Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 233

FACILITATING LEARNING

January 18, February 01, 08, 2014

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Teaching vs. Facilitating

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Teaching vs. Facilitating


A process whereby a Helping/making it easy for students to learn teacher leads a together in a group, or group of students in to achieve something acquiring new skills, together as a group. knowledge, or understanding.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Teaching vs. Facilitating


Most subject area teaching involves telling and teaching the students. Measurable outcome at the end.

Involves helping the students to discover by themselves.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Which is learner-centered?
I

teach English to my students.

teach my students English.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Content expert
Presents information

Facilitator
Guides process

Provides the right answers

Provides the right questions

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Teacher s Effective Ways to Facilitate (feedback)


Problem of getting wider understanding that facilitating is learning, despite apparent noise and mess Motivation for teachers: eg. Need to make daily life enjoyable + rewarding experience for kids and teacher through project based approaches. Catching up with students knowledge Preventing tendency of thinking you are an expert (do not be afraid to say I do not know) If you want to learn something new, teach it. Find interesting material. Be a good listener. Do not be afraid to delegate and empower. Be aware of needs, understand need Determine right questions. Be creative not stick to strict curriculum. Reflect and evaluate your performance.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Teacher s Effective Ways to Facilitate (feedback)


Be flexible. Be creative and up to date. Use different techniques. Show students you love them. Do not repeat the same things year after year (for example, after 20 years of teaching you teach in the same way as your 1st year of teaching). Do not allow your students to drink from a bottle, let them go to the river. Offer skills that lead to learning. Surprise your students. Do not focus on yourself. Respect each one of your students. Each one is different and special. Do not make fun of your students. Listen actively and comprehensively to your students. During the transitional period from a teacher to a facilitator, you

Unforgettable Teachers facilitate

Value of Learning & Knowledge


Teachers should be enthusiastic about their subject. However, they give more than knowledge. They show how learning enhances creativity. Sparks interest, and uncover talents.

Value of Respect
Teachers treat students with honor. They explain how kind words can prevent hurtful confrontations and turn enemies into friends.

Value of Integrity
They demonstrate empathy. Their ethics inspires students to live with courage, honesty, dignity, and self-worth.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Unforgettable Teachers facilitate

Value of Responsibility
Teachers teach that individuals must be accountable for his/her actions.

Value of Perseverance
Teachers teach that education continues until our last breath. They tell stories about hard times they had faced, and how God had often turned difficulties into blessings.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

You will be divided into two groups. Each group will choose a classroom scenario and will present ways of how learning could be best facilitated.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Learning
LEARNING is a mental ability by means of which knowledge, skills, habits, attitudes, and ideals are acquired, retained, and utilized, resulting in the progressive adaptation and modification of conduct and behavior. It is any change in the behavior of organism. It is a continuous process.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Principles
L learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner; people learn what they what to learn E evolutionary and experiential process A atmosphere where people are free to explore R right to make mistakes ; respect N needs based and relevant to the learner E emotional and intellectual; people must come before purpose R richest resource; learner himself/herself

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Learning
Learning Outcomes (Ends) List the four primary colors. Recite the poem , A Tree Draw the parts of the nervous system. Construct Christmas lantern.

Learning Activities (Means)

Study the four primary colors. Practice the poem , A Tree Watch film about the nervous system. Observe how a Christmas lantern is made.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Conditions for Learning


Acceptance Cooperation, care, concern, change, communication Trust oneself/others Ideas Value for individual differences Evaluation

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Nature of Learning
When parents ask their children, What did you learn in school today, the most common replies are I dont know and Nothing. Does this indicate a general weakness of the educational system? No. it simply indicates that learning often takes place without realizing it.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Essential Aspects of the Learning Process


MOTIVATION GOAL- Behavior is oriented towards a goal. READINESS depends on training, experience, and heredity.
Physiological factors- maturation of the sense organs Psychological factors- motives, emotional factors Experiential factors- previously learned skills and concepts.

OBSTACLE, or a hindrance challenges the learner. RESPONSES are actions or behavioral tendencies according to ones interpretation of a situation ATTITUDES- are internal states that influence what students are likely to do. This internal state can ne positive or negative, or favorable or unfavorable reaction toward an object, situation, person or the environment.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

What is your attitude toward


Learning School Math, science, English, and other Subjects Homework Classroom rules Teachers Examination Taking responsibility for ones acts Relationships Boys/Girls Family Fashion Love Money Sex
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Types of Learning

Cognitive Learning
It is concerned with the development of ideas.

Affective Learning
Involves assimilation of values, emotional reactions and acquisition of attitudes.

Psychomotor Learning
Understanding of the external world through the senses and muscles.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Goals of the learning process

The successful learner, over time and with support and instructional guidance, can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge.
To construct useful representations of knowledge and to acquire the thinking and learning strategies necessary for continued learning success across the life span, students must generate and pursue personally relevant goals. Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Context of Learning

Learning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology, and instructional practices.
Learning does not occur in a vacuum. Teachers play a major interactive role with both the learner and the learning environment Technologies and instructional practices must be appropriate for the learner s level of prior knowledge, cognitive abilities, and their learning and thinking strategies. The classroom environment has also an

Motivational and Emotional Influences on Learning

What and how much is learned is influenced by the learner s motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individuals emotional states, beliefs, interests and goals, and habits of thinking.
Positive emotions such as curiosity, generally enhance motivation and facilitate learning and performance. Intense negative emotions such as anxiety, rage, insecurity, and related thoughts like fearing punishment, worrying about competence generally detract from motivation, interfere with learning, and contribute to low performance.

Intrinsic Motivation to Learn

The learner s creativity, higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by tasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests, and providing for personal interests, and providing for personal choice and control.
Curiosity, flexible and insightful thinking, and creativity are major indicators of the Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Effects of Motivation on Effort

Acquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires extended learner effort and guided practice. Without learner s motivation to learn, the willingness to exert this effort is unlikely without coercion.
Effort is another major indicator of motivation to learn.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Developmental Influences on Learning

As individuals develop, there are different opportunities and constraints for learning. Learning is most effective when differential development within and across physical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains is taken into account.
Individuals learn best when material is appropriate to their developmental level and is presented in an enjoyable and interesting way.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Social Influences on Learning

Learning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations, and communication with others.
Learning can be enhanced when the learner has an opportunity to interact and to collaborate with others on instructional tasks. Quality personal relationships that provide stability, trust, and caring can increase learner s sense of belonging, self-respect and self acceptance, and provide a positive climate for learning. Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Individual Differences in Learning

Learners have different strategies, approaches, and capabilities for learning that are a function of prior experience and heredity.
Individuals are born with and develop their own capabilities and talents

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Learning and Diversity

Learning is most effective when differences in learner s linguistic, cultural, and social backgrounds are taken into account.
When learners perceive that their individual differences in abilities, backgrounds, cultures, and experiences are valued, respected, and accommodated in learning tasks and contexts, levels of motivation and achievement are enhanced. Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

When I have free time I like to __________.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

I think Mathematics is __________.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The subject I like most is __________.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

What I like most about school is __________.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

What I like least about school is __________.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Today, I dont want to see __________.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

I think I am __________.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

I believe __________.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The LEARNING THEORIES

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Dr. Howard Gardner s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Theory of Multiple Intelligences

The Theory of Multiple Intelligences was created by Dr. Howard Gardner in 1983. Gardner s theory places an emphasis on the idea that the traditional understanding of intelligence by means of IQ testing is far too limited. To broaden this notion of intelligence, Gardner introduced nine different types of intelligences consisting of (and to be elaborated on later): Logical/Mathematical, Linguistic, Musical, Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Naturalist, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, and Existentialist

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The Nine Intelligences

Logical-Mathematical (Number/Reasoning Smart): Sensitivity to, and capacity to discern, logical or numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of reasoning
End States: Scientist, Mathematician

Linguistic (Word Smart): Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meanings of words; sensitivity to the different functions of language
End States: Poet, Journalist

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The Nine Intelligences

Musical (Music Smart): Abilities to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, and timbre; appreciation of the forms of musical expressiveness
End States: Composer, Violinist

Spatial (Picture Smart) : Capacities to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations on ones initial perceptions
End States: Navigator, Sculptor
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The Nine Intelligences

Bodily-Kinesthetic (Body Smart): Abilities to control ones body movements and to handle objects skillfully
End States: Dancer, Athlete

Naturalist (Nature Smart): Abilities to recognize plants and animals, to make distinctions in the natural world, to understand systems and define categories
End States: Botanist, Farmer, Hunter

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The Nine Intelligences

Interpersonal (People Smart): Capacities to discern and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people
End States: Therapist, Salesman

Intrapersonal (Self-Smart): Access to ones own feelings and the ability to discriminate among them and draw on them to guide behavior

End States: Personal with detailed, accurate self-knowledge


Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The Nine Intelligences

Existentialist Intelligence (Role Smart)

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Applications

Dr. Gardner says that our schools and culture focus most of their attention on linguistic and logicalmathematical intelligence, where some unique ways of thinking arent addressed. This often leads to kids being labeled as learning disabled or hyperactive when they may not be. The theory of multiple intelligences proposes a major transformation in the way our schools are run. It suggests that teachers be trained to present their lessons in a wide variety of ways using music, cooperative learning, art activities, role play, multimedia, field trips, inner reflection, and much more

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Conclusion

An awareness of Gardner s multiple-intelligence theory has provided teachers with the knowledge necessary to satisfy the educational needs of many more students. With an understanding of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, teachers, school administrators, and parents can better understand the different possibilities of each students learning preference. The application of of multiple intelligences in the classroom can stimulate a students learning in new ways.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

William Glasser s Choice Theory


What motivates my students?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The Brain Seeks Two Things:

Emotion

Meaning

This is the hook to get students attention and peak interest.

This how the brain can make sense of the information coming inand anchor it to something it already knows.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Information stays in short-term memory only briefly. It moves from short-term to long-term memory only if there a compelling reason to remember the informationa WHY. More than ninety percent of our reasons for taking action and remembering the whys occur in the unconscious mind. The part of the brain that determines what we remember resides in the same area as emotions. Therefore, if the why to remember something is linked to emotions, it is more likely to be retained longer than if it is not. ALL LEARNING IS LINKED TO EMOTIONS.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Students come to school with their own whysemotional reasons for being there. These whys are basic needs to survive, to belong and love, to gain power, to be free, and to have fun. Students possessing negative attitudes toward learning are limited in their ability to transfer their knowledge to new learning situations. Teachers can aid students desire to learn, affecting their emotions and attitudes, by addressing students basic needs through what they say and what they do in the classroom.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

We all make choices according to basic needs that come from within ourselves. The needs drive our choices and influence how we behave in those choices.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

o Fun

o Freedom

o Power

o Belonging o Survival

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The need for pleasure To play To laugh Naturally motivating No one has to bribe you to do these things

Try to imagine life without fun

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The need for independence For autonomy For control over ones own life For choice

Some students have had little experience with choice

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Empowerment The need to achieve To be recognized for achievement/skills To have a sense of self-worth To contribute

What makes your students feel valued?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The need for love For relationships Social connection Part of a group

In schools, we must work to make students (parents, teachers) feel they belong

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Physiological The need for food, shelter, safety Safe from bullying

Schools should be a safe environment from bodily harm, mental or physical intimidation, abuse.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The Ten Axioms of Choice Theory


The only person whose behavior we can control is our own. All we can give another person is information. All long-lasting psychological problems are relationship problems. The problem relationship is always part of our present life. What happened in the past has everything to do with what we are today, but we can only satisfy our basic needs right now and plan to continue satisfying them in the future.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Cont.
We

can only satisfy our needs by satisfying the pictures in our Quality World. All we do is behave. All behavior is Total Behavior and is made up of four components: acting, thinking, feeling and physiology. All Total Behavior is chosen, but we only have direct control over the acting and thinking components. We can only control our feeling and physiology indirectly through how we choose to act and think. All Total Behavior is designated by verbs and named by the part that is the most recognizable.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Quality world
The pictures in our head that we want to experience in our life. Three clusters 1.People that are important to us 2.Experiences places, activities, things that we want 3.Beliefs and values what we believe in If something is not in our quality world it is not and will not be important to us.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Car analogy
Wheels front wheels (acting, thinking more control), back wheels (feeling, physiology - less direct control) Steering wheel quality world Engine needs (drive behaviour) Rear view mirror, fuel, passengers,

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Applying It to the Classroom


There

are two types of teachers, Boss teachers and Lead Teachers Boss Teachers are those who dwell heavily on rules and consequences. They use rewards and punishment to recognize good and bad before. Children are to be motivated by rewards and avoiding punishment. Lead Teachers are those who align lessons and assignments with students basic need as the main focus. A grading system is in place but is only used as a temporary indicator. They hope students will be engaged, deeply motivated learners, instead of sitting around and doing busy work to meet Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es predetermined assignments.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Human nature is basically good, not evil Normal human development involves the actualization of this inherent goodness

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Self-Actualization Esteem Love Safety Physiological

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


MOST NEEDS HAVE TO DO WITH SURVIVAL PHYSICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY

PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


ON THE WHOLE AN INDIVIDUAL CANNOT SATISFY ANY LEVEL UNLESS NEEDS BELOW ARE SATISFIED

SAFETY NEEDS

PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

LOVE, AFFECTION, AND BELONGINGNESS NEEDS

SAFETY NEEDS

PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

ESTEEM NEEDS

LOVE, AFFECTION, AND BELONGINGNESS NEEDS

SAFETY NEEDS

PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS


Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF ACTUALIZATION IS A HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS PRIME MOTIVATION
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


NEED FOR SELF-

ACTUALIZATION
MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF ACTUALIZATION IS A HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS PRIME MOTIVATION

SELF-ACTUALIZATION MEANS ACTUALIZING ONES POTENTIAL BECOMING ALL ONE IS CAPABLE OF BECOMING
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

NEED SELFACTUALIZATION

ESTEEM NEEDS

LOVE, AFFECTION, AND BELONGINGNESS NEEDS

SAFETY NEEDS

PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Nobody can do everything,

but we can nearly all do more than we think we can

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Truth Goodness Beauty Wholeness Dichotomy-transcendence Aliveness Uniqueness Perfection Necessity

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Completion Justice Order Simplicity Richness Effortlessness Playfulness Self-sufficiency

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Has no mental illness Satisfied in basic needs Fully exploited talents Motivated by values

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives 1950s- developed by Benjamin Bloom Means of expressing qualitatively different kinds of thinking Adapted for classroom use as a planning tool Continues to be one of the most universally applied models Provides a way to organize thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the higher order levels of thinking 1990s- Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisited the taxonomy As a result, a number of changes were made
(Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, pp. 7-8)

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Evaluation Synthesis Analysis

Creating

Evaluating
Analysing Applying Understanding Remembering
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Application
Comprehension

Knowledge

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

COGNITIVE DOMAIN

The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Six Major Categories


Knowledge-Recall data or information. Comprehension-Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words. Application -Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Analysis -Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. Synthesis -Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. Evaluation -Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Knowledge
Examples or Activity: multiple-choice test, recount facts or statistics, recall a process, rules, definitions; quote law or procedure Keywords: arrange, define, describe, label, list, memorize, recognize, relate, reproduce, select, state

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Comprehension
Examples or Activity: explain or interpret meaning from a given scenario or statement, suggest treatment, reaction or solution to given problem, create examples or metaphors Keywords: explain, reiterate, reword, critique, classify, summarize, illustrate, translate, review, report, discuss, re-write, estimate, interpret, theorize, paraphrase, reference, example

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Application
Examples or Activity: put a theory into practical effect, demonstrate, solve a problem, manage an activity Keywords: use, apply, discover, manage, execute, solve, produce, implement, construct, change, prepare, conduct, perform, react, respond, role-play

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Analysis
Examples or Activity: identify constituent parts and functions of a process or concept, or de-construct a methodology or process, making qualitative assessment of elements, relationships, values and effects; measure requirements or needs Keywords: analyze, break down, catalogue, compare, quantify, measure, test, examine, experiment, relate, graph, diagram, plot, extrapolate, value, divide

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Synthesis
Examples or Activity: develop plans or procedures, design solutions, integrate methods, resources, ideas, parts; create teams or new approaches, write protocols or contingencies Keywords: develop, plan, build, create, design, organize, revise, formulate, propose, establish, assemble, integrate, re-arrange, modify

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Evaluation
Examples or Activity: review strategic options or plans in terms of efficacy, return on investment or costeffectiveness, practicability; assess sustainability; perform a SWOTanalysis in relation to alternatives; produce a financial justification for a proposition or venture, calculate the effects of a plan or strategy; perform a detailed and costed risk analysis with recommendations and justifications Keywords: review, justify, assess, present a case for, defend, report on, investigate, direct, appraise, argue, project-manage

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

AFFECTIVE DOMAIN
includes

the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Five major Categories


Receiving-Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention. Responding- Active participation on the part of the learners. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or satisfaction in responding (motivation). Valuing-The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learner's overt behavior and are often identifiable. Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Organizing-Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating an unique value system. The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Characterization or Internalizing-Has a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic of the learner. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional).

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Receiving
Examples: Listen to others with respect. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people. Key Words: asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits, erects, replies, uses.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Responding
Examples: Participates in class discussions. Gives a presentation. Questions new ideals, concepts, models, etc. in order to fully understand them. Know the safety rules and practices them. Key Words: answers, assists, aids, complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices, presents, reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, writes.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Valuing
Examples: Demonstrates belief in the democratic process. Is sensitive towards individual and cultural differences (value diversity). Shows the ability to solve problems. Proposes a plan to social improvement and follows through with commitment. Informs management on matters that one feels strongly about. Key Words: completes, demonstrates, differentiates, explains, follows, forms, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies, works.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Organizing

Examples: Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. Accepts responsibility for one's behavior. Explains the role of systematic planning in solving problems. Accepts professional ethical standards. Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities, interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes time effectively to meet the needs of the organization, family, and self. Key Words: adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares, completes, defends, explains, formulates, generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Internalizing
Examples: Shows self-reliance when working independently. Cooperates in group activities (displays teamwork). Uses an objective approach in problem solving. Displays a professional commitment to ethical practice on a daily basis. Revises judgments and changes behavior in light of new evidence. Values people for what they are, not how they look. Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, modifies, performs, practices, proposes, qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN

includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Reflex movements
are actions elicited without learning in response to some stimuli. Examples include: flexion, extension, stretch, postural adjustments

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Perceptual
refers to interpretation of various stimuli that enable one to make adjustments to the environment. Visual, auditory, kinesthetic, or tactile discrimination. Suggests cognitive as well as psychomotor behavior. Examples include: coordinated movements such as jumping rope, punting, or catching.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Physical activities
require endurance, strength, vigor, and agility which produces a sound, efficiently functioning body. Examples are: all activities which require a) strenuous effort for long periods of time; b) muscular exertion; c) a quick, wide range of motion at the hip joints; and d) quick, precise movements.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Skilled movements
are the result of the acquisition of a degree of efficiency when performing a complex task. Examples are: all skilled activities obvious in sports, recreation, and dance.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Non-discursive communication
is communication through bodily movements ranging from facial expressions through sophisticated choreographics. Examples include: body postures, gestures, and facial expressions efficiently executed in skilled dance movement and choreographics.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Albert Banduras (1960s +) Social Learning Theory


aka Social Cognitive Theory

Put the person back into personality

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Principles of Social Learning


Use strategies to gain the students attention. Ensure that the observation is not too complex. Link new skills to the students prior knowledge Use practice to ensure long-term retention Ensure a positive attitude toward a new skill so that the students will be motivated to reproduce or use new behavior

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Overt Behavior

Environmental Influences

Personal Factors (beliefs, expectations, self-perceptions)


Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Banduras biggest contribution to learning theory:


absence of external reinforcement
We can pay attention to what others do, and repeat their actions
i.e., We learn through observation, rather than through direct reinforcement

New patterns of behavior can be acquired in the

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

We can exercise control over our behavior through self-regulation Cognition allows us to use previous experiences, rather than trial-and-error, to foresee probable consequences of our acts, and behave accordingly Self-regulation allows us to choose behaviors that help us to avoid punishments and move towards long-term goals
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

We are not slaves to environmental influences We have free will

We learn much of what we do through observing and speaking with others (models), rather than through personal experience We form a cognitive image of how to perform certain behaviors through modeling, and use this image as a guide for later behaviors

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Observational learning is also known as imitation or modeling. In this process, learning occurs when individuals observes and imitate others behavior.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

There are four component processes influenced by the observer s behavior following exposure to models.

Attention Retention Motor reproduction Motivation


Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Attention is the first component of observational learning. Individuals cannot learn much by observation unless they perceive and attend to the significant features of the modeled behavior.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Retention is the next component. In order to reproduce the modeled behavior, the individuals must code the information into longterm memory.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Motor reproduction is another process in observational learning. The observer must be able to reproduce the models behavior. The observer must learn and posses the physical capabilities of the modeled behavior.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Motivation or Reinforcements In this process, the observer expects to receive positive reinforcements for the modeled behavior.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Environmental experience is a second influence of the social learning of violence in children. Albert Bandura reported that individuals that live in high crime rates areas are more likely to act violently than those who dwell in low-crime areas.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Albert Bandura believed television was a source of behavior modeling.


Since aggression is a prominent feature of many shows, children who have a high degree of exposure to the media may exhibit a relatively high incidence of hostility themselves in imitation of the aggression they have witnessed.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

For example, David Phillips reported homicide rates increase tremendously after a heavy weight championship fight . There have been a number of deaths linked to violence on television.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

We acquire, maintain, and modify behaviors that we see others perform We decide which behaviors to keep, and when to use them, by using:

Bandura and other Social Learning Theorists put the person back into personality by stressing the interplay of personal factors, environmental factors, and behavior
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

symbolic thought emotion self-regulation (I really want to stab my prof, but I need an A, so)

Words of Wisdom

A person without a goal, happenstance is his destination.


Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

FAST TALK

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Would you choose to be a better husband or a better father? Better wife or a better mother?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

If you would tour PNOY around the country, where would you take him? Why?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

If women were to rule the world by 2020, how different the world would be?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

If you could bring one possession with you on a deserted island, what would it be and why?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

If you could be very famous, in what way would you choose?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

What childhood play do you miss most? Why?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

How do you consider teaching profession- a masculine course or feminine course?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Does crying make a man less of a woman? Why?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

If you were to be transported to live in a new planet, who will be the three persons you would want to be with you and why?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

What are the three things you would never do to the person you love?

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Motivational Factors in Learning


MOTIVATION refers to the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of human behavior. REWARD vs REINFORCEMENT A reward often has the intent of encouraging the behavior to happen again. It can be external or internal. A reinforcement is intended to create a measured increase in the rate of a desirable behavior following the addition of something to the environment.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Other Factors
COERCION- a form of motivation where the avoidance of pain or other negative consequences has an immediate effect. SELF-CONTROL is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence; a person maybe highly intelligent, yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

How do the following motivate you?


ACHIEVEMENT GOAL LOVE FAMILY FRIENDS MONEY RELATIONSHIPS/AFFILIATIONS WORKPLACE NEEDS

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Students and the Need for Differentiated Environments


1. When students see that Effort = Success, they become eager and effective learners 2. When students believe success is due to innate ability, they are afraid to make mistakes 3. When tasks are too easy or too hard, students learn to get by or give up 4. When task is appropriate for student readiness, task becomes satisfying
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Students and the Need for Differentiated Environments


5.

When task is too difficult, brain goes into escape (fight or flight) mode When task is too easy, brain goes into relaxation (sleep-like) mode Students function best when the task is slightly difficult for them Matching difficulty level of task to student readiness leads to feelings of student competence students select more challenging tasks in the future
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

6.

7.

8.

When a teacher tries to teach something to the entire class at the same time, chances are, one-third of the kids already know it; onethird will get it; and the remaining third wont. So two-thirds of the children are wasting their time.
Lilian Katz

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

What if you are demotivated?


See JOHN GARDNERs PERSONAL RENEWAL

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Motivational Theories
DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY grows out of the concept that we have certain biological needs, such as hunger. As time passes, the strength of the drive increases as it is not satisfied. Then as we satisfy the drive by fulfilling its desire, such as eating, the drives strength is reduced. David McClellands ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY states that a person needs for three things but people differ in degree in which the various needs influence their behavior: Need for Achievement, Need Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es for Power, Need for Affiliation

Motivational Theories
INTEREST THEORY- if a person has a very strong interest in something, then obtaining outcomes in that area will be very strongly reinforcing relative to obtaining outcomes in areas of interest. Frederick Herzbergs TWO FACTOR THEORY concludes that factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, while others do not, but if absent lead to dissatisfaction.

Motivators (challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction. Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es Hygiene Factors (status, job security, salary and

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Burrhus F. Skinner s Operant Conditioning Theory

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Operant Conditioning Theory


This

theory developed by Burrhus Skinner (1968) refers to learning facilitated through reinforcement and learning that is based upon a pleasure pain view of human behavior.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

B. F. Skinner made the law of effect the cornerstone for his influential theory of learning, called operant conditioning.
According to Skinner, the organisms behavior is operating on the environment to achieve some desired goal.

Operant conditioning: learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement and weakened if followed by punishment

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Operant Chamber (Skinner Box)


soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer contains a device to record responses

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The fundamental principle of behaviorism is that rewarded behavior is likely to be repeated.


This is known as reinforcement in operant conditioning.

It also states the positive side of Thorndikes Law of Effect.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Structure and feedback in learning immediate reinforcement Defined performance goals and immediate reinforcement at work Parenting reward good behavior, ignore whining, time-out

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Thorndike was one of the most important early theorists in animal learning, educational psychology, and behavioral psychology. Thorndike developed the law of effect in 1898, several years earlier than Ivan Pavlov proposed his laws of reinforcement. Although the theories are almost identical the two individuals were not aware of each other for many years.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

two main foci in education were 1) the improvement of classroom instruction and 2) the measurement of the learner and the products of learning. wrote three books for his own use that became classics in educational psychology 1) Educational Psychology (1903), 2) The Theory of Mental and Social Measurement (1904), and a three volume Educational Psychology (1913).

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

referred to his approach to learning as connectionism, hypothesized that an organism learned about connections between situations and types of responses. one of the first to hypothesize that if all of these (responses & situational variables) could be analyzed man could be told what would and would not satisfy him and annoy him in every conceivable situation. The law of effect refers to stamping in or stamping out a response tendency by attaching favorable or unfavorable consequences. the law of effect states any act which in a given situation produces satisfaction becomes associated with that situation, and when the situation reoccurs the act is more likely to reoccur than before.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov was born 1849 in Central Russia. son of a village priest and eldest of 11 children. initially intended to enter a theological seminary but after reading about Darwinian evolution changed his mind and enrolled at the University of St. Petersburg to study animal physiology. He obtained his degree in 1875 and began to study medicine in the hopes of becoming a physiologist. In 1890 he received an appointment as professor of pharmacology at St. Petersburg Military Academy

Ivan Pavlov

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Will the dog learn to associate the arrival of food with a neutral stimulus (e.g., a bell)?
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Reinforcer - any event that increases the frequency of the preceding event

Positive Reinforcers Negative Reinforcers Introduce (+) stimulus Remove (-) stimulus (e.g., food) (e.g., electric shock)
Reinforcers ALWAYS strengthen behavior!
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Lockes reflection on knowing starts with the problem of theories


Given two explanations the one that is most likely to be true is the simplest Is it possible to construct an explanation of knowledge without using the notion of innate ideas

According to Locke, yes, is one starts with a simple concept (model) of the mind

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Imagine the mind like a blank slate on which nothing is written (without any innate ideas)
Let us suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper, void of all characters, without any ideas: How comes it to be furnished? To this I answer in one word, from EXPERIENCE. (John Locke, EHU)

The mind is like a blank slate informed only by sense experience and acts of reflection
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Children show no evidence of innate ideas. They appear to learn their ideas
Copy from adults Education Personal experience

If a child were kept in a room with no color would have no idea of color So by degrees their minds are furnished with ideas

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The senses play a role in knowing by providing data from an external world - the to be known. The external world (reality) imposes itself on consciousness. However, what is imposed (impressed on the mind) are ideas. As we have noted there is no means to verify the correspondence of idea and reality the idea represents. The mind actively relates the data together. So the mind is ACTIVE in acts of knowing.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Jean Piagets Constructivism & Cognitive Development Theory

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

In order to understand something, we MUST be able to relate it to something else If at all possible, APPLY this knowledge during the lesson to foster concrete connections Differs from traditional view; the mind is a blank tablet

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

1. Sensory motor stage (birth-2 yrs) -through physical interaction with environment, child develops set of concepts about reality & how it works -stage where child is unaware that if an object is not seen it still exists (object permanence)

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Child needs concrete physical situations and is unable to conceptualize in the abstract -needs to see, hear, feel in order to understand something

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Child begins to conceptualize based on physical experiences -creates logical structures to explain his/her environment -abstract problem solving possible Example: math with #s, not objects

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Cognitive structures are like an adult and include conceptual reasoning

-Piaget classified as a cognitive constructivist focusing on processes of the mind and its effects on learning

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Constructivism

Constructivism is an eclectic view of learning that emphasizes four key components: (a) learners construct their own understanding rather than having it delivered; (b) new learning depends on prior understandings; (c) learning is enhanced by social interaction

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

An educational theory that places emphasis on the learner Teachers role: Act as a facilitator

Based on the idea that All knowledge is CONSTRUCTED based on previous experiences

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Two Views of Constructivism

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Individual Contructivism it emphasizes individual, internal construction of knowledge.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Social Constructivism it emphasizes that knowledge exists in a social context and is initially shared with others instead of being represented solely in the mind of an individual.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Characteristics of Constructivism
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Learners construct understanding. New learning depends on current understanding. Learning is facilitated by social interaction. Meaningful learning occurs within authentic learning tasks.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Bruner s Main Concepts

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Representation 1. Enactive Representation

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

2. Iconic Representation

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

3. Symbolic Representation

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Symbolic Representation

Iconic Representatio n

Enactive Representation
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Discovery Learning -Discovery learning refers to obtaining knowledge for oneself.


Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The five Es: Engage- do this! Engage the students and get them interested in learning

Ex: ask a question, define a problem, surprise them, use problematic situations

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Get the students directly involved in the material Have them work in teams Act as a facilitator Use their inquiry to drive the process

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Explanations come from: -Students working together -Teacher introducing concepts and vocabulary for experiences Example: magnets-attracting force This is also the time for the teacher to determine levels of understanding and clarify misconceptions Drawing, writing and video are great tools to help the teacher assess development and growth

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Students expand on concepts learned Make connections Apply understandings to own environment & world around them These connections lead to further inquiry & new understandings

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

-Examples: rubrics, teacher observation, student interviews, portfolios, project & problem based learning products, etc.

On-going diagnostic process Can occur at all points of the instructional process

Used to guide teacher in further planning of lessons May also be utilized by the students; Ex:
Feedback Fridays

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Learning is active Engage the students on their own cognitive level Make it interesting! Work in groups Act as a facilitator, not a record player Make learning cyclical. They should have more questions when the lesson is over!

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Cognitivist Guiding Principles to Gain and Hold Learning

Learning experiences should be as pleasant and satisfying as possible. Whenever possible, lessons should take into account the interests and students of students. The attention of learners can be gained and held longer by using different sensory channels and movement. Learners can attend for only so long, and they differ in their ability to attend. Distractions interfere with attention Learners can attend only to so much info at any one time.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Psychosocial development theory is based on eight stages of development Eriksons theory is based on the idea that development through life is a series of stages which are each defined by a crisis or challenge The early stages provide the foundations for later stages so Erikson says that if a child does not resolve a crisis in a particular stage, they will have problems in later stages For example, if an adolescent does not establish his own identity, he will have difficulty in relationships as an adult

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Oral Sensory Muscular-Anal Locomotor Latency Adolescence Young Adulthood Middle Adulthood Maturity

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

birth to 1 year (infancy) basic conflict is trust vs. mistrust the important event is feeding and the important relationship is with the mother the infant must develop a loving, trusting relationship with the mother/caregiver through feeding, teething and comforting failure to resolve this conflict can lead to sensory distortion, and withdrawal

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

age 1 to 3 years (toddler) Basic conflict is autonomy vs. shame/doubt The important event is toilet training and the important relationship is with the parents The childs energy is directed towards mastering physical skills such as walking, grasping and muscular control The child learns self control but may develop shame, doubt, impulsivity or compulsion if not handled well
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

age 3 to 6 years (preschool) basic conflict is initiative vs. guilt the important event is independence and the important relationship is family the child continues to become more assertive in exploration, discovery, adventure and play the child may show too much force in this stage causing feelings of guilt failure to resolve this conflict can lead to ruthlessness and inhibition

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

age 6 to 12 years (school age) the basic conflict in this stage is industry vs. inferiority the important event is school and the important relationships are teachers, friends and neighbourhood the child must learn to deal with new skills and develop a sense of achievement and accomplishment failure to do so can create a sense of inferiority, failure and incompetence

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

age 12 to 20 years (adolescent) the basic conflict is identity vs. role confusion the important event is development of peer relationships and the important relationships are peers, groups and social influences The teenager must achieve a sense of identity in occupation, sex roles, politics and religion. In addition, they must resolve their identity and direction. Failure to make these resolutions can lead to the repression of aspects of the individual for the sake of others (fanaticism)

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

age 20 to 40 years the basic conflict in young adulthood is intimacy vs. isolation the important event is parenting and the important relationships are lovers, friends and work connections in this stage, the individual must develop intimate relationships through work and social life failure to make such connections can lead to promiscuity, exclusivity and isolation

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

age 40 to 65 years the basic conflict is generativity vs. stagnation the important event is parenting and the important relationships are with children and the community this stage is based on the idea that each adult must find a way to satisfy, support and contribute to the next generation; it is often thought of as giving back failure to resolve this stage can lead to overextension or rejectivity
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

age 65 to death the basic conflict is ego integrity vs. despair the important event is reflection on and acceptance of the individuals life the individual is creating meaning and purpose of ones life and reflecting on life achievements failure to resolve this conflict can create feelings of disdain

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Moral Development Theory

This is a Lawrence Kohlbergs theory based on the assumption that the rate of moral development varies among individuals, with some individuals having a relatively high level of moral reasoning early in life.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Assessed moral reasoning by posing hypothetical moral dilemmas and examining the reasoning behind peoples answers Proposed three distinct levels of moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional Each level is based on the degree to which a person conforms to conventional standards of society Each level has two stages that represent different degrees of sophistication in moral reasoning.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Preconventionalmoral

reasoning is based on external rewards and punishments Conventionallaws and rules are upheld simply because they are laws and rules Postconventionalreasoning based on personal moral standards

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Characterized

by the desire to avoid punishment or gain reward Typically children under the age of 10

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Primary

concern is to fit in and play the role of a good citizen People have a strong desire to follow the rules and laws. Typical of most adults

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Characterized

by references to universal ethical principles that represent protecting the rights or of all people Most adults do not reach this level.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Stages 1 & 2

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

focus on direct consequences Negative actions will result in punishments EXAMPLE: Heinz shouldnt steal the drug because hed go to jail if he got caught.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Getting

what one wants often requires giving something up in return Right is a fair exchange. Morals guided by what is fair

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Stages 3 & 4

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

An

attempt to live up to the expectations of important others Follow rules or do what others would want so that you win their approval Negative actions will harm those relationships

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

To

maintain social order, people must resist personal pressures and follow the laws of the larger society Respect the laws & authority

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Stages 5 & 6

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Must protect the basic rights of all people by upholding the legal principles of fairness, justice, equality & democracy. Laws that fail to promote general welfare or that violate ethical principles can be changed, reinterpreted, or abandoned

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Self-chosen ethical principles Profound respect for sanctity of human life, nonviolence, equality & human dignity Moral principles take precedence over laws that might conflict with them, Conscientious objectors refuses to be drafted because they are morally opposed to war.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Sociocultural Theory

This theory is based on the early works of Lev Vygotsky (1978). This is a cognitive view of learning that emphasizes student participation in communities of learning. To the sociocultural theorists, learners are novices under the supervision of one or more mentors.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Russian psychologist & philosopher in 1930s usually associated with Social

Constructivism

Social Constructivism emphasized the effects of ones environment (family, friends, culture & background) have on learning Today, Co-Constructivism Seems to prevail, incorporating Cognitive and Social aspects

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Schema Theory

This is a cognitive view of knowledge elucidating that that the information people store in memory consists of a network of organized and interconnected ideas. According to this theory, the organized structured and abstract bodies or info or schemata that a learner brings to fore in learning new content determine how the learning tasks are interpreted and what the learner understands from the study. This theory expounds that each subset of knowledge is stored in a schema, an outline or organized network of knowledge about a single concept or Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

David Ausubels Meaningful Verbal Learning/Subsumption Theory

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Ausubel, instead of criticizing the manner of teaching, proposed ways of improving it. He suggested the use of advance organizers.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Focus of Ausubels Theory


The most important factor influencing learning is the quantity, clarity, and organization of the learner s present knowledge which consists of facts, concepts, propositions, theories, etc. The way to strengthen the students cognitive structure is by using advance organizers that allow students to already have a birds eye view or to see the big picture of the topic to be learned even

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Ausubels theory is concerned with how individuals learn large amounts of meaningful material from verbal/ textual (lecture/ books) presentations in a school setting as opposed to theories developed based on experimental settings. Therefore, learning is based upon the kinds of superordinate, representational, and combinatorial processes that occur during the presentation of information.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

FORCE FIELD THEORY & Change ThEORY


Kurt

Lewin

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)

was a famous, charismatic psychologist who is now viewed as the father of social psychology. Born in Germany. was well known for his terms life space and field theory. A Gestalt psychologist

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Kurt Lewins Change theory

Unfreeze ready to change


When a structure has been in place for a while, habits and routine have naturally settled in. The organization as a whole is going in the right direction, but as shown on the illustration people or processes may have strayed off course. For example, tasks that are not relevant or useful anymore are still being performed by force of habit, without anyone questioning their legitimacy. Similarly, people might have learned to do things one way, without considering other, more efficient methods. Unfreezing means getting people to gain perspective on their day-to-day activities, unlearn their bad habits, and open up to new ways of reaching their objectives. Basically, the current practices and processes have to be reassessed in order for the wheels of change to be set in motion.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Kurt Lewins Change theory

Change implementation
Once team members have opened up their minds, change can start. The change process can be a very dynamic one and, if it is to be effective, it will probably take some time and involve a transition period. In order to gain efficiency, people will have to take on new tasks and responsibilities, which entails a learning curve that will at first slow the organization down. A change process has to be viewed as an investment, both in terms of time and the allocation of resources: after the new organization and processes have been rolled out, a certain chaos might ensue, but that is the price to pay in order to attain enhanced effectiveness within the Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es structure.

Kurt Lewins Change theory

Freeze (sometimes called refreeze)- making it stick


Change will only reach its full effect if its made permanent. Once the organizational changes have been made and the structure has regained its effectiveness, every effort must be made to cement them and make sure the new organization becomes the standard. Further changes will be made down the line, but once the structure has found a way to improve the way it conducts its operations, re-freezing will give the people the opportunity to thrive in the new organization and take full advantage of the change. Many quote the model as saying the third step of this approach is to reMerc it Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es freeze, when in Lewins original work was freeze.

Field

is a psychological theory which examines patterns of interaction between the individual and the total field, or environment.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Theory

Force Field Analysis

is an influential development in the field of social science. is a management technique for diagnosing situations.
a framework for looking at the factors ("forces") that influence a situation, originally social situations.

Restraining Forces (hindering forces) Driving Forces (helping forces) Equilibrium


Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Driving

Forces - are those forces

affecting situations that are pushing in a particular direction; they tend to initiate a change and keep it going. Restraining Forces - are forces acting to restrain or decrease the driving forces.
Equilibrium

- is reached when the sum

of the driving forces equals the sum of the restraining forces.


Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Example

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

The first step is to draw a box within which you write the decision. Then you list all the helping and hindering forces. For example you want to buy a new car.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

Having spent some time trying to think of all the forces in play you then assign a strength to each force between 1 and 5 where 1 is weak and 5 is strong:

We can then add up the strengths of the forces to give a helping: hindering ratio. In this case it is 7:11 so initially it looks like the decision to buy a new car will not be made because the hindering forces outweigh the helping forces.
Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es

If we do want the decision to go ahead we can now look for ways to increase the helping forces and decrease the hindering forces.
Looking at the hindering forces: Cost: If I leased a car then I could change this from 4 to 2. Time: As I don't have much time to look at other models I could always just buy the same model which would change this score from 4 to 1. Which model: Would therefore also decrease from 3 to 1. ---So by decreasing the hindering forces the analysis now gives 7:4, much more promising.

Merc Bernaus mbernaus@uab.es