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9C Plants and photosynthesis

9C Plants and photosynthesis


Green and growing Leaves and photosynthesis
Photosynthesis and the environment

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9C Plants and photosynthesis

Green and growing

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9C Photosynthesis matters

Brian started with bare soil and a packet of seeds. Now he has tomatoes for his family all summer.

The tomatoes contain lots of chemicals that were not there at the start. Where have they come from?
Whats the role of the Sun in helping the tomatoes grow?
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9C The process of photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that happens in the leaf.


What are the reactants? Where do they come from?
carbon dioxide
REACTANT FROM AIR

sunlight
TO AIR OR USED FOR RESPIRATION PRODUCT

oxygen

What are the products of the reaction? What happens to the products?

photosynthesis

glucose
PRODUCT USED BY PLANT

water
REACTANT FROM SOIL

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9C Where does the sugar go?

Plants make glucose by photosynthesis. This is how they grow.


out of of leaf leaf out through stomata stomata through some oxygen and glucose used in respiration cellulose for cell walls proteins for growth and enzymes photosynthesis photosynthesis glucose glucose

oxygen oxygen carbon dioxide dioxide carbon from the the air air from

starch for storage


fats and oils for storage

water water from soil soil from

Glucose is a sugar. But a plant is not just sugar! It makes lots of other chemicals so it can grow.
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Starch is one chemical that a plant makes. A potato stores starch. How does the starch get there, when glucose is made in the leaf?

9C All mixed up

Match the reactants with their products to complete the word equations. Respiration oxygen + sugar carbon dioxide + water

Photosynthesis carbon dioxide + water

light energy taken in

oxygen + sugar

carbon dioxide
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sugar

water

oxygen

9C Faster photosynthesis

How fast does a plant photosynthesise? This question is very important to farmers and growers.
We can use this apparatus to measure the rate of photosynthesis. How?
oxygen collects light source test tube water

pondweed (Elodea) beaker funnel

We might count the oxygen bubbles per minute, or collect the gas given off in one minute and measure its volume. What would happen if we increased the light level?
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9C Faster photosynthesis

Here are some results from the pondweed experiment.


light level very high bubbles of oxygen per minute 24

high
medium low

22
15 7

very low

What effect does light have on the rate of photosynthesis? What would happen if we put a layer of oil on the water? This stops carbon dioxide from the air dissolving in the water.

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9C Photosynthesis myths?

True or false?
1. Plants 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Photosynthesis Roots Plants carry make look give green out out food carbon only half and from because the respiration happens oxygen dioxide photosynthesis they in when and work contain thesunlight. light. they in opposite that the are chemical takes chlorophyll. directions. place photosynthesising. in a healthy oak tree.
TRUE! Photosynthesis FALSE! Without Plants They take are need light vital energy, carbon to produces theall the dioxide plant reactions glucose but from roots and the of cannot air Chlorophyll absorbs the colours in light in carbon dioxide. Oxygen is

oxygen, photosynthesis and carry water out while photosynthesis from respiration cannot the soil work. to breaks build theyre sugars. them except green we see the green light produced by photosynthesis. down Oxygen underground to make isis produced carbon in the dark. in dioxide photosynthesis. and water. because it reflected from the plant.

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9C Plants and photosynthesis

Leaves and photosynthesis

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9C Food factories

Plants are food factories! They are adapted to carry out photosynthesis quickly. How does this help them? Most photosynthesis happens in the leaves. Can you give three ways in which these leaves are adapted to be food factories?

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9C Design a food factory

Photosynthesis needs light. You are going to design a light-catching machine.

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9C Design a food factory

Chloroplasts use light to make sugar. Where would you put these to make the most of the light?

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9C Design a food factory

Photosynthesis needs carbon dioxide. How does this gas get into the leaf?

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9C Design a food factory

Photosynthesis needs water. How can you get it into the leaf?

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9C Design a food factory

If youre a dynamite designer, you should have a food-making factory that looks something like this:
tightly packed palisade cells full of chloroplasts
spongy mesophyll with air spaces so gases can move around

veins to bring water up from the roots, and also take sugar back down to the roots for storage

stomata to let carbon dioxide into the leaf

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9C Quiz

1. Leaves are adapted for a) pollination b) photosynthesis c) photography.

2. Stomata are...
a) holes in a leaf that can open and close to let gases in and out b) the cells that carry out photosynthesis c) small stones found in your stomach.

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9C Quiz

3. Leaves are covered with a thin waterproof layer called the a) popsicle b) cuticle c) waxicle. 4. Leaves have a large surface area to... a) increase the rate of reactions b) catch the maximum amount of sunlight c) look pretty in parks and gardens.

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9C Quiz

5. Palisade mesophyll is in the upper part of the leaf because a) it needs to capture as much sunlight as possible b) the lower areas were already full c) it stops the upper surface from collapsing.

6. Spongy mesophyll has large air spaces between the cells to...
a) allow veins into the leaf b) cut down the amount of cellulose needed to build new cell walls c) give room for gases to move more easily.
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9C Plants and photosynthesis

Photosynthesis and the environment

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9C Meet the energy twins

Respiration and photosynthesis are like a pair of energy twins.


sunlight energy
oxygen + glucose

photosynthesis carbon dioxide + water

respiration

energy released

How do these energy twins work together to keep our atmosphere in balance? Where would we be without sunlight and green plants?
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9C Food, medicines, and ...

All of our food comes originally from plants. Thats true even if you only eat steak! Why? Many powerful drugs come from plants. Aspirin first came from the bark of willow trees. Powerful new anti-cancer drugs are made from yew trees. Wood, hay and bamboo are used all over the world for building. Linen and cotton are both fabrics made from plants. What else can we get from plants?

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9C The rainforest question

Rainforests are very complex ecosystems. Scientists estimate that thousands of unknown species live there.

But the people living in rainforests need to live now. They cut down the trees for building and furniture. They grow crops on the land, but this destroys the soil.

What does deforestation do to the atmosphere?


What other problems does it cause?
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9C Rainforest answers?

Local people need money. They need to harvest the forests now.

Most of the money is earned by a few rich companies. The people who live in the forests get nothing and they lose their homes. How many future lifesaving drugs have we already lost from the rainforests? How many unknown species have we made extinct?

People in the rich world cut down all of their forests centuries ago they cant tell people in the developing world not to do the same!

What do you think?


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