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3.6 The Active Fire Prevention System 3.6.

1 The Emergency Equipment And The Detection Equipment (the portable fire extinguisher, the smoke detector and the heat detector) 3.6.2 The First Aid
3.6.3 The Automatic Fire Extinguishing (the sprinkler, the wet and the dry risers)

3.6.4 The Fire Fighter Equipment


Test 2 3.7 The Role Of The Building Automation System In The Fire Prevention 3.8 The Uniform Building By Laws

(Portable) Fire Extinguisher Sand Bucket , Quilt Cover Axes

(Fixed) Hose Rail Dry & Wet Riser Fire Sprinkler

3.6.1 The Emergency Equipment And The Detection Equipment (the portable fire extinguisher, the smoke detector and the heat detector)

3.6 The Active Fire Prevention System 3.6.1 The Emergency Equipment And The Detection Equipment (the portable fire extinguisher, the smoke detector and the heat detector) 3.6.2 The First Aid 3.6.3 The Automatic Fire Extinguishing (the sprinkler, the wet and the dry risers) 3.6.4 The Fire Fighter Equipment

The Portable Fire Fighting Equipment are of three types that are: a) Foam Cylinders b) Dry Powder Units c) Carbon Dioxide Cylinders

Portable Fire Extinguisher


The components and operation manual of the fire extinguisher are as in the diagrams below :

a)

Foam Cylinders
The inner cartridge has to be broken first before the reaction mechanism of the two chemicals form into foams. The foams will then shoots out of the nozzles. Foam Fire Extinguisher can be use to almost all type of fire especially of oil/fuel and chemical fluids.

b) Dry Powder Unit

The chemical reaction of the soda bicarbonate liquid and asid will create a high pressure type of powder which will be pushed out of the nozzle.

The powder will dry out slowly and reduce the potential of misconduct but expensive and require 6month regular maintenance check.
Suitable for class A, B and C type of fires especially suited to paper, cloth any electrical fire and LPG liquid fires such as chemicals , petroleum/oils and paints

c) CO Cylinders

The cylinder consists of pressurized CO gas which will rush out the nozzle after pulling the safety pin.

The CO gas will not destroy /ruin valuable property such as books or any paper product (library/achieve) and expensive electronic equipments (hospitals)
The CO gas is not suitable for human as it will suffocated human.

High and cost-effective availability of naturally occurring gas (carbon dioxide) Complex, highly effective equipment for rapid extinguishing Highly reliable protection of assets

3.6.2. THE FIRST AID


A first Aid kit box is a must at every potentially endangered areas. A First Aid Kit consist of

3.6 The Active Fire Prevention System 3.6.1 The Emergency Equipment And The Detection Equipment (the portable fire extinguisher, the smoke detector and the heat detector) 3.6.2 The First Aid 3.6.3 The Automatic Fire Extinguishing (the sprinkler, the wet and the dry risers) 3.6.4 The Fire Fighter Equipment

...

3.6.3. THE AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINGUISHING


Automatic means a device or system providing an emergency function without necessity of human intervention. (definition by UBBL 1984)

3.6 The Active Fire Prevention System 3.6.1 The Emergency Equipment And The Detection Equipment (the portable fire extinguisher, the smoke detector and the heat detector) 3.6.2 The First Aid 3.6.3 The Automatic Fire Extinguishing (the sprinkler, the wet and the dry risers) 3.6.4 The Fire Fighter Equipment

(Portable) Fire Extinguisher Sand Bucket , Quilt Cover and Axes

(Fixed) Dry & Wet Riser Hose Rail Fire Sprinkler

The Automatic Fire Extinguishing are actually the fixed fire fighting features such as the : a) b) c) Hose Reels Wet and Dry Risers Sprinkler

a)

Hose Reels

a) b) c)

Hose Reels Wet and Dry Risers Sprinkler

There are small (20-25mm diameter) long (2100030000mm) rubber hoses and they can be provided for occupants in case of an outbreak of fire. These hose reels is normally wound on to a drum and installed in a recess along the corridor or landing wall The quantity of water provided depend on quantity of water in the water tank.

Riser

a) b) c)

Hose Reels Wet and Dry Risers Sprinkler

A riser is a vertical pipe in a building that the Fire Authority can use to connect hoses to at any building level. Two types of riser are :

a) Wet Riser contains water constantly from the Fire water tank . b) Dry Riser is filled from the fire hydrant located outside the building or from the fire brigade water truck.

a)

Dry Riser System

a) b) c)

Hose Reels Wet and Dry Risers Sprinkler

A dry riser consists of an empty or dry pipe vertically of the building level with hydrant valves on each floor and at the roof level Inlets are fitted at street level through which fire brigades can pump water to the landing valves

A dry riser is therefore an extension of the firemen hose

b)

Wet Riser System

a) b) c)

Hose Reels Wet and Dry Risers Sprinkler

A wet riser is a dry riser with a permanent water supply system (usually pumped) added to it. Water maybe supplied either by a direct connection to towns main or in pump from storage tanks

Wet risers are necessary for buildings which are too high for brigade pumps to supply the necessary water pressure via a dry riser. If the mains pressure is higher than maximum brigade operating pressure it is necessary to use pressure regulating landing valves.

Wet Riser System

Wet Riser System

Wet pipe systems are the most commonly used for the sprinkler system

c) Sprinkler System
A sprinkler system are design automatically distributed water through sprinklers at a defined interval distance to control or suppress fire A sprinkler system consist of a network of pipes connected to a suitable water supply and fixed at ceiling level throughout the protected building.

a) b) c)

Hose Reels Wet and Dry Risers Sprinkler

Sprinklers are very useful in areas of high occupancy such as supermarkets, leisure centres and shopping malls. Also sprinklers are used in areas where materials of high risk inflammable products are stored or manufactured such as; carpets, fabrics, clothing, wood, fuels.

In the event of a fire, the heat generated causes the fusible element to its fusing point.
The fusible elements then melts or bursts and the lever holding the cap fall out and thus allow water to be discharged into the fire in the form of a fine spray. It is by far the most important and successful system in particular for buildings where there is only intermittent supervision and people do not continuously occupy. These includes car parks, warehouse stores and large space buildings

3.6.4. THE FIRE FIGHTER EQUIPMENT

(Portable) Fire Extinguisher Sand Bucket , Quilt Cover (selimut) Axes

(Fixed) Hose Rail Dry & Wet Riser Fire Sprinkler

3.6 The Active Fire Prevention System 3.6.1 The Emergency Equipment And The Detection Equipment (the portable fire extinguisher, the smoke detector and the heat detector) 3.6.2 The First Aid
3.6.3 The Automatic Fire Extinguishing (the sprinkler, the wet and the dry risers)

3.6.4 The Fire Fighter Equipment


Test 2 3.7 The Role Of The Building Automation System In The Fire Prevention 3.8 The Uniform Building By Laws

3.7. ROLE OF BUILDING AUTOMATION SYSTEM IN THE FIRE PREVENTION


Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat Malaysia is the responsible authority in the revised building plan approval before the Occupation and Compliance Certificate (OCC) was issued to ensure that all buildings follow the standards set forth in the By-Laws 1984 Uniform Building and Fire Services Act 1988 (Act 341) The purpose of the law is to regulate the development of building industry in which the fire safety aspects involved from the initial planning stages to the final stages of building construction completed

3.8. FIRE PREVENTION REGARDING TO UNIFORM BUILDING BY LAWS

Uniform Building 1984 is divided into nine main sections which consists of ten tables.
BAHAGIAN VII ISI KANDUNGAN Kehendak-kehendak menentang kebakaran (undang-undang

kecil 133-224)
VIII Penggera kebakaran, pengesan api, pemadam api dan akses menentang kebakaran (undang-undang kecil 225-253) IX Pelbagai (undang-undang kecil 254-258)

Bahagian VII - Kehendak-kehendak Menentang Kebakaran- (1)


133. 134. 135. 136. 137. Tafsiran Menetapkan Kumpulan Maksud Kaedah-kaedah Mengukur Peruntukan Bagi Dinding Pangsa Dan Lantai Petak Lantai Dalam Bangunan Yang Melebihi Tinggi 30 Meter Hendaklah Dibina Sebagai Lantai Petak 138. Dinding Dan Lantai Lain Hendaklah Dibina Sebagai Dinding Pangsa Atau Lantai Petak 139. Pengasingan Kawasan Risiko Kebakaran 140. Akses Perkakas Bomba 141. Dinding Pengasing 142. Dinding Luar 143. Rasuk Atau Tiang 144. Salutan Pada Dinding Luar 145. Sebutan Mengenai Jadual Keenam 146. Sempadan Berkenaan 147. Pembinaan Dinding Pengasing 148. Kehendak Khas Bagi Dinding Pangsa Dan Lantai Petak 149. Pengadang Mendatar Dan Tegak Bagi Dinding 150. Lubong Terlindung 28

Bahagian VII - Kehendak-kehendak Menentang Kebakaran- (2)


151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. Pengudaraan Bagi Lubong Lif Ruang Buka Dalam Lubong Lif Pengesan Asap Bagi Lobi Lif Cara Gerakan Kecemasan Jika Berlaku Kerosakan Kuasa Sesalur Cara Gerakan Menentang Kebakaran Lubong Terlindung Sebagai Saluran Pengudaraan Lubong Terlindung Yang Mengandungi Tangga Pentas Di Tempat Perhimpunan Pentas Terbuka Tindakan Mencegah Kebakaran Dalam Sistem Penyamanan Udara Pengadang Api Pintu Api Dalam Dinding Petak Dan Dinding Pengasing Pintu Setengah Jam Dan Satu Jam Penutup Pintu Bagi Pintu Api Ukuran Jarak Perjalanan Ke Tempat Keluar Tempat Keluar Hendaklah Boleh Dilalui Pada Bila-bila Masa Pintu Keluar Tingkat Tangga Jalan Keluar Jalan Keluar Melalui Ruang Buka Tak Berkepung

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Bahagian VII - Kehendak-kehendak Menentang Kebakaran- (3)


170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. Jalan Keluar Melalui Ruang Buka Tak Berkepung Tempat Keluar Mendatar Tanda Tempat Keluar Kecemasan Pintu Keluar Susunan Pintu Keluar Tingkat Penghitungan Beban Pendudukan Pengiraan Lebar Pintu Keluar Tingkat Pengiraan Bilangan Tangga Dan Lebar Tangga Tempat Keluar Bagi Institusional Dan Tempat Perhimpunan Pengelasan Tempat Perhimpunan Standard Jarak Untuk Mengira Beban Pendudukan Lebar Jalan Keluar

219. Pemakaian Undang-undang Kecil Ini Bagi Lantai 220. Keluasan Lantai Dan Muatan Bangunan Dan Petak 221. Ujian Ketahanan Api 222. Ketahanan Api Bagi Dinding 223. Ketahanan Api Bagi Tingkat Di Atas Tingkat Bawah 224. Ketahanan Api Bagi Apa-apa Elemen Struktur
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Bahagian VIII - Penggera Kebakaran, Pengesan Api, Pemadam Api Dan Akses Menentang Kebakaran-1
225. 226. 227. 228. 229. Pengesanan Dan Pemadaman Api Sistem Automatik Bagi Pendudukan Berbahaya Pemadam Api Mudalih Injap Semburan Cara Akses Dan Menentang Kebakaran Dalam Bangunan Yang Tingginya Lebih Daripada 18.3 meter 230. Pemasangan Dan Ujian Sistem Pancur Kering 231. Pemasangan Dan Ujian Sistem Pancur Basah 232. Sistem Pancur Basah Atau Kering Bagi Bangunan Yang Sedang Dibina

233. Alir Masuk Busa 234. Struktur Bawah Tanah Dan Bangunan Tanpa Tingkat Hendaklah Masuk Busa 235. Pemasangan Tetap 236. Bahaya Khas 237. Penggera Kebakaran 238. Pusat Pemerintahan Dan Kawalan 239. Sistem Komunikasi Suara 240. Suis Pengasingan Elektrik 241. Kehendak-kehendak Khas Bagi Sistem Penggera Kebakaran

Mempunyai Alir

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Bahagian VIII - Penggera Kebakaran, Pengesan Api, Pemadam Api Dan Akses Menentang Kebakaran -2
242. 243. 244. 245. 246. 247. 248. 249. 250. 251. Ruang Akses Menentang Kebakaran Lif Bomba Piawai Yang Dikehendaki Kelulusan K.P.P.B. Perakuan Apabila Siap Storan Air Tanda Pada Pancur Basah, dll Pengeluaran Asap Dan Haba Liang Asap Udara Biasa Liang Asap Hendaklah Mencukupi Untuk Mencegah Pengumpulan Asap Yang Membahayakan

252. Liang Asap Hendaklah Boleh Dibuka Oleh Pihak Berkuasa Bomba 253. Sistem Kuasa Kecemasan

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Jadual
Jadual Kelima - Ketetapan Kumpulan Maksud, Ukuran Bangunan Dan Kompatmen. Jadual Keenam - Hitungan Had Yang Dibenarkan Bagi Kawasan Tak Terlindung.

Jadual Ketujuh - Jarak Perjalanan, Beban Pendudukan.


Jadual Kelapan - Pengelasan Sekatan Kemerebakan Api Ke Atas Permukaan Dinding Dan Siling. Jadual Kesembilan - Had-had Kompatmen Dan Tempoh Minimum Ketahanan Api Bagi Elemen Struktur. Jadual Kesepuluh - Jadual Mengenai Kehendak-kehendak Bagi Sistem Pemadaman Api, Sistem Penggera Kebakaran Dan Kecemasan.

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