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Title of the project Presenters Institution Supervisor Submitted to and for Date

Declaration statement Dedication Acknowledgements Abstract Table of contents List of figures List of tables Abbreviations


It is a statement indicating the area of study phrased in operational terms. A researchable problem can be identified from candidate's Experience(background) Industrial attachment-i.e. a problem exist in the place of attachment that may provide opportunity for a research topic Literature review-various studies can reveal gaps that need to be filled through further research

A good research title should:Reflect the variables being investigated in the study Be written using appropriate verbs Indicate the target population


1.0 overview This is an outline of what is contained in the chapter 1.1 Background information The researcher should be able to: Define the major concept identified in the title of the study Explain the background of the concept highlighting for instance its existence in an ideal situation and its importance on the basis of available theory and studies

1.2 Statement of the problem A problem statement is a specific statement that clearly conveys the purpose of the research study. Some researchers prefer expressing it in question form. The researcher should:Give explanation of the specific issues being investigated Provide problem indicators and supportive evidence Explain the purpose of the study, which should be well in line with the nature and scope of the problem

1.3 Project objectives Objectives refer to specific aspects of the phenomenon under study that the researcher desires to bring out at the end of the study Objectives should:Relate to specific activities to be carried out to achieve the purpose of the study Be written using action verbs which are investigative or information- search oriented e.g. To assess, investigate, find out, to establish etc Cover each of the variables of the study SMART Well sequenced

1.4 Research questions These are questions derived from the objectives that will be used to investigate the problem under study. The researcher should give a focus and guidance to areas of study 1.5 Assumptions Assumptions are factors that have been taken as true throughout the research period thus requiring no investigation. Considerations in stating assumptions State the variables that are assumed to remain constant so as to delimit the researcher A pre-survey is important to establish the stability of the assumptions

1.6 Justification of the study The researcher should be able to articulate the reason why he/she considers the study to be important. This may be in line with the impact of the problem on productivity or the fact the area has not be given priority in investigation it deserves. There should be supportive evidence as to why the study should be carried out. 1.7 significance of the study The researcher should state who will benefit from the research findings

1.8 Scope The researcher should describe the study in terms of its coverage (variables), location and time of the study in order to emphasize the focus of the study. 1.9 limitations It is a negative influence on the results, over which the researcher has no control. Limitations may be in relation to sample size, scope of the study 1.10 Definitions of operational terms The researcher should define and clarify any operational terms used in the study


2.0 overview : The researcher should be able to outline what is covered in the whole chapter The contents of the chapter should be presented using sub-headings based on the relevant themes of the study. Number of items(subtopics) depends on the themes established. Consideration in writing the content of the review: Researcher should begin by defining the concepts and acknowledging the sources of those definitions

Review the development of the subject of the study systematically or chronologically beginning from broad aspects to specific aspects of the study Review previous researchers on the subject and identify gaps contradictions and conflicts arising from studies Straight copying of statements, formulae, tables, charts etc without acknowledging their sources is not accepted. APA system of referencing is preferred. Researcher should be as current as possible


3.0 Overview The researcher should identify design e.g. Case study, experimental study, cross-sectional study etc 3.1 Population The researcher should define the population of study in terms of: Location Size structure

3.2 Sample design The research should state the existence of the sampling. Sampling technique used and the rationale for such a technique should be explained. Sample size should be stated. 3.3 Data collection instruments The researcher should identify and describe the instruments for collecting data and the rationale for such instruments. Example of instruments; questionnaire, interview schedules, observation schedules, document analysis guide.

3.4 Data collection procedure The researcher should explain step-by-step how each instrument was administered in the process of data collection. 3.5 Data analysis techniques The researcher should explain how data was processed with reference to: Editing Coding Classification Application of qualitative and quantitative techniques Data presentation Rationale for data analysis tools used should be given


4.0 0verview Should be a general statement that highlights the content of the chapter. 4.1 Data presentation and analysis The researcher should present a comprehensive summary of the main results based on research objectives of the study. A clear analysis along those objectives and themes should then follow.


5.0 Overview A statement that highlights the contents of the chapter. 5.1 Conclusions The researcher should state the extend to which the objectives have been achieved or research questions have been answered. 5.2 Recommendations Researcher should be able to make recommendations based on the findings; for action research, there should be indication of direction for further research or implementation of the findings.

Should be presented preferably according to the APA system. Layout should be as follows: For a book Author(s) surname(s), initials, yr of publication, title of text (underline, bold, italics), edition, pages, city of publication and publisher For a journal Authors surname, initials, yr of publication, title of text, name of journal(quotes, italics, or underlined) Number, volume and pps.

The researcher should attach any relevant material that is not included in the main body of the report i.e. Questionnaires, interview schedules, observation schedules etc. Technical information e.g. Photocopies of maps, tables, budgets, time plan etc.

Conference proceedings Published work Ngeny K. 2010, Procurement Procedures influence Project Performance 'Proceedings of the international symposium on public procurement pp 76-82. Nrb