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Remainder and Factor

Theorem

Remainder and Factor Theorem (1) Intro to Polynomials -degree -identities -division (long, short, synthetic) (2) Remainder

(1) Intro to Polynomials -degree

-identities

-division (long, short, synthetic)

(2) Remainder Theorem -finding remainders -special case Factor Theorem -factorise & solve cubic equations

Intro to Polynomials

Intro to Polynomials Degree Terms Coefficient Constant Value
Degree
Degree
Terms
Terms
Coefficient
Coefficient
Constant
Constant
Value
Value

Intro to Polynomials

Intro to Polynomials Simple Intro to Polynomials <a href=http://www.glencoe.com/sec/math/algebra/algebra1/algebra1_05/ brainpops/index.php4/na More detailed Intro to Polynomials http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=18OFfTyic7g " id="pdf-obj-2-4" src="pdf-obj-2-4.jpg">

Simple Intro to Polynomials

More detailed Intro to Polynomials

Long Division of Polynomials

Long Division of Polynomials Simple Example <a href=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6_ghhd7kwQ More difficult example http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FTRDPB1wR5Y " id="pdf-obj-3-4" src="pdf-obj-3-4.jpg">

Simple Example

More difficult example

Long Division of Polynomials

Long Division of Polynomials  Example 1: 6  2  3 Dividend Divisor Quotient In
  • Example 1:

6  2  3
6  2  3

Dividend

Divisor

Quotient

 

In this case, the division is exact and

Dividend = Divisor x Quotient

Long Division of Polynomials

Long Division of Polynomials  Example 2: The number 7 when divided by 2 will not
  • Example 2:

The number 7 when divided by 2 will not give an exact answer. We say that the division is not exact.

[7 = (2 x 3) + remainder 1 ]

In this case, when the division is NOT exact,

Dividend = Divisor x Quotient + Remainder

  • Definition of degree:

For any algebraic expression, the highest power of the unknown determines the degree.

 Definition of degree : For any algebraic expression, the highest power of the unknown determines

Algebraic

Degree

Expression

2x + 1

1

x 3 - 5x

3

-3x 2 + x + 4

2

  • For division of polynomials, we will stop dividing until the degree of the expression left is smaller than the divisor.

Division by a Monomial

   12 x  8 x  5 x  6 x  5
12 x  8 x  5 x  6 x  5  2 x
5
4
2
2
Divide: 

Rewrite:

5 4 2 12 x  8 x  5 x  6 x  5
5
4
2
12
x
8
x
5
x
6
x
5
2
2 x

Divide each term separately:

 

12

x

5

  • 8 6 x

x

5

  • 4 x

2

5

 

2 x

2

  • 2

  • 2 x

x

2

2

2 x

2

2 x

2

 
   

3

2

5

3

5

 

6

4

x x

 

 
 

2

x 2 x

2

       

Division by a Binomial

   

Divide:

10 x

4

17

3

x x

1

5

x

1

Divide

using

long

division

4 3 2 5 x  1 10 x  17 x  x  x
4
3
2
5
x 
1 10
x 
17
x  x  x 
0
1
Division by a Binomial Divide:  10 x  4 17 3 x  x 

Insert a place holder for the missing term x 2

Division of Polynomials

Division of Polynomials  Division of polynomials is similar to a division sum using numbers. Consider
  • Division of polynomials is similar to a division

sum using numbers.

Division of Polynomials  Division of polynomials is similar to a division sum using numbers. Consider

Consider the division 10 ÷ 2 = 5

- 2 5 10 10 0
-
2
5
10
10
0

10 2 5

Division of Polynomials  Division of polynomials is similar to a division sum using numbers. Consider

Consider the division ( x 2 + x ) ÷ ( x + 1 )

x

x 1

-
-

(

  • x 2 x

    • x 2 x

)

0

2

  • x x x ( x 1)

x 3  x  x  x  Example 2: (2 x 6 x x)
x
3
 x  x  x  Example 2: (2 x 6 x x) 2 x
2
2
)
(
1)
4
2
Example 1: (
2
x
3
 3x
1
x
 x
2
x
1
2x
2
x  x  x  x
4
0
3
6
2
x
3
 x  x
2
2
-
-
3
2
(2 x )
4
(
x
 x
)
0
 6 x
2
 x
x
2
-
(6 x )
2
-
2
( x
 x)
0
 x
-
( x)
0
0
x  x  x  x  x  x
3
2
2
(
1)(
2
)
1
2
x
4
 x  x  x x  x  )
6
2
2 (
3
3
2
  • When the division is not exact, there will be a

remainder.

Consider the division 7 ÷ 2 Consider (2x 3 + 2x 2 + x) ÷ (x
Consider the division 7 ÷ 2
Consider
(2x 3 + 2x 2 + x) ÷ (x + 1)
2
x
2
1
3
x  1 2
2
x
3
 x  x
2
2
7
-
-
(2
x  x
3
2
2
)
6
0  x
1
-
( x  1)
remainder
-1
remainder
7  (2  3)  1
(2
x  x  x  x 
3
2
2
)
(
1)( 2
x 
2
1)
1
7
1
3
2
(2
x
2
x
x
)
1
 3 
2
(2 x 1)
2
2
(
x
1)
x
1

Example 1: (

3

2

x  x  7 4 ) x  x  ( 3) x 2 
x
 x 
7
4 )
x  x 
(
3)
x
2
 4x
16
x
 3
x
3
7 x
2
4x
(
x  x
3
3
2
)
(
x
3
4x2  4x
 x  x  x 
7
2
4 )
(
2
-
-

(4

x

12 )

x

3)

(

2

x

4 16)

x

48

x

3

Degree here is not smaller than divisor’s degree,

thus continue

dividing

16x
16x

-

(16 x 48)

48
48

Degree here is less

than divisor’s

degree, thus this is the remainder

x 2  x  7 8) (  x  1) Example 2: (5 5x
x
2
 x 
7
8) (
 x 
1)
Example 2: (5
5x 12
x  1
5
x
2
 x 
7
8
(5
x  x
2
5 )
12x  8
(5
x
2
 x 
7
8) (
 x 
-

1)

-

(12x 12)

4

x 1

(5 x 12)

4
4

Degree here is less

than divisor’s

degree, thus this is the remainder

Example 3: (6 5 1) (2 1) x 2  x   x  3x
Example 3: (6 5 1) (2 1)
x
2
 x   x 
3x 1
2x 1
6
x
2
5
x 
1
(6
x  x
2
3 )
 2x 1
(6
x
2
 x  
5
1) (2
x 
1)
-

-

(2x 1)

0

3x 1

‘Short’ Division of Polynomials

‘Short’ Division of Polynomials Examples 2 2 2 x  3 x  5  x

Examples

2 2 2 x  3 x  5  x  1   
2
2
2
x
3
x
5
x
1
2
2
x
3
x
5
2
x
 1
2
2
x
1
3
x
3
2
x
 1
3
x 
3
 
2
2
x
 1

2

3

x

3

2

 

x

4

x

x

2

2

5

2

x x

2

(

x

2

7(

5)

x

2

2

x

5)

3

x

31

 

x

2

2

x

5

 

x

31

3

 

2

x

 

7

 

x

2

 
 

x

2

5

x

Synthetic Division of Polynomials

Synthetic Division of Polynomials Preview Example: the link from long division to synthetic division <a href=http://www.mindbites.com/lesson/931-int-algebra-synthetic-division- with-polynomials Examples: how to perform synthetic division on linear divisors (and the link to remainder theorem) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZoMz1Cy1T4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nefo9cUo-wg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4e9ugZCc4rw * http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1jvjL9DtGC4 Extra: how to perform synthetic division on quadratic divisors " id="pdf-obj-16-4" src="pdf-obj-16-4.jpg">

Preview Example: the link from long division to synthetic division

Examples: how to perform synthetic division on linear divisors

(and the link to remainder theorem)

Remainder and Factor Theorem

Remainder and Factor Theorem Introduction to Remainder Theorem <a href=http://library.thinkquest.org/C0110248/algebra/remfactintro.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PJd26kdLxWw " id="pdf-obj-17-4" src="pdf-obj-17-4.jpg">

Introduction to Remainder Theorem

Remainder and Factor Theorem

Remainder and Factor Theorem Introduction to Factor Theorem <a href=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WyPXqe-KEm4&feature=related Use of Factor Theorem to solve polynomial equations http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXFlAj7zBzo&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tBjSW365pno&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7qcCOry8FoQ&feature=related " id="pdf-obj-18-4" src="pdf-obj-18-4.jpg">

Introduction to Factor Theorem

Use of Factor Theorem to solve polynomial equations