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Presented by: Shruti Kulkarni (PC 18) Arti Dangi (PC 03) Neelam Upadhyay (PA 09 )

Points of Discussion

Perceptual Mapping Repositioning

Positioning is the act of designing the companys offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market.

The place a product occupies in consumers minds relative to competing products.

Why Positioning?
Consumers overloaded with information.

Consumers organize and categorize i.e. Position products and services in their minds.

A products position is complex set of perceptions, impressions and feelings that consumer have for a product.

Why Positioning?
Consumers position the products with or without the help from marketers. But its risky to leave the products positioning to chance

Hence, marketers plan position that will give the product the greatest advantage, and design marketing mixes to create these planned positions.

To (target segment and need) our (brand) is a (concept) that (point-of-difference).
Example: To young, active soft-drink consumers who have little time for sleep, Mountain Dew is the soft drink that gives you more energy than any other brand because it has the highest level of caffeine.

Effective Positioning
eaningful to consumers M Credible/believable Unique to your brand Durable over time
If a company decides to build a position it must deliver that position and maintain it through consistent performance and communication

Right Positioning is Critical

Make or break the organization
Maggi Noodles launched in 1983 Noodles a new concept in Indian households Targeted at children Two options As a dinner item As a snack item

As a Lunch or Dinner
Housewives / Mothers take decisions Noodles as lunch or dinner item Replacing current lunch items Housewives want to serve children nutritious food Would noodles provide nutrition and replace tradition food?

As a Snack Item
Between lunch and dinner After playing or exercising Spend energy Want to eat something Quick preparation and delicious Variety of flavors Filing Will mothers accept this as a snack Item

Right positioning was critical for the success of Maggi noodles.

The first competition came from the ready-to-eat snack segment, that were usually the bought out type. Eg Samosa unhealthy and uhygienic option The other competitor, homemade snacks overcame both these problems but had the disadvantage of extended preparation time at home.
Maggi was positioned as the only hygienic home made snack. Through its ads, NIL positioned Maggi as a 'fun' food for kids which mothers could prepare easily.
Mummy, bhookh lagi hai Bas 2-Minute Fast to Cook Good to Eat Health Bhi, taste Bhi

Positioning Strategy
Competitive Advantage

Point of Difference

Point of Parity

1.Competitive Advantage
Company can position itself as providing superior value by differentiating along the lines of products, services, people or image How many differences to promote? Aggressively promote one benefit to target market. Companies should develop a Unique Selling Proposition (USP) for each brand and stick to it. However, if two or more companies claim to have same USP, then the companies should position themselves on more than one differentiator attribute

1.Competitive Advantage
Which to promote?
Important Distinctive Superior Communicable Pre-emptive Affordable (to company and consumer) Profitable

2.Points of Difference
Points of difference are attributes/ benefits that consumers strongly associate with a brand/product, positively evaluate, and believe that they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand/product. Usually in line with the Unique Selling Proposition and are critical in defining the competitive advantage of your products.
Eg. Fast-food chain Subway offers healthier meals than other quick-serve restaurants because its sandwiches have fewer grams of fat

2.Points of Difference
The sources of difference can be

Product Design Quality Additional Services Image People (Staff) Price Others

3.Points of Parity
Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands. While POPs may usually not be the reason to choose a brand, their absence can certainly be a reason to drop a brand.
Category point of parity means that the brand offers necessary but not necessarily sufficient category features. Eg. A bank will not be suitable, for example, unless it offers adequate ATM service. Competitive point of parity is designed to negate a competitors point of difference. Eg. Lifebuoy soap will establish competitive POP with Dettol soap by claiming that it has germ killing qualities and vice versa.


In a Fast-food outlets
More menu flexibility

Higher quality ingredients

Similar menu choice, similar instore facilities, similar pricing

Discount offers

Overall Positioning Strategy

Consumers want product and services that give them greatest value Hence, companies should position their brands on key benefits that they offer relative to competing brands. The full positioning of a brand is called the brands Value Proposition the full mix of benefits upon which the brand is positioned.

Value Proposition

Positioning Errors
Not positioning strongly enough.

Giving buyers too narrow a picture of the product.

Muddled Positioning:
Leaving buyers with a confused image of the product.

Perceptual Mapping

Displaying or graphing, in two or more dimensions. The location of products, brands , or group of products in customers minds.

Margo occupies the herbal slot Lifebuoy occupies the hygiene slot

Approaches to Create Perceptual Maps

Perceptual map

Attribute data

Nonattribute data



Factor analysis

Correspondence analysis

Discriminant analysis


Developing perceptual Maps

1 2
3 4

Identify a set of competing brands Identify important attributes through Qualitative Research Conduct quantitative marketing research
Plot brands on a two dimensional brands

Positioning Bases


Price and Quality


Product User


Product Class


6 sec

Price and Quality

Premium full service airline

Low Cost, no frill players

Perceptual Mapping of Toothpaste

High Fresh Breath Decay Prevention

Minty taste, foaminess

Forhans regular

Good for gums

Dabur lal powder low


Product User

Perceptual Map of Washing Products

Makes extra white
Robin Liquid

Detergent powders
Detergent bars

Cleans dirt Robin liquid is attempting to distinguish itself from Detergent products on the dimension of extra whiteness


Mystery Shampoo

A mystery Shampoo, 80% of Women say is better than anything else

Product Class


Perceptual Mapping of Digestive Brands


Gelusil Eno Digene

High Efficacy

Low Efficacy

Pudin Hara Hajmola


Perceptual Mapping of Soap Brands

Does Good
Mysore Sandal Soap
Margo I Ponds Cold Cream Liril


Feels Good

Lavendar Dew Moti

I = Ideal Position

Perceptual Map of Pain Relievers


. Tylenol

. Bufferin . Bayer


. Private-label aspirin
. Anacin

. Advil . Nuprin . Excedrin


Vicks VapoRub

Adult Day-time Forehead (colds) Specific area of pain

Child Night Nose, Throat Chest and back

Repositioning: company modifies

what is already present. The market demand changes rapidly and so, repositioning is important. The main aim of this is moving something from somewhere towards a greater position at the market. Help in saving the failing brand. Done when the market is volatile

Brand positioning, when obsolete -occurs a need to

Reposition it. E.g.: Hyundai cars 10 years 1,00,000 miles warranties And 1 yr buy back program Value for money positioning statement may not work for a brand

Positioning is the process by which marketers try to create an image or identity in the minds of their target market for its product, brand, or organization

Re-Positioning involves changing the identity of a product, relative to the identity of competing products.

De-Positioning involves attempting to change the identity of competing products, relative to the identity of your own product.

Brand repositioning done Proactively

Its is an expensive investment. Educating the consumers for the new position

Repositioning of brand can be rolled out at

The following three stages:

Introductory stage

Elaboration stage

Fortification stage

Three types of repositioning strategies

Zero repositioning Gradual repositioning

Radical repositioning

Reasons for repositioning

Reasons for Repositioning:

Environmentally driven

Consumer driven

Competitor driven

Internally driven

Increase relevance to consumers:

Maruti Omni: From van to spacious car
Bournvita: From milk additive to nutrition drink

Search for viable position:

Complan: Food for the convalescing to for growing children

Milkfood yogurt: Form at any time snack to misthi dohi

Increasing occasion for use:

Monaco : From salted biscuits to biscuits with toppings Burnol: From oinment for burns to 3-in-1 oinment Odomos: From outdoor to both

Dettol: from antiseptic liquid to multi use liquid

Vicks vapor rub: from child vapor rub to adult vapor rub Titan watches: from elegance watches to best gift

Falling sales:
Ambassador: From rational pitch to emotional pitch
Brooke bonds red label: Changing the tag lines

Bringing in new customers:

Johnson & Johnson: From baby to adults Ray-ban: From men to women Cadburys dairy milk: From children to adults

Making the brand contemporary:

Dabur chyawanprash: From good for digestion to nutritional value Femina magazine: Repositioned as todays women

Differentiating the brand from competitors:

Mint-o: Repositioned the mint all mint, no hole

Changed market condition:

Horlicks: Energy giver and health provider Milkmaid: From whitener for milk to topping for dessert

Brand Repositioning of Cinthol

Inception in 1952 with a unique smell
In 1995, shahrukh khan.. The 3 international variants of cinthol

In 1986 vinod khanna ( I use Cinthol. Do you?) and Imran khan

In 2000- as family soap (Tan Tazza, To Man Tazza)

1989 new image of freshness with Cinthol Lime

In 2008- tagline dont stop endorsed by hrithik roshan

Cinthol embarks Alive is Awesome.


repositioned itself again with the help of cricketer Virat Kohli (during IPL season) With the tagline Alive is Awesome Targeted youth Changed the wrapper from red to bold and abstract colours

Repositioned the soap along with shower gels, deodrants and talcum powder.

Merits of repositioning:

Demerits of repositioning:

Value over others Updated personality Relevant position

Loss of focus Neglecting original customers Losing credibility of brand

Up to date image

Confusing the brand

Sengupta Subroto, Brand Positioning Strategies for competitive advantage, TATA MacGraw hills Education Private Limited, 2nd edition. Trout Jack, Ries Al Positioning - The Battle for Your Mind, McGraw Hill Professional. Lamb, Hair, Sharma, McDaniel- MKTG, CENGAGE learning.

Trout Jack Repositioning TATA McGraw Hill