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# Chapter 7: Direct Current Motors

Theory of Operation
Force is exerted on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field.

Simple DC Motor Commutation: Periodic reversal of current Torque is greatest when Parallel (most flux)

DC Motor Theory http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/HBASE/magnetic/motdc.html DC Motor Java Applet http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorial s/java/dcmotor/index.html Flash of various motors http://www.st.com/stonline/products/support/ motor/tutorial/motor.swf

DC Motor cutaway

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Bearing Case/end bell Brush holder Rotor Windings (Armature) Brushes Commutator Stator windings (Field) (permanent magnets in this motor) Armature Bars

Toque is based on Armature Current and Magnetic Flux of the field T = kTIA Generator Action: Moving a conductor though a field produces a voltage (EMF) based on flux and speed: EMF = KES In a motor this EMF is opposite applied voltage.

Induced voltage counters applied voltage, and is called counter EMF or CEMF Va = Vin CEMF Ia = (Vin CEMF)/Ra Speed therefore is: S = CEMF/KE

CEMF S

## Armature Current is prop to applied voltage - counter EMF

IA Vin CEMF T IA S

## Speed is proportional to Torque

Speed Regulation: ability of a motor to maintain rated speed under load. Based on no-load and full-load speed. %speed regulation = (SNL-SFL)/SFL X 100

Series-Wound Motor
Initial current is very high until motor comes up to speed. Provides large starting torque Car starters. Under no-load can run-away (over speed)

Stall Torque Maximum torque a motor can supply without stalling No-Load Speed Speed of motor with no load. Any motor that is doing something useful must be running at less than no-load speed. Reversing applied voltage does NOT change motors direction. Changing only armature connections would.

Shunt-Wound
Lower stall and no-load speeds. Much less speed change from NL to FL (15%) Speed control via line voltage. Reversing only shunt or armature will reverse motor.

Compound Motor
Combination of series and shunt. Good starting torque and good speed control.

## Permanent Magnet Motors

High flux permanent magnets provide flux. Very good linear control Low power use

DC Motor Control

Analog Drive

Direction Control

## PWM Speed Control

By cycling the voltage fully on and off within a small time, the speed can be controlled. The higher the on-time, or duty cycle, the more power that is received.

Problems:
Higher frequencies lead to higher power dissipation by driver (more time switching). Due to inductance, current will lag and may not be linear with shorted/faster duty cycles.

Generating PWM

## Large Motor Control

Braking
Braking: Since a motor generates voltage, by applying a load when power is removed, the generated power is consumed by a load resistor absorbing the power of the generator and slowing it. Plugging: Monetarily reversing the supply BUT - CEMF and Supply voltage will combine potentially leading to damaging currents.

Brushless DC Motor
Electronic Commutation to control which magnet is on. Uses Hall effect sensors to detect rotor position and control field coils to control speed.