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# Length

## Four basic principles

Comparison principle
-This deals with the comparing and ordering of objects by a specific attribute -involves using suitable vocabulary to describe and compare length such as short, shorter, tall, taller, long, longer,high, higher, deep, deeper, wide, wider, width, depth, height

Transitivity principle
comparing and ordering of three or more objects using appropriate language

Conservation principle
the length of an object does not change even when the position or the orientation of the object is changed

Measuring principle
refers to the fact that measurement involves

stating how many of a given unit match the attribute(e.g. length) of an Object
Eg: measuring the length of a rod, the number of centimetres that can be fitted along it are counted

## major mathematical skills

To measure and record measurements of lengths in standard units; To compare various measurements of lengths directly; To understand and use the relationship between units of length; To convert between standard units of measurement; To perform arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) involving units of length; and To solve problems involving length in real life situations

## PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE LENGTH

The meaning of length. Non-standard and standard measurement units of length. Relationship between standard units of measurement of length Sequence of teaching length.

Meaning of Length
The length of an object refers to the number of standard units (e.g. centimetres) which can be laid in a straight line along or beside the object

## Non-Standard and Standard Units of Length

non-standard unit
body parts such as span, foot, pace and arm length; and objects such as pen, paper clip, rod, chalk and straws

standard unit
yards, miles, feet, inches-Imperial units metres and kilometres-metric units

## Relationship Between Units of Length

The basic SI unit for length is the metre

## Operations Involving Units of Length

multiplication, limit multiplicands to 1 digit division, limit divisors to 1 digit operations involving units of length in metres and centimetres only

## Problem Solving Involving Length

emphasize on the use of a variety of strategies select problems according to your pupils ability and proficiency in language Polyas method should be related to real life

## Sequence of Teaching Length

Perceiving and identifying the attributes of length through direct and indirect comparison. Building the concept of measuring units through the use of nonstandard units followed by standard units directly. Consolidating the concept of measuring units through the use of measuring instruments like scales and rulers, etc. Mastering the skill of measuring lengths through the use of standard units. Developing the relationship between standard units of measurement. Performing arithmetic operations involving standard units for length. Solving daily problems involving standard units for length.

early stage, activities involving direct comparison of length will help your pupils to understand the meaning of this attribute concept of measuring units was first developed through the use of nonstandard units-Different values-need standardfor consistency

Learning to read scales is a major emphasis in using standard instruments to measure length. When teaching your pupils to measure length in standard units, stress on the need to read scales to the nearest division. You must also tell them that measuring should start from the 0 mark of the ruler or scale that they are using. Apart from using conventional measuring instruments, you should also give your pupils the opportunity to make their own measuring instrument

Estimating using the measurement unit is an important process that your pupils must go through. This is because estimating encourages them to think

*Your pupils knowledge on length will not be complete without learning about the relationship between the standard units of measurement. *Their understanding is normally consolidated by developing the relationships between standard units of measurement. *The following examples illustrate the relationship between metres and centimetres. -1 metre equals 100 centimetres, -1 centimetre equals 10 millimetres, -Therefore, 1 metre equals 1000 millimetres. -100 cm = 1 m -500 cm = 5 m