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Advanced Wireless Communications Course AAiT, Addis Ababa, Tuesday 11/02/2014

3G and 4G small cells


Group Member 1 Abdurehman Abrahim Group Member 2 Ephrem Bezabeh Group Member 3 Biruk Eyasu Group Member 4 Takele Lelago Group Member 5 Lejalem Mitikie Group Member 6 Tawetu Abreha Group Member 7 Nuredin Tola

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Background
Small cells is an umbrella term for low-powered radio access nodes that operate in licensed and unlicensed spectrum and typically have a range of 10 metres to several hundred metres The term small cells covers femtocells, picocells, microcells and metrocells

Fig.1 Small cells of all types form an integral part of modern mobile networks
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3G and $G small cells

terminology

Why do we need small cells?


The ever increasing thirst for wireless data : Mobile networks in many countries have shifted from being predominantly voice networks to become primarily data. UK operator Hutchison 3 reported [1] in November 2011 that over 97% of its traffic was data. Application vendors has emerged, reliant on always on, high speed, low-latency wireless connectivity Data rate up to 42Mbit/s over 3G, 4G/LTE and LTEAdvanced offer over 100Mbit/s

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3G and $G small cells

Need for small cells

The range of technical solutions: An analysis of this capacity growth reveals that the vast majority was achieved by spectrum re-use through the rollout of a greater number of cells

Technique Frequency Division Modulation techniques Access to wider range of frequency spectrum Frequency reuse through more cell sites

capacity 5 5 25 1600

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To address the Growing Demand for Data by increasing carriers capacity & coverage needs. For capacity hot spots in dense urban areas. For indoor & outdoor coverage Small size Low power Operator managed Multi-technology (UMTS/HSPA/LTE/Wi-Fi) Installed on existing buildings, traffic-poles & light-poles.

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Benefits
There are several distinct applications for small cell:
Residential Enterprise Metro and public space Rural applications

Significantly increase the capacity in the same bandwidth Significantly reduce the energy consumption of networks Better quality of experience
Deliver high quality of air interface End users benefit from more reliable data connections and higher data throughput
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Challenges:
Greater potential for interference More handovers, requiring efficient and higher capacity to handle the higher signaling traffic and transaction rates. site acquisition location , planning permission Power availability for operation

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3G and $G small cells

Backhaul user privacy could be at risk as most traffic passes through an ip-based backhaul network, which might not be under the full control of the operator There is more neighbour management, with neighbour lists and other data to be negotiated and managed across clusters of small cells and their larger cousins.

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