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# BETTI NUMBERS OF RANDOM

SIMPLICIAL COMPLEXES
MATTHEW KAHLE & ELIZABETH MECKE

Presented by Ariel Szapiro
INTRODUCTION : BETTI NUMBERS
Informally, the k
th
Betti number refers to the number of
unconnected k-dimensional surfaces . The first few Betti
numbers have the following intuitive definitions:

0
is the number of connected components

1
is the number of two-dimensional holes or " handles"

2
is the number of three-dimensional holes or "voids
etc

INTRODUCTION : BETTI NUMBERS
Similarity to bar codes method, Betti numbers can also tell
you a lot about the topology of an examined space or
object. Suppose we sample random points from a given
object. Its corresponding Betti numbers are a vector of
random variables
k
.

Understanding how
k
is distributed can shed a lot of light
about the original space or object. Shown here are some
interesting bounds and relation of
k
for three well
known random objects.

ERDOS-RENYI RANDOM CLIQUE COMPLEXE
Erdos-Renyi random graph
Definition : The Erdos-Renyi random graph G(n, p) is the
probability space of all graphs on vertex set [n] = {1, 2, . . . ,
n} with each edge included independently with probability p.

clique complex
The clique complex X(H) of a graph H is the simplicial complex
with vertex set V(H) and a face for each set of vertices
spanning a complete subgraph of H i.e . clique.

Erdos-Renyi random clique complex
is simply X(G(n, p))

ERDOS-RENYI RANDOM CLIQUE COMPLEXE
EXAMPLE
Let say we are in an instance of Erdos-Renyi random
graph with n=5 and p=0.5
1
3
2
4
5
Simplexes complex with dimension:

0 are all the dots
1 are all the lines
2 are all the triangels
What are the Betti numbers ?

RANDOM CECH & RIPS COMPLEX
Random geometric graph
Definition: Let f : R
d
R be a probability density function, let
x
1
, x
2
, . . ., x
n
be a sequence of independent and identically
distributed d-dimensional random variables with common density
f, and let X
n
= {x
1
, x
2
, . . ., x
n
}.
The geometric random graph G(X
n
; r) is the geometric graph with
vertices X
n
, and edges between every pair of vertices u, v with
d(u, v) r.

( )
( ) ( )
The random Cech complex ; is a simplicial complex
with vertex set , and a face of ; if ,
i
n
n n x i
C X r
X C X r B x r
o
o
e
= C
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
The random Rips complex R ; is a simplicial complex with
vertex set , and a face of R ; if , ,
for every pair , x
n
n n i j
i j
X r
X X r B x r B x r
x
o
o
= C
e
The random Rips complex
The random Cech complex
RANDOM CECH & RIPS COMPLEX EXAMPLE
AND DIFFERENCES
Let say we are in an instance of random geometric
graph with n=5 and r = 1
1
3
2
4
5
In Cech configuration the Simplexes are: In Rips configuration the Simplexes are:
ERDOS-RENYI RANDOM CLIQUE COMPLEXE
MAIN RESULTS
Theorem on Expectation
( ) ( )
| |
( )
1/ 1/ 1

0,1
k k
k k
k
If p n and p o n then
E
Var
e
| |
|
+
= =

N
Central limit theorem
( ) ( )
| |
( )
1/ 1/ 1
1
2

1
lim
1 !
k k
k
k
n
k
If p n and p o n then
E
k
n p
e
|
+
+ | |

|
\ .
= =
=
+
( )
( )
( )
1/ 2 1 1/
k
In particular it is shown that if or
for some constant 0, then a.a.s. 0.
k k
p O n p n
c c
c |
+ +
= =
> =
ERDOS-RENYI RANDOM CLIQUE COMPLEXE
MAIN RESULTS
1/
Lower bound
0.01
k
p n

= =
1/ 2 1
Upper bound
0.215
k
p n
+
= =
1/
Lower bound
0.1
k
p n

= =
1/ 2 1
Upper bound
0.398
k
p n
+
= =
1/
Lower bound
0.215
k
p n

= =
1/ 2 1
Upper bound
0.517
k
p n
+
= =
RANDOM CECH & RIPS COMPLEX
MAIN RESULTS
There are four main ranges i.e. regimes, with qualitatively
different behavior in each, for different values of r, the
ranges are :

SUBCRITICAL -

CRITICAL -

SUPERCRITICAL -

CONNECTED

( )
1/ d
r o n

=
( )
1/ d
r n u

=
( )
( )
1/ 1/ d d
r n o r n e

= =
( )
( )
1/
log /
d
r n n = O
Note since the results for cech and rips complexes are very similar
we will ignore the former.
RANDOM CECH & RIPS COMPLEX
MAIN RESULTS - SUBCRITICAL
In the Subcritical regime the simplicial complexes that is
constructed from the random geometric graph G(Xn; r)
intuitively, has many disconnected pieces.

In this regime the writes shows:
Theorem on Expectation and Variance (for Rips
Complexes)

( )
| |
( )
| |
( )
1/
2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2
For any 2, 1, 0, and
as where is a constant that depends only on and the
underlying density function .
d
k k
k k
d k d k k k
k
d k r O n
E Var
C C
n r n r
n C k
f
c
c
| |

+ + + +
> > > =

## RANDOM CECH & RIPS COMPLEX

MAIN RESULTS - SUBCRITICAL

( )
| |
| |
( )
1/
For 2, 1, 0, and this limit holds
0,1
as .
d
k k
k
d k r O n
E
Var
n
c
c
| |
|

> > > =

N
Central limit Theorem
A very interesting outcome from the previous Theorem is
that you can know a.a.s in this regime that:
1 1
If 1 then 0
2
1 1
And if 1 then 0
2
k
k
k
d
k
d
|
c
|
c
| |
> =
|
\ .
| |
< =
|
\ .
RANDOM CECH & RIPS COMPLEX
MAIN RESULTS - CRITICAL
In the Critical regime the expectation of all the Betti
numbers grow linearly, we will see that this is the maximal
rate of growth for every Betti number from r = 0 to infinty.

In this regime the writes shows:
Theorem on Expectation (for Rips Complexes)

| | ( )
For any density on and 0 fixed,
d
k
k E n | u > =
RANDOM CECH & RIPS COMPLEX
MAIN RESULTS - SUPERCRITICAL
In the Supercritical regime the writes shows an upper
bound on the expectation of Betti numbers. This illustrate
that it grows sub-linearly, thus the linear growth
of the Betti numbers in the critical regime is maximal

In this regime the writes shows:
Theorem on Expectation (for Rips Complexes)

( )
1/
Let n points taken i.i.d. uniformly from a smoothly bounded convex
body C. Let r= , where as , and k 0 is fixed.
then
d
n n e e >
| | ( )
0
k c
k
E O e n
for same c
e
| e

=
>
RANDOM CECH & RIPS COMPLEX
MAIN RESULTS - CONNECTED
In the Connected regime the graph becomes fully
connected w.h.p for the uniform distribution on a convex
body

In this regime the writes shows:
Theorem on connectivity

( )
( )
1
For a smoothly bounded convex body in , endowed with
a uniform distribution, and fixed 0, if log then
the random Rips complex ( ; ) is a.a.s. k-connected.
d
d
n
C
k r n n
R X r
> = O
METHODS OF WORK
The main techniques/mode of work to obtain the nice
theorems presented here are:
First move the problem topology into a combinatorial one
-this is done mainly with the help of Morse theory
Second use expectation and probably properties to obtain
the requested theorem

Lets take for Example the Theorem on Expectation for
Erdos-Renyi random clique complexes :

( ) ( )
| |
( )
1/ 1/ 1
1
2

1
lim
1 !
k k
k
k
n
k
If p n and p o n then
E
k
n p
e
|
+
+ | |

|
\ .
= =
=
+
METHODS OF WORK FIRST STAGE
The writers uses the following inequality (proven by Allen
Hatcher. In Algebraic topology) :

Where fi donates the number of i-dimensional simplexes.
In the Erdos-Renyi case this is simply the number of (k +
1)-cliques in the original graph.

Thus we obtain:

1 1 k k k k k
f f f f |

+ s s
| |
( )
1
1
2 1
2
1 1 !
k
k
k
k
n
n
n p
E f p
k k
+ | |
|
+ | |
+
\ .
|
\ .

| |
= ~
|
+ +
\ .
METHODS OF WORK SECOND STAGE
Now we only need to finish the proof, we know by now
that :

Thus we only need to squeeze the k-Betti number and
obtain the desire result.

| |
( )
| |
| |
| |
( )
( )
1
1
2 1
1
2
1
1 !
1
1
!
k
k
k
k
n
k
k
k p n
k
k
k
n
n p
E f
E f k
o
E f np
n p
E f
k
e

+ | |
|
+
\ .

= | |

|
\ .

= =