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Steps in Research

Objectives

• The participants will be able to:


• Enlist the steps in research.
• Write the research article/dissertation by
following these steps in research
Background

esearch is essential and formal part of all


postgraduate studies. It is also required for
promotion of medical personnel. It is very
difficult for most of the postgraduate
trainees to conduct research. Steps in
Research have been illustrated here in a
simplified form for better understanding.
Steps in Research
Selection of Topic
Selection in accordance
with;
1. Interest
2. Relevance
3. Avoidance of Duplication
4. Feasibility
5. Political Acceptability
6. Applicability
7. Cost effectiveness
8. Ethical Consideration
Research Question
Formulation of Objective

1. Introductory Statement
ending with “TO” and a
Colon (;).
2. Objective must start
with a verb.
3. Must be ‘SMART’.
Work Plan and Budgeting
Gantt Chart for
Work Plan

Budgeting for
1. Literature Search
2. Statistical Help
3. Material
4. Typing of manuscript
5. Printing
6. Postage
Literature Search
hy?
To identify research topic
To view the previous work
To help designing the study
To keep update with new
development
To formulate a hypothesis ources:
Journals
To use it for discussion at the
Books
end
Conference, Congress
and Meeting
proceedings
Research Projects
Researchers and
Research
Organizations
Methods and Materials
Place of Study

Hospital based Community based.

Duration Of Study
Study Design
1. Descriptive Studies
2. Analytical Studies
Case Control Study
Cohort Study

3. Intervention Studies
Experimental Studies
quasi experimental Studies
Sampling Technique.
• Probability sampling.
-Simple random
-Systematic
-Cluster
-Stratified
• Non probability sampling.
-Convenience
-Purposive
-Quota
Sample Size
• For Hospital based
study:
Purposive Sampling
For Community based
study:
Calculated by Statistical
formula
n= p (1-q)
pq
Data Collection

Steps in Data Collection


1. Identification of objectives
2. Listing of target population
3. Identification of time frame
4.Selection of data collection instruments
5. Development of data collection methods
6. Selection of proper sampling design
Data Collection Procedure
7. Organization, selection, responsibility
1. Experiment
and training of task
2. Survey
8. Pre-coding 3. Observation
4. Interview
9. Pre-testing 5. Focus group Discussion
Data Analysis
• Data analyzed:

• Manually

• On Computer
Results
Presented in the form of:
Discussion

1. Emphasis on present
findings

2. Comparison with
similar studies.
References:
Why reference?
•To avoid plagiarism
•Reader can verify
quotation
•Reader can cite author’s
argument

Styles of
Referencing