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The objectives of translation procedures, according to Peter Newmark, are to adjust characteristics of the SL (source language) to fit into characteristics of the TL (target language) to produce semantic and stylistic equivalences between both languages. The translation procedures are literal and oblique.

A. Literal Translation: Newmark (1995) has

said that literal translation occurs when there is an exact structural and lexical correspondence, and even morphological equivalence between two languages (word for word translation). This method is a reliable way to be faithful to the original text. For example, He is walking = l est

caminando. Un buen ejemplo = A good example grandes casas = large houses

There are two forms of literal translation as follows: a. Borrowing- A term or expression taken straight from another language. It can be borrowed without any change. For example, blue jeans = blue jeans sandwich = sandwich chip = chip break = break. It could also be adjusted to fit the structure or spelling or pronunciation of the TL, e.g. leader = lder item = tem

b. Calque- A type of borrowing in which a foreign word or expression is adopted in a language as well as literal translation from another. For example, weekend = fin de semana kindergarten = jardn de infantes serial killer = asesino en serie football = ftbol

B. Oblique Translation: Newmark (1995) states that oblique translation is the result of the application of procedures and methods that are used to avoid a mechanical change of elements. a. Transposition- A change of grammatical categories because of differences between the SL and TL, i.e. adverb/adjective; verb/noun, noun/preposition. For example, We have been

working enthusiastically = hemos estado trabajando con entusiasmo considerando que ya tenan bastante con sus propias penas = considering that they had too many troubles of their own

b. Modulation- A change in point of view. Vinay and Darbelnet (1958) affirmed that this method is justified when literal translation results in a grammatically correct but unacceptable statement that goes against the very language characteristics. Effective use of modulation represents the proof of sensitivity, experience, and imagination of the translator, and it requires great inventiveness and expressive power.

For example, en el fondo se engaaba a s mismo = he was deceiving himself within Newmark mentions different types of modulation: abstract for concrete, cause for effect, means for result, a part for the whole, inversion, etc. For example, The dog barked. = Ladr el perro. in great detail = con lujo de detalles lords and owners = dueos y seores the lady found a way to send her son to Spain = La dama busc enviar a su hijo a Espaa

c. Equivalence- According to Molina and Hurtado (2002), This accounts for the same situation (in both languages) using a completely different phrase, which implies a transfer of linguistic and cultural elements from the SL to the TL, e.g. metaphors, idiomatic expressions, proverbs, etc. For example, Every cloud

has a silver lining = No hay mal que por bien no venga You are pulling my leg. = Me ests tomando el pelo. They let her go her own way. = La abandonaron a la buena de Dios.

d. Adaptation- This is aimed at bringing the spirit of the language into the TL, thereby changing the cultural environment. In accordance with Molina and Hurtado (2002), to express the message using a different situation. This is also known as free translation. For example, invented by the one and only = inventados por el Mismsimo to each his own = cada oveja con su pareja Also, using baseball images instead of soccer images. For example, He hit a homerun. = Hizo un gol. he was called out in three strikes = le sacaron la tarjeta roja

e. Amplification: According to Molina and Hurtado, this procedure is used to add connectors, avoid ambiguity, etc. to maintain the meaning of the ST. For example, endangered species = especies

en pelgro de extincin esto puede tener sus bemoles = ups and downs
enamoradizos = falling in love with oneself

f. Omission: This is the opposite procedure to amplification. It is used mainly to avoid unnecessary repetition and redundancy, characteristic of the SL. For example, Aunque se senta cansado, continuaba

ayudando a la mam = Though tired, he kept helping his mother l se libr del trato por su poder de convencimiento = He talked his way out of the deal Mi mam va a hornear algunas galletas y mi abuela tal vez vaya a hacerlo tambin = My mom will bake some cookies and my grandma might too