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Defined as those inner psychological Characteristics(qualities, attributes, traits, factors, mannerism) /Dynamic organization within an individual that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his/her environment. Identification of different personality characteristics with consumer behavior is highly useful in market segmentation strategies. Ex. Tata tea-jagte raho; HSBCs Worlds local bank; Heredity vs. development; Holistic approach

1. Personality reflects individual difference: This helps to group people on
basis of single or few common traits

2. Personality is consistent and enduring:

Though no change in consumer personality is possible, marketers attempt to appeal to relevant traits in a target group 3. Personality can change: By major life events e.g. marriage, birth, death, change of job/profession; convergence in personality characteristics of man & women

1. FREUDIAN THEORY: Psychoanalytic Theory based on unconscious needs/drives, specially sexual & biological drives. Early childhood exp., analysis of their dreams & specific nature of their mental & physical adjustments. 3 div. a. ID(Libido): is source of individuals strong basic drive & biolological urges: immediate pleasure & avoid pain. Ex. New born baby b. EGO: Conscious control, realistic principle c. SUPER EGO: Moral part; Ideal rather than real, perfection

Freuds theory is based on instinctual & sexual in nature mainly on emotionally disturbed people. Carl Jung identified 1.Sensing-Thinking Personality: Rational, Objective, price sensitive, avoid risk 2.Sensing Feeling: Moved by personal values, status conscious 3.Intuituing-Thinking: Imagination, logical, risk 4.Intuiting-Feeling: Consider others view, risk taking, long time in decision


Karen Horney identified 10 major needs and classified 3 major approach for coping anxiety 1. Compliant Individuals: Move toward others( desire to be loved, wanted appreciated). Brand Loyal 2. Aggressive Individuals: Move against others(desire to excel & win admiration). Ex. Old Spice Deodorant: masculine approach 3. Detached Individual: Move away from others(desire independence., self reliance, freedom). Ex. Heavy tea drinkers; desire not to conform

Trait: Any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another. Departure from two earlier theories. It focus on measurement of personality in terms of specific psychological characteristic called traits. Quantitative-personality tests e.g. Consumer innovativeness, Consumer Materialism, Consumer Ethnocentrism(foreign) Reserved, Submissive, Serious, Timid, Practical, Conservative, relaxed, sensitive, suspicious


Is most relevant, as self image of consumers influence the purchase behavior. It is totality of the individual thoughts & feeling having reference to himself/ herself as an object. What consumers buy or own is a reflection of what they think & believe who they are. This represent their actual self, what they like to be is their ideal self. How they feel others see them is their social self and how they would like others to see them is their ideal social-self .One more expected self means how customers expect to see themselves sometimes in future. The expected self is somewhere between actual self & ideal self. Expected self provide opportunity to design products & promotions appealing to consumers & providing genuine opportunity to change their self image.


INDEPENDENT SELF CONCEPT: Western beliefindividuals are basically separate. Personal goals, achievement & desires. Self reliant INTERDEPENDENT SELF CONCEPT: Asian belief in basic connectedness of human being. Family, cultural, social relationships. Obedient, holistic, connected & relation oriented. IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS: a. Desire to achieve self consistency b. Desire to enhance ones self esteem. If self controlled & practical, wear conservative cloths and stay at home. If his ideal self were reckless & carefree, he would wear casual fashion clothes, go to parties in evening & drive sports car or powerful motorcycle