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S.M.

Abbas
(Section Manager - Electrical)

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Fault Data
Three phase faults have the highest fault current.

Single phase faults have the lowest fault current.


The fault current is determined by the impedance of the fault path. Fault paths closer to the source will have less impedance. Faults caused by trees will have higher impedance.

Desirable Protection Attributes


Reliability: System operate properly
Security: Dont trip when you shouldnt Dependability: Trip when you should

Selectivity: Trip the minimal amount to clear the fault or abnormal operating condition

Speed: Usually the faster the better in terms of minimizing equipment damage and maintaining system integrity Simplicity: Less components simple wiring
Economics: Dont break the bank

Art & Science of Protection


Selection of protective relays requires compromises: Maximum and Reliable protection at minimum equipment cost High Sensitivity to faults and insensitivity to maximum load currents

High-speed fault clearance with correct selectivity


Selectivity in isolating small faulty area Ability to operate correctly under all predictable power system conditions Primary objectives is to have faulted zones primary protection operate first, but if there are protective relays failures, some form of backup protection is provided.

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Primary Equipment & Components


Transformers - to step up or step down voltage level Breakers - to energize equipment and interrupt fault current to isolate faulted equipment Insulators - to insulate equipment from ground and other phases Isolators (switches) - to create a visible and permanent isolation of primary equipment for maintenance purposes and route power flow over certain buses. Bus - to allow multiple connections (feeders) to the same source of power (transformer).
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Primary Equipment & Components


Grounding - to operate and maintain equipment safely Arrester - to protect primary equipment of sudden overvoltage (lightning strike). Switchgear integrated components to switch, protect, meter and control power flow

Reactors - to limit fault current (series) or compensate for charge current (shunt)
VT and CT - to measure primary current and voltage and supply scaled down values to P&C, metering, SCADA, etc. Regulators - voltage, current, VAR, phase angle, etc.
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Types of Protection
Overcurrent Uses current to determine magnitude of fault
Simple May employ definite time or inverse time curves May be slow Selectivity at the cost of speed (coordination stacks) Inexpensive May use various polarizing voltages or ground current for directionality

Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection (IOC) & Definite Time Overcurrent (DTOC)


CTI

Relay closest to fault operates first Relays closer to source operate slower Time between operating for same current is called CTI (Clearing Time Interval)

CTI
50 +2 50 +2

Distribution Substation

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(TOC) Coordination
t
Relay closest to fault operates first Relays closer to source operate slower Time between operating for same current is called CTI

CTI

Distribution Substation

Time Overcurrent Protection (TOC)


Selection of the curves uses what is termed as a time multiplier or time dial to effectively shift the curve up or down on the time axis

Operate region lies above selected curve, while no-operate region lies below it
Inverse curves can approximate fuse curve shapes

Types of Protection
Differential
current in = current out Simple Very fast Very defined clearing area Expensive Practical distance limitations
Line differential systems overcome this using digital communications

1 pu
IP
CT-X CT-Y

IP

Differential
Note CT polarity dots This is a throughcurrent representation Perfect waveforms, no saturation

IS

IS

Relay
IR-X IR-Y

+1 1 + (-1) = 0
Current, pu

-1 DIFF CURRENT

2 pu
IP

2 pu

Fault
CT-X CT-Y

IP

Differential
Note CT polarity dots This is an internal fault representatio n Perfect waveforms, no saturation

X
IS IS

Relay
IR-X IR-Y

+2 2 + (+2) = 4
Current, pu

-2 DIFF CURRENT

Types of Protection
Voltage Uses voltage to infer fault or abnormal condition May employ definite time or inverse time curves May also be used for undervoltage load shedding
Simple May be slow Selectivity at the cost of speed (coordination stacks) Inexpensive

Types of Protection
Frequency Uses frequency of voltage to detect power balance condition May employ definite time or inverse time curves Used for load shedding & machinery under/overspeed protection
Simple May be slow Selectivity at the cost of speed can be expensive

Types of Protection
Power Uses voltage and current to determine power flow magnitude and direction Typically definite time
Complex May be slow Accuracy important for many applications Can be expensive

Types of Protection
Distance (Impedance)
Uses voltage and current to determine impedance of fault Set on impedance [R-X] plane Uses definite time Impedance related to distance from relay Complicated Fast Somewhat defined clearing area with reasonable accuracy Expensive Communication aided schemes make more selective

Protection Zones
1. Generator or Generator-Transformer Units 2. Transformers 3. Buses 4. Lines (transmission and distribution)

5. Utilization equipment (motors, static loads, etc.)


6. Capacitor or reactor (when separately protected)
Bus zone Unit Generator-Tx zone Transformer zone Line zone Bus zone Transformer zone Bus zone Motor zone

~
Generator XFMR Bus Line Bus XFMR Bus Motor

What Info is Required to Apply Protection


1. One-line diagram of the system or area involved 2. Impedances and connections of power equipment, system frequency, voltage level and phase sequence 3. Existing schemes 4. Operating procedures and practices affecting protection 5. Importance of protection required and maximum allowed clearance times 6. System fault studies 7. Maximum load and system swing limits 8. CTs and VTs locations, connections and ratios 9. Future expansion expectance 10. Any special considerations for application.

Abnormal Operating Conditions

Std. 242: Buff Book Latest developments reflected in: C37.102: IEEE Guide for Generator Protection Std. 242: Buff Book C37.101: IEEE Guide for AC Generator Ground Protection C37.102: IEEE Guide for Generator C37.106: IEEE Guide for Abnormal Frequency Protection Protection for Power Generating Plants C37.101: IEEE Guide for AC Generator Ground Protection C37.106: IEEE Guide for Abnormal Frequency Protection for Power Generating These are created/maintained by the IEEE PSRC & IAS Plants They are updated every 5 years

Latest developments reflected in:

ANSI / IEEE Standards

Small Machine Protection IEEE Buff Book

32 Reverse Power
40 Loss of Excitation 51V voltage restraint 51G Ground O/C 87 Differential

Small up to 1 MW to 600V, 500 kVA if >600V

Small Machine Protection IEEE Buff Book

32 Reverse Power 40 Loss of Excitation

46 Negative Sequence
51V voltage restraint 51G Ground O/C 87 Differential

Medium up to 12.5 MW

Small Machine Protection IEEE Buff Book


32 Reverse Power
40 Loss of Excitation 46 Negative Sequence 49 Thermal Overload

51V voltage restraint


51G Ground overcurrent 64 Ground Relay 87 Differential

Large up to 50 MW

Large Machine Protection IEEE C37.102


Unit Connected, High Z Grounded

32 Reverse Power 40 Loss of Excitation 46 Negative Sequence 49 Thermal Overload 51V voltage restraint 51G Ground overcurrent 64 Ground Relay 87 Differential

Under & Over Voltage Protection


Protects against a severe overload condition (27) Initiates the starting of an emergency standby genset (27) Load shed shut down in the event of AVR failure (27) Protect against dangerous over-voltages (59) Backup to internal V/Hz limiters Commonly combined 27/59

Devices 27 / 59

Reverse Power Protection


Provides backup protection for the prime mover. It detects reverse power flow (kW) should the prime mover lose its input energy without tripping its generator feeder breaker Prevents motoring, drawing real power from the system

Device 32

Loss of Field Protection


Loss of excitation can occur: Loss of field to the main exciter. Accidental tripping of the field breaker. Short circuits in the field circuits. Poor brush contact in the exciter. Field circuit-breaker latch failure. Loss of ac supply to the excitation system. Reduced-frequency operation when the regulator is out of service.

Device 40

Phase Balance Current Protection


Unbalanced loads Unbalanced system faults Open conductors Unbalanced I2 currents induce 2X system frequency currents in the rotor causing overheating

Device 46

The function of generator backup protection is to disconnect the generator if a system has not been cleared by the primary protective device Time delays

Backup Overcurrent Protection

Device 51V/21

Ground Overcurrent Protection


Provides backup protection for all ground relays in the system at the generator voltage level Provides protection against internal generator ground faults Commonly provided as GF alarm.

Device 51G

Voltage Balance Relay

Device 60
Monitors the availability of PT voltage. Blocks improper operation of protective relays and control devices in the event of a blown PT fuse

Out of Step Protection


High peak currents and off-frequency operation can occur when a generator losses synchronism. Causes winding stress, high rotor iron currents, pulsating torques and mechanical resonances.

Conventional relaying approach analyzing variations in apparent impedance as viewed at generator terminals. Variation in impedance can be detected by impedance relaying and generator separated before the completion of one slip cycle

Device 78

Differential Protection
For rapid detection of generator to or -G faults. When NGRs are used, 87G should be used. Used for protection of larger generators Zone protection

Device 87

Phase Fault Protection (87G)

Differential Protection (87)


A key point to remember is that differential relays dont prevent damage, they LIMIT damage. If a relay is properly operating it wont trip until there is actually a line to ground fault somewhere in its zone of protection. By limiting the duration of a fault, it is often possible to limit damage, but there is STILL damage. Eventually, you will have to deal with it.

REF Protection (87GN / 64GN)

Frequency Protection
Significant load addition Sudden reduction in mechanical input power Loss of generation / Loss of load Underfrequency can cause: Higher generator load currents Overexcitation Turbine blade fatigue

Device 81

Temperature Protection
Resistance temperature detectors are used to sense winding temperatures. A long term monitoring philosophy that is not readily detected by other protective devices

RTDs

FFBL GENERATOR PROTECTION LAYOUT

Digital Generator Protection System (DGP)


Microprocessor Based Protection, Control and Monitoring System Waveform Sampling User Friendly GE/Hydro Quebec Joint Development

Tripping Methods
Factors of selection includes severity of fault, probability of Fault spreading & overspeeding, time required to resynchronize, effect on power system etc.
SIMULTANEOUS TRIP GENERATOR TRIP BREAKER TRIP MANUAL RUNBACK & TRIP AUTOMATIC RUNBACK MANUAL RUNBACK

SEQUENTIAL TRIP
MANUAL TRIP

Generator Faults (GE)


STATOR OVERCURRENT STATOR GROUND FAULT STATOR PHASE TO PHASE FAULT OVER VOLTAGE VOLT PER HERTZ FIELD OVEREXCITATION FIELD GROUND LOSS OF EXCITATION UNBALANCED ARMATURE CURRENT STATOR OVERTEMPERATURE LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM ABNORMAL FREQUENCY OPERATION BREAKER FAILURE HIGH SPEED RECLOSING SUBSYNCHRONOUS RESONANCE INADVERTENT ENERGIZATION SYSTEM BACK UP VOLTAGE SURGES BEARING VIBRATION SYNCHRONIZING ERRORS MOTORING

Digital Generator Protection System (DGP)

DGP Digital Generator Protection


The DGP is a digital system which provides a wide range of protection, monitoring, control and recording functions for AC generators.

It can be used on generators driven by steam, gas and hydraulic turbine. Any size of generator can be protected with the DGP.

A high degree of dependability and security is achieved by extensive self diagnostic routines and an optional redundant power supply.

Generator Trip Scheme FFBL


BREAKER TRIP 46 UNBALANACE 32 REVERSE POWER 51 V OVERCURRENT WITH VOLTAGE RESTRAINT 81 U UNDER FREQUENCY TURBINE TRIP 87 G DIFFERENTIAL 40 LOSS OF EXCITATION 24 OVER EXCITATION 59 OVERVOLTAGE 51 GN GROUND OVERCURRENT ALARM ONLY 27 UNDER VOLTAGE 81 O OVER FREQUENCY EXT VTFF BLK # 9 (81, 32, 27, VTFF)

Applications
For Small, Medium and Large Generator Protection Suitable for Variety of Prime-Movers - Gas, Steam, Hydro Turbines Most Commonly Used Protection Functions Packaged in a Standard Modular Case

TYPICAL INPUT WIRING DIAGRAM OF DGP

THE DGP SYSTEM TAKES EIGHT CURRENT AND FOUR VOLTAGE SENSING INPUTS.

THE DGP SYSTEM INPUTS The input currents in terminals BH1, BH3, and BH5 (IAS, IBS, and ICS) are used
to process functions 46, 40, 32, and 51V. These currents can be derived from system side or neutral side CTs as desired. Either the system or neutral side CTs can be used for these functions if the Stator Differential (87G) function is enabled. Current inputs INS and INR are derived from the residual connections of the respective phase CTs.

The current inputs INS and INR are derived from the residual connections of the respective phase CTs and do not require dedicated neutral CTs.
Zero-sequence current at system and/or neutral side of the generator stator windings is calculated and then compared with the measured INS and/or INR values by the DGP as a part of the background self-test. The INR current is used to process the 51GN function DGP .If desired, a dedicated neutral CT can be used for the input INR.

The DGP phase voltage inputs can be wye or delta and are derived from the generator terminal voltage. VN is derived from the generator neutral grounding

DGP Monitoring

Present Values
GEN Simulator DGP PRESENT VALUES Station ID:MALVERN Generator ID:MODEL GENERATOR 10/28/93 14:37:23:446 IAS: 5696.0 A -014 DEGS VAN: 008.5 KV 000 DEGS IBS: 5488.0 A -142 DEGS VBN: 008.1 KV -118 DEGS ICS: 4864.0 A 104 DEGS VCN: 008.2 KV 122 DEGS IAR: 5680.0 A -014 DEGS IBR: 5456.0 A -142 DEGS ICR: 4880.0 A 104 DEGS NEGATIVE SEQ CURRENT: 08.1 % 3RD HARM PH: 00.1 % 3RD HARM N: 03.7% WATTS: +126.33 MWATT VARS: +041.95 MVAR INLET VLV: OPEN DIG IN 4: OPEN EXT VTFF: OPEN SAMPLING FREQ: 720.0 0000

GEN OFF-LIN: OPEN DIG IN 3: OPEN OSC TRIG: OPEN FREQ: 60.00

Currents Voltages Watts Vars Frequency Negative Sequence Current 3rd Harmonic Voltage Status of Digital Inputs

Fault Report
Gen Simulator DGP FAULT REPORT 0000

Prefault
Currents Voltages Watts Vars Frequency

Station ID:MALVERN Generator ID:MODEL GENERATOR


FAULT#: 02 FAULT DATE: 08/09/93 TRIP TIME: 05:10:37:829 FAULT TYPE: ABC TRIP TYPE: 87G SYSTEM OPERATING TIME: 000008 PREFAULT -------------------------------------IAS: 0128.0 A IBS: 0208.0 A ICS: 0080.0 A FAULT -----------------------------------------------------IAS: 014672 A IAR: 015664 A IBS: 015264 A IBR: 016704 A ICS: 013600 A ICR: 014960 A INS: 0048.0 A INR: 0384.0 A VAN: 010.2 KV VAN: 693.0 V VBN: 693.0 V VCN: 679.4 V VN: 047.0 V

Post Fault
Currents Voltages Trip Targets Operating Time

VBN: 010.2 KV VCN: 010.0 KV FREQ: 60.00

Selected Events Last 3 Faults Stored

WATTS: +1888.5 KWATT VARS: +3777.0 KVAR 05:10:37.834 87G PHASE A ON 05:10:37.834 87G PHASE B ON

TYPICAL WIRING DIAGRAM OF DGP

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