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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Prepared By: Ahsiah Ismail

Objectives :
Define the term, computer Discuss the history & evolution of computer Describe the categories of computers Identify the components, types and functions of a

computer

Distinguish between system software and application

software

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What is Computer

Computer can be defined as an electronic device or

machine working under a set of instruction, to accept data, process it into meaningful information and store it for future use.

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History and Evolution of Computer


Babbage and The Countess, Difference and

Analytical Engine

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Most histories of the modern computer begin with

the Analytical Engine envisioned by Charles Babbage.


Babbage's assistant and collaborator, Ada Lovelace,

is said to have introduced the ideas of program loops and subroutines and is sometimes considered the first programmer.

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Herman Hollerith, Tabulating Machine

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In 1890 Herman Hollerith tabulating machine won in

competition that was held to find some way to speed the counting process.

The machine uses electrical power rather than

mechanical to drive the device.

In 1896 he himself founded the Tabulating Machine

Company and in 1924 the successor to this company merged with two other companies to form International Business Machines Corporation IBM.

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The Modern Era


During late 1930s, Dr John V Atanasoff, a professor

from Iowa State University spent time trying to build an electronic calculating device.
He and his assistant, Clifford Berry built the first

digital computer that worked electronically; the ABC for Atanasoff Berry Computer.

Prepared By: Ahsiah Ismail

Prepared By: Ahsiah Ismail

In 1924 the world first general purpose electronic

digital computer was built by John Mauchly and his assistant J. Presper Eckert.
Their invention was the ENIAC Electronic

Numerical Integrator and Computer which able to multiply a pair of numbers in about three milliseconds.

Prepared By: Ahsiah Ismail

Prepared By: Ahsiah Ismail

Modern computers inherently follow the ideas of the

stored program laid out by John von Neumann in 1945.


Essentially, the program is read by the computer one

instruction at a time, an operation is performed, and the computer then reads in the next instruction, and so on.
Recently, computers and programs have been devised

that allow multiple programs (and computers) to work on the same problem at the same time in parallel.
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Categories of Computers
Personal computers
Mobile computers and mobile devices Game consoles Servers Mainframes Supercomputers Embedded computers
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Personal Computers
A personal computer can perform all of its input,

processing, output, and storage activities by itself Two popular architectures are the PC and the Apple

Desktop computer

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Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices

Mobile Computer
Personal computer you can carry from place to place

Mobile Device
Computing device small enough to hold in your hand

Examples include notebook computers, laptop computers, netbooks, ultra-thins, and Tablet PCs
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Examples include smart phones, PDAs, handheld computers, portable media players, and digital cameras

Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices

Notebook computer

Tablet PC
Smart phone PDA
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Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices

Handheld computer

Portable media player


Digital camera

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Game Consoles
A game console is a

mobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video games

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Servers
A server controls

access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network

Provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information

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Mainframes
A mainframe is a

large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously

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Supercomputers
A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful

computer

Fastest supercomputers are capable of processing more than one quadrillion instructions in a single second

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Embedded Computers
An embedded computer is a special-purpose

computer that functions as a component in a larger product


Consumer Electronics Mobile and digital telephones Digital televisions Cameras Video recorders DVD players and recorders Answering machines Home Automation Devices Thermostats Sprinkling systems Security monitoring systems Appliances Lights Automobiles Antilock brakes Engine control modules Airbag controller Cruise control Process Controllers and Robotics Remote monitoring systems Power monitors Machine controllers Medical devices Computer Devices and Office Machines Keyboards Printers Faxes Copiers

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Embedded Computers

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Core Component, Types and Computer Functions Components


Components

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Input devices Allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer Output devices Hardware component that conveys information to one or more people System unit Case that contains the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data Storage devices Holds data, instructions, and information for future use Communication devices Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices
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Types

Analog Uses arithmetic and logical operations. Eg:

computer used in flight centres to measure pressure and temperature Digital Operations are on electrical input. Eg; ON=1 OFF=0 used in your personal computers Hybrid Combine both operations in analog and digital computers Eg; computer used in hospital to measure patients heartbeat
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Computer functions (Information Processing Cycle)

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All computers must be able to:

Gather data Process data Store data Disseminate data Display data

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Concept of Hardware and Software

Hardware

- the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical components making up a computer system

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Prepared By: Ahsiah Ismail

Terminologies:

Input devices e.g: mouse, keyboard, scanner, microphone, etc


Output devices e.g: screen, speaker, printer, etc System unit consist of processor, memory, expansion cards, etc. Storage devices e.g: diskette drive, hard disk, CD-ROM or DVDROM drive, USB flash drive, memory card Communication devices modem, router, hub, NIC, etc
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Software

- 2 types :

i- System Software ii- Application software

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Systems software
Programs that control or maintain the operations of

the computer and its devices

Operating System (OS) a set of programs that

coordinates all activities among computer hardware devices

Utility Programs allow the user to perform

maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices or its programs
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Application software

Programs designed to make users more productive Types: Word Processing, Spreadsheet, Database,

Presentation Graphics

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