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Chapter 3

The Matching Concept


and the Adjusting Process
Accounting, 21st Edition
Warren Reeve Fess

© Copyright 2004 South-Western, a division


PowerPoint Presentation by Douglas Cloud of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.
Professor Emeritus of Accounting
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automated,
so
so click
click the
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see this
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lightning bolt
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lower right-hand
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Objectives
Objectives
1. Explain how the matching concept relates to the accrual
After
After studying
basis of accounting. studying this
this
2. Explain why adjustments are necessary and list the
chapter,
chapter, you
you should
should
characteristics of adjusting entries.
3. Journalize entries for be
be able
able to:
accounts to:
requiring adjustment.
4. Summarize the adjustment process and prepare an
adjusted trial balance.
5. Use vertical analysis to compare financial statement
items with each other and with industry averages.
The Matching Concept
Reporting Revenue and Expenses
TWO METHODS
Cash Basis of Accounting
Accrual Basis of Accounting
Under the cash basis for the
accounting period concept, revenues
and expenses are reported in the
income statement in the period in
which cash is received or paid.
Under the accrual basis for the
accounting period concept, revenues
are reported in the income statement in
the period in which they are earned.
Accrual Basis of Accounting

Revenue
 Revenue reported
reported when
when earned
earned
Expense
 Expense reported
reported when
when
incurred
incurred
Properly
 Properly matches
matches revenues
revenues and
and
expenses
expenses in
in determining
determining net
net
income
income
Requires
 Requires adjusting
adjusting entries
entries at
at
end
end of
of period
period
The
The matching
matching concept
concept supports
supports
reporting
reporting revenues
revenues and
and related
related
expenses
expenses inin the
the same
same period.
period.

Paid $10,000 for Sold the


an advertising advertised
campaign for a $10,000
product.
$10,000
product thataswill expensed in
recorded an
be introduced 2005 to match
asset in
2003.
2005. revenues

2004 2005
NetSolutions
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 220 00
Supplies 2 000 00
Prepaid Insurance 2 400 00
Land 20 000 00
Office Equipment 1 800 00
Accounts Payable
Unearned Rent
Unadjusted
Unadjusted 900 00
360 00
Chris Clark, Capital trial
trial 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing 4 000 00
Fees Earned balance
balance 16 340 00
Wages Expense 4 275 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Supplies Expense 800 00
Miscellaneous Expense 455 00
42 600 00 42 600 00
NetSolutions
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 220 00
Supplies 2 000 00
Prepaid Insurance 2 400 00
Land 20 000 00
Office Equipment 1 800 00
Accounts Payable 900 00
Unearned Rent 360 00
Chris Clark, Capital 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing 4 000 00
Fees Earned Assets
Assets 16 340 00
Wages Expense 4 275 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Supplies Expense 800 00
Miscellaneous Expense 455 00
42 600 00 42 600 00
NetSolutions
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 220 00
Supplies 2 000 00
Prepaid Insurance 2 400 00
Land 20 000 00
Office Equipment 1 800 00
Accounts Payable 900 00
Unearned Rent 360 00
Chris Clark, Capital 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing 4 000 00
Fees Earned 16 340 00
Wages Expense Liabilities
Liabilities 4 275 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Supplies Expense 800 00
Miscellaneous Expense 455 00
42 600 00 42 600 00
NetSolutions
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 220 00
Supplies 2 000 00
Prepaid Insurance 2 400 00
Land 20 000 00
Office Equipment 1 800 00
Accounts Payable 900 00
Unearned Rent 360 00
Chris Clark, Capital 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing 4 000 00
Fees Earned 16 340 00
Wages Expense 4 275 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense Owner’s
Owner’s 985 00
Supplies Expense 800 00
Miscellaneous Expense Equity
Equity 455 00
42 600 00 42 600 00
NetSolutions
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 220 00
Supplies 2 000 00
Prepaid Insurance 2 400 00
Land 20 000 00
Office Equipment 1 800 00
Accounts Payable 900 00
Unearned Rent 360 00
Chris Clark, Capital 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing 4 000 00
Fees Earned 16 340 00
Wages Expense 4 275 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Supplies Expense Revenue
Revenue 800 00
Miscellaneous Expense 455 00
42 600 00 42 600 00
NetSolutions
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 220 00
Supplies 2 000 00
Prepaid Insurance 2 400 00
Land 20 000 00
Office Equipment 1 800 00
Accounts Payable 900 00
Unearned Rent 360 00
Chris Clark, Capital Expenses
Expenses 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing 4 000 00
Fees Earned 16 340 00
Wages Expense 4 275 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Supplies Expense 800 00
Miscellaneous Expense 455 00
42 600 00 42 600 00
NetSolutions
Chart of Accounts
Balance Sheet Income Statement
1. Assets 4. Revenue
11 Cash 41 Fees Earned
12 Accounts Receivable 42 Rent Revenue
14 Supplies
5. Expenses
15 Prepaid Insurance
51 Wages Expense
17 Land
52 Rent Expense
18 Office Equipment
53 Depreciation Expense
19 Accumulated
54 Utilities Expense
Depreciation19
55 Supplies Expense
Accumulated Depreciation
2. Liabilities 56 Insurance Expense
21 Accounts Payable 59 Miscellaneous Expense
22 Wages Payable
23 Unearned Rent
3. Owner’s Equity
31 Chris Clark, Capital
32 Chris Clark, Drawing
Deferred
Expenses
(Prepaid
Expenses)
NetSolutions
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 220 00
Supplies 2 000 00
Prepaid Insurance 2 400 00
Land Some
Some of
of these
these supplies
20 have
supplies have00
000
Office Equipment been
been used.
used. OnOn December
December 31,
31,
1 800 00
Accounts Payable 900 00
Unearned Rent
aa count
count reveals
reveals that
that $760
$760 of
of 360 00
Chris Clark, Capital supplies
supplies are
are on
on hand.
hand. 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing 4 000 00
Fees Earned 16 340 00
Wages Expense 4 275 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Supplies Expense 800 00
Miscellaneous Expense 455 00
42 600 00 42 600 00
Supplies (balance on trial balance) $2,000
Supplies on hand, December 31 – 760
Supplies used $1,240

2005
1 Dec. 31 Supplies Expense 55 1 240 00
2 Supplies 14 1 240 00
3
4

Supplies 14 Supplies Expense 55


Bal. 2,000 Dec. 31 1,240 Bal. 800
Dec. 31 1,240
760
2,040
NetSolutions
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 220 00
Supplies 2 000 00
Prepaid Insurance 2 400 00
Land 20 000 00
Office Equipment 1 800 00
Accounts Payable
The
The prepayment
prepayment forfor 24
24 months
months900 00
Unearned Rent of
of insurance
insurance does
does not
not reflect
reflect that
that
360 00
Chris Clark, Capital 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing December’s
December’s insurance4 000 has
insurance has
00
Fees Earned theoretically
theoretically expired.
expired. 16 340 00
Wages Expense 4 275 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Supplies Expense 800 00
Miscellaneous Expense 455 00
42 600 00 42 600 00
4 31 Insurance Expense 56 100 00
5
Prepaid Insurance 15 100 00
6
7

Prepaid Insurance 15 Insurance Expense 56


Bal. 2,400 Dec. 31 100 Dec. 31 100
2,300

Note:
Note: You
You probably
probably have
have the
the idea
idea of
of
how
how posting
posting flows,
flows, so
so the
the rest
rest of
of
the
the slides
slides will
will omit
omit the
the arrows.
arrows.
Effect
Effect of
of Omitting
Omitting Adjustment
Adjustment
Deferred Revenue
(Unearned
Revenue)
NetSolutions
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 220 00
Supplies
Prepaid Insurance
Three
Three months’
months’ rent,
rent, $360,
$360, was
2
2
000
was
400
00
00
Land received
received on
on December
December 1.201. As
As of
000 of00
Office Equipment 1 800 00
Accounts Payable December
December 31,
31, only
only $120
$120 has
has 900 00
Unearned Rent been
been earned.
earned. 360 00
Chris Clark, Capital 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing 4 000 00
Fees Earned 16 340 00
Wages Expense 4 275 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Supplies Expense 800 00
Miscellaneous Expense 455 00
42 600 00 42 600 00
7
31 Unearned Rent 23 120 00
8
Rent Revenue 42 120 00
9
10

Unearned Rent 23 Rent Revenue 42


Dec. 31 120 Bal. 360 Dec. 31 120
240
Effect
Effect of
of Omitting
Omitting Adjustment
Adjustment
Accrued
Expenses
(Accrued
Liabilities)
NetSolutions 25
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable At
At the
the end
end ofof December,
2 220 00 accrued
December, accrued
Supplies 2 000 00
Prepaid Insurance
wages amounted
wages amounted to $250.
2 400to00$250.
Land Currently,
Currently, Wages
Wages Expense
20 000Expense
00 isis
Office Equipment understated 1 800
and there00 is no
Accounts Payable understated and there is no 900 00
Unearned Rent liability
liability shown
shown for
for these
these wages.
wages.
360 00
Chris Clark, Capital 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing 4 000 00
Fees Earned 16 340 00
Wages Expense 4 275 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Supplies Expense 800 00
Miscellaneous Expense 455 00
42 600 00 42 600 00
10 31 Wages Expense 51 250 00
11 Wages Payable 22 250 00
12
13

Wages Payable 22 Wages Expense 51


Dec. 31 250 Bal. 4,275
Dec. 31 250
Effect
Effect of
of Omitting
Omitting Adjustment
Adjustment
Accrued
Revenues
(Accrued
Expenses)
NetSolutions 29
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 220 00
Supplies 2 000 00
Prepaid Insurance NetSolutions provided 2$500
400 00
Land NetSolutions provided20$500
000 00
Office Equipment in
in services
services during
during December
December
1 800 00
Accounts Payable for
for which
which the
the customer
customer has
has 900 00
Unearned Rent 360 00
Chris Clark, Capital not
not been
been billed.
billed. 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing 4 000 00
Fees Earned 16 340 00
Wages Expense 4 275 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Supplies Expense 800 00
Miscellaneous Expense 455 00
42 600 00 42 600 00
13 31 Accounts Receivable 12 500 00
14 Fees Earned 41 500 00
15
16

Accounts Receivable 12 Fees Earned 41


Bal. 2,220 Bal. 16,340
Dec. 31 500 Dec. 31 500
2,720 16,840
Effect
Effect of
of Omitting
Omitting Adjustment
Adjustment
Fixed
Assets
Land
Land

Land has an infinite life; therefore,


it does not depreciate.
Building
Building

A building has a limited life, so it must be depreciated.


The contra account used in the adjusting entry is
Accumulated Depreciation—Building
Equipment
Equipment

Because equipment has a limited life, it


depreciates. The contra account used is
Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment
NetSolutions
NetSolutions estimates
estimates the
the
depreciation
depreciation onon its
its office
office equipment
equipment
to
to be
be $50
$50 for
for the
the month
month of of December.
December.

16
17 31 Depreciation Expense 53 50 00
18 Accumulated Depreciation—
19 Office Equipment 19 50 00

Accumulated Depreciation—
Office Equipment
19 Depreciation Expense 53
Dec. 31 50 Dec. 31 50
NetSolutions’
NetSolutions’ balance
balance sheet
sheet
would
would show
show the
the office
office
equipment
equipment at
at cost,
cost, less
less the
the
accumulated
accumulated depreciation.
depreciation.

Office equipment $1,800


Less accumulated
depreciation 50 $1,750

Book
value
Effect
Effect of
of Omitting
Omitting Adjustment
Adjustment
Summary
Summary of
of Basic
Basic Adjustments
Adjustments
NetSolutions’ Adjusted
Trial Balance for
December 31, 2005
NetSolutions 41
Adjusted Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 720 00
Supplies 760 00
Prepaid Insurance 2 300 00
Land 20 000 00
Office Equipment 1 800 00
Accumulated Depreciation 50 00
Accounts Payable 900 00
Wages Payable 250 00
Unearned Rent 240 00
Chris Clark, Capital 25 000 00
Chris Clark, Drawing 4 000 00
Fees Earned 16 840 00
Rent Revenue 120 00
Wages Expense 4 525 00
Rent Expense 1 600 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Continued
NetSolutions 42
Trial Balance
December 31, 2005
Cash 2 065 00
Accounts Receivable 2 720 00
Supplies 760 00
Prepaid Insurance 2 300 00
Land 20 000 00
Office Equipment 1 800 00
Utilities Expense 985 00
Supplies Expense 2 040 00
Insurance Expense 100 00
Miscellaneous Expense 455 00
43 400 00 43 400 00
Vertical
Analysis and
Interpretation
J. Holmes, Attorney-at-Law
Income Statements
For the Years Ended December 31, 2005 and 2006
2006 2005
Amount Percent Amount Percent
Fees earned $187,500 $150,000
Operating expenses:
Wages expense $60,000 $45,000
Rent expense 15,000 12,000
Utilities expense 12,500 9,000
Supplies expense 2,700 3,000
Miscellaneous exp. 2,300 1,800
Total operating
expenses $92,500 $70,800
Net income $95,000 $79,200
2006 2005
Amount Percent Amount Percent
Fees earned $187,500 100.0% $150,000 100.0%
Operating expenses:
Wages expense $60,000 $45,000
Rent expense 15,000 12,000
Utilities expense 12,500 9,000
Supplies expense 2,700 3,000
Miscellaneous exp. 2,300 1,800
Total operating
expenses $92,500 $70,800
Net income $95,000 $79,200
2006 2005
Amount Percent Amount Percent
Fees earned $187,500 100.0% $150,000 100.0%
Operating expenses: $60,000
$60,000
Wages expense $60,000 32.0% $45,000
$187,500
$15,000
$187,500
$15,000
Rent expense 15,000 38.0% 12,000
$187,500
$187,500
Utilities expense 12,500 9,000
Supplies expense 2,700 3,000
Miscellaneous exp. 2,300 1,800
Total operating
expenses $92,500 $70,800
Net income $95,000 $79,200
2006 2005
Amount Percent Amount Percent
Fees earned $187,500 100.0% $150,000 100.0%
Operating expenses:
Wages expense $60,000 32.0% $45,000 30.0%
Rent expense 15,000 38.0% 12,000 8.0%
Utilities expense 12,500 6.7% 9,000 6.0%
Supplies expense 2,700 1.4% 3,000 2.0%
Miscellaneous exp. 2,300 1.2% 1,800 1.2%
Total operating
expenses $92,500 49.3% $70,800 47.2%
Net income $95,000 50.7% $79,200 52.8%
Chapter 3

The
The End
End