political, economic/ financial matters as well as the wellbeing of the organization and its people (popularly known as the management)

Definition of Terms
Administration

Activities of group(s) or individual who plan, organize, direct and control resources in order to achieve the objectives of the agency according to the specified quality, quantity, time, method and expenditures

Functions or Concerns of an Agency


1. Technical function 2. Commercial function 3. Financial function 4. Security function 5. Accounting function 6. Management function

Functions or Concerns of an Agency


The Technical Function

A particular functional area which is peculiar to or identifies an agency from others If this functional area is satisfied, it will result in the fulfillment of the mandate or charge given to the agency

Functions or Concerns of an Agency


The Commercial Function

Identifies what goods are in demand and take the needed steps to promote the sale of these goods Attempt to identify the health problems in the community and to match them with services from the resources it possesses

Functions or Concerns of an Agency


The Financial Function

The need for capital An enterprise must possess some assets which can be converted into capital goods and money to support it

Functions or Concerns of an Agency


The Security Function

Concerned with protection of the agency Activities which provide safeguards against foreseen and unforeseen obstacles

Functions or Concerns of an Agency

The Security Function

The agency head would be concerned with the following: 1. Legitimization of operations 2. Protection of the plant/building from illegal human intrusion and catastrophies 3. Safeguarding agency interest from unfavorable policy changes 4. Creation of a good image of the agency

Functions or Concerns of an Agency


The Accounting Function

Rendition of accounts/reports to the owner of the agency ( or to the public/ government) At the end of a given period of operation, the head of the agency must show his agencys performance for which he spent the money given to him

The Management Function


Management

The art of getting things done through people by proper allocation and choice of human resources, materials, funds and methods (Heilregel and Slocum) The Ms of Management Man, Money, Materials, Methods and Mission

The Management Function


Management

Process involving the coordination of human and material resources towards accomplishment of objectives Group within an organization that has the legal authority to direct and control the organization

The Management Function


Manager

The person who allocates human and material resources, and directs the operations of an organization Plans for the future and tries to determine the most efficient way to achieve objectives Find ways to motivate employees and to increase the agencys overall efficiency and effectiveness to achieve higher levels of productivity

The Functions of Management


In 1926, Henry Fayol wrote that the

functions of a manager are to plan organize, command, coordinate, and control.


These functions are often modified, however the original list of Fayol remains as the basic outline for management functions. Some authors want to be more detailed, while others combine the functions in one entity.

Planning } Implementing} P I E Evaluation} Planning} Organizing} Actuating} Evaluating}

Planning} Organizing} Leading} POLCE Controlling} Evaluating}

POAE Planning} Planning } PM Organizing} Management } Staffing} Directing} POSDCORBE Coordinating} Reporting} Budgetting} Evaluation}

Planning} Organizing} POMA Managing} Appraisal} & Control

The Functions of Management


Planning

Formulation of the steps to be taken by an agency at some future period to achieve a desired state which the process itself specifies as its objective(s) Having decided on the objective(s), the agency formulates the policies, strategies, programs, procedures, rules needed for their accomplishments and resource requirements are spelled out

The Functions of Management


Organizing

Concerned with division of labor and corresponding assignment of duties, and the establishment of lines of authority and of communication

The Functions of Management


Staffing Involves manning and keeping manned the positions provided for by the organization structure. It thus necessitates defining manpower requirements for the job to be done and includes inventorying, appraising, and selecting candidates for positions; compensating and training and developing employees to accomplish their tasks effectively.

The Functions of Management


Directing

Initiates and maintains actions towards the objectives of the agency Effective directing requires delegation, communication, training and motivation Motivation aims to get maximum quality production or service from the staff and to achieve maximum individual job satisfaction for the staff

The Functions of Management


Directing

For better acceptance the term has just been changed to leading and directing Leading is influencing people so that they will contribute to group goals

The Functions of Management


Coordinating

The administrator should see to it that every activity within the organization fits effectively and efficiently into the whole scheme of operation Synchronization of activities towards well-established goals Results from good planning, organizing, directing and controlling

The Functions of Management


Monitoring and Control

Monitoring- keeping tract of the work of an agency, to find out if it is being carried out the way it should be in accordance with the standards of quality and quantity agreed upon, at the proper time and at the costs previously determined Controlling the process of ensuring that actual activities conform to planned activities

The Functions of Management


Monitoring and Control

It is dependent on feedback mechanism through an established information system for the agency Tool in monitoring: a plan of work with indicators of milestones based on which progress in time will be determined

The Functions of Management


Actuating

The act of setting things into motion and overseeing the activities as they are undertaken Includes motivating, directing, monitoring and controlling

The Functions of Management


Reporting

Written recording is made by management of every important aspect of the project

The Functions of Management


Budgeting

Is the formulation of plans for a given future period in numerical terms. As such they are statements of anticipated results in financing in financial terms , as in revenue and expense and capital budgets

The Functions of Management


Evaluating

Systematic way of learning from experience and using the lessons learned to improve current activity and promote better planning by careful selection of alternatives for future action Its basic concept is to improve health programs and structures in the delivery of health.

Management Levels
First-line Manager

One under whom is placed the staff who performs the service of the unit. Also called unit head, lead person, foreman, supervisor Technically highly qualified and can provide the necessary guidance/training, and technical leadership to the workers under him

Management Levels
First-line Manager

Quality controller Channel of communication between the rank and file and the middle and top management

Management Levels
Intermediate or Middle Managers

Direct the activities of lower level managers They interpret in clear operational terms the policies, strategies and broad directives of the agency

Management Levels
Intermediate or Middle Managers

Communicate with the first level managers and top managers Attend meetings called by the top manager and preside over meetings with the first-level managers Conduct supervisory visits

Management Levels
Top-level Managers

Also called executives with titles of CEO, president and vice president Managers responsible for the overall management of the organization Establish operating policies and guide the organizations interactions with its environment

Management Levels
Top-level Managers

It is not necessary for them to have indepth technical expertise relevant to the agencys function Must have high degree of conceptual, communication and interpersonal skills

Management Level and Skills


Technical Skill: the ability to use the

procedures, techniques and knowledge of a specialized field Human Skill: the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people as individuals or in groups Conceptual skill: the ability to coordinate and integrate all of an organizations interests and activities

Management Level and Skills


Technical skill is most important in the

lower levels Human skill is the primary skill needed by middle managers The importance of conceptual skill increases as one rises through the ranks of the management system

General Principles of Management


Authority and Responsibility

The assignment of authority and responsibility to the different units of the agency and to individual employees should be definite, clear-cut and understood Authority or the right to give orders and exact obedience should be commensurate with responsibility

General Principles of Management


Authority and Responsibility

Fayol finds the two related with responsibility arising from authority. Authority is derived from the position, and personal factors like intelligence, experience, moral factors, past service, etc .

General Principles of Management


Delegation of Authority and Responsibility

The assigning to subordinates of specific tasks of the agency and the granting to one or more persons the authority necessary for directing satisfactorily the activities and duties so assigned The delegation process relies on the personal characteristics and abilities of the delegating authority and of the recipient

General Principles of Management


Delegation of Authority and Responsibility

Superiors are most likely to delegate tasks in those areas which he believes he has: 1. Subordinates who can perform those duties more effectively than he can 2. Those which have the least need for his personal presence or influence

General Principles of Management


Unity of Command

Each employee in an agency should receive orders from and report to only one supervisor The supervisor in turn should receive orders from and report to only one higher supervisor and so on up through the chain of command or line of control, that ends with the head of the agency

General Principles of Management


Unity of Command

The purpose of having unity of command in an organization is to help establish well-defined channels of authority Designed to help ensure that each person holding a supervisory position in a chain of command will be responsible to only one supervisor and for the activities of all subordinates who report to him

General Principles of Management


Unity of Direction

Requires that there should only be one head and one plan for a group of activities having the same objective

General Principles of Management


Span of Control

The number of individuals reporting to a supervisor, should not be more than can be effectively coordinated and directed

General Principles of Management


Specification of Objectives

The broad objectives of the organization must be clearly defined and understood by all, and must be broken down into more specific objectives for the organization units in the agency

General Principles of Management


Division of Work

The supervisor needs to determine if the total work for which he is responsible is divided in the best possible ways into jobs which he can most effectively supervise Employees must clearly understand what is expected of them, what limits of authority and responsibility are imposed on their jobs and what relationships their jobs bear to other jobs in the department

General Principles of Management


Renumeration

Compensation for work done should be fair to both employees and employer
Discipline

Members in an organization need to respect the rules and agreements that govern the organization

General Principles of Management


Order

Materials and people should be in the right place at the right time
Equity

Managers should both be friendly and fair to their subordinates

General Principles of Management


Stability of Staff or Stability of Tenure

A high employee turnover rate undermines the efficient functioning of an organization


Initiative

Subordinates should be given the freedom to conceive and carry out their plans even though some mistakes may result

General Principles of Management


Esprit de Corps

Promoting team spirit will give the organization a sense of unity


Absoluteness of Responsibility

An administrator cannot escape responsibility for the actions of his subordinates

General Principles of Management


Scalar Chain

The clearer the line of authority from the ultimate management position, the more effective will be responsible decisionmaking and organizational communication

-Thus managers must establish an environment where everyone knows who is responsible for what results, obstacles to performance caused by confusion and uncertainty of assignments are removed, and - therefore people can accomplish group goals with the least amount of time, money, materials, and personnel dissatisfaction or to accomplish as much as possible with available resources.

Organizational Chart
For the guidance of all agency

personnel, a framework of relationship which will govern internal interactions is established The framework usually consists of an organizational chart and an organizational manual

Organizational Chart
The chart represents the formal

organization . It shows who reports to whom (chain of command), the flow of authority and responsibility and the line of communication The manual explains the policy, procedures and the rules of the organization

Kinds of Organizational Charts


Structural Chart

Most common method of presenting a plan of organization It shows the structure or anatomy of the organization Its most useful purpose is to outline the basic relationships between various components of the organization without the inclusion of distracting information

Kinds of Organizational Charts


Functional Chart

Presents the functions and duties of segments of the organization and indicate interrelationships of these functions Within the various boxes on the chart is included function statements applicable to the organizational segment represented by the box

Kinds of Organizational Charts


Position Chart

It shows on a chart the various positions that go into the various boxes of the organization The positions show the names, position and the title or rank of personnel as they fit into the plan of the organization

Designing the Organizational Chart


The overall arrangement should have the

following characteristics: simplicity, symmetry and unity Rectangles are connected by solid lines to indicate authority and responsibility Dotted lines connecting the rectangles only indicate close relationships but not official authority/responsibility relationships

Designing the Organizational Chart


In drawing the organizational chart, it is

important to distinguish two categories of functions line and staff Line function - refers to the activities for which the agency exists Staff function or Personnel 1. Technical Advisory Staff provide technical advice and guidance to the executive and the line staff

Designing the Organizational Chart


Staff function or Personnel
2. General Services Staff or Service Staff serve the requirements of the line and technical advisory staff

Summary
We have discussed the following:

1. Definition of the following terms: Organization Management Goal Manager Administration 2. Enumerated and explained the functions or concerns of an agency 3. Explained the functions of management

Summary
4. Discussed the management levels, roles and skills 5. Discussed the general principles of management 6. Discussed the Organizational Chart a. Definition b. Kinds of Organizational charts c. Guidelines in designing an organizational chart

References:

Reading in Health System Management: Dr. Remegio Mercado Management : Stoner, Freeman & Gilbert