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-High Rise Buildings Defining Criteria. -Skyscrapers -Design Consideration

-Structural Systems
Foundation Vertical Support Systems

-Structural Systems Height Comparison


There is no absolute definition of what constitutes a tall building. It is a building that exhibits some element of tallness in one or more of the following categories:
a) Height relative to context

It is not just about height, but about the context in which it exists. Thus whereas a 14-story building may not be considered a tall building in a high-rise city such as Chicago or Hong Kong, in a Indian city or a suburb this may be distinctly taller


There are numerous buildings which are not particularly high, but are slender enough to give the appearance of a tall building, especially against low urban backgrounds. Conversely, there are numerous big/large footprint buildings which are quite tall but their size/floor area rules them out as being classed as a tall building.

HIGH RISE c) Tall Building BUILDINGS Technologies

If a building contains technologies which may be attributed as being a product of tall (e.g., specific vertical transport technologies, structural wind bracing as a product of height, etc.), then this building can be classed as a tall building.

What is a Super tall Building (Skyscraper)? Although great heights are now being achieved with built tall buildings
(in excess of 800 meters/2600 feet), at the start of 2010 there were only 42 buildings in excess of 300 meters completed and occupied globally. Council thus defines super tall as being any building over 300 meters/984 feet in height.

DESIGN Images of local Architecture & Culture CONSIDERATIONS Function of building & its impact on urban
spaces Socio-Economic Factors Building Height & Local Codes Environmental Factors. Site Features & Properties.
Structural System -

Loads Materials Construction Techniques.

The Structural System of a high-rise building has to withstand following Loads

Gravity Structural Loads Live Loads

Wind Seismic These forces develop overturning moment and shear deflection in high rise structures.

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM For design purpose all high-rise buildings are considered as Vertical



A buildings foundation is the structure which supports it in the ground. The forms and materials of building foundation vary according to ground conditions, structural materials, structural type, etc
Foundations systems are almost constructed of concrete. Foundation systems used for high rise structure, -Pile Foundation - Caisson Foundation - Mat Foundation - Spread Foundation - Load-bearing Wall Foundation

Foundation - PILE FOUNDATION Foundation consisting of vertical structural members (Piles) that
are forced into the ground by impact. Some early skyscrapers utilized wood piles, but steel and concrete became more practical at the beginning of the 20th century. Piles can be driven to bedrock, or more commonly, to refusal (that is, until underlying soil resists the pile being driven significantly further into the soil).

Foundation - CAISSON Caisson Foundations are similar in form to pile Foundation, but are FOUNDATION installed using a different method, caissons (also called as Piers)
are created by auguring a deep hole into the ground, and the filling it with concrete. Steel reinforcement is sometimes utilized for a portion of the length of the caissons. Caissons are drilled either to bedrock(called Rock Caissons) or deep into the underlying soil strata if a geotechnical engineer finds the soil suitable to carry the building load. When Caissons rest on soil, they are generally Belled at the bottom to spread the load over a wider area

Foundation - MAT FOUNDATION Mat Foundation (also known as Raft Foundation) are a foundation
system in which essentially in entire building is placed on a large continuous footing. Mat Foundation found some use as early as the nineteenth century, and have continued to be utilized to effectively resolve special soil or design conditions. In locations where the soil is weak and the bedrock is extremely deep, Floating or Compensated Mat Foundation are sometime utilized.

Foundation - SPREAD FOUNDATION For Spread Foundation system, the structural load is literally spread
out over a broad area under the building. Spread Foundation system utilize one or more horizontal mats, or pads, to anchor the building as a whole or to anchor individual columns or sections separately. Spread Foundations are also known as Footing Foundation and are often utilized in low-rise buildings.


Many building foundation, including most buildings that have basement levels, use slurry walls at the edge to hold out the surrounding earth. In every few cases, this slurry wall or another underground wall element becomes a major load bearing part of a high rise buildings foundation.

VERTICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM The most of the structural system are grouped in three main types :
1) Rigid Frame System 2) Shear Wall System 3) Tubular System There are number of systems for high rise construction which have been derived out of the single or combination of these types. Rigid Frame Tube-In-Tube Flat Plate Rigid Frame and Core Trussed Tube Skip-Stop Interstitial Trussed Frame Bundled Tube Suspension Belt-trussed Frame and Core Cantilevered Slabs Self-Supporting Bearing Walls Space Truss Boxes Staggered Bearing Walls with Cores Truss


-Rigid frame systems are very inefficient.
-Each and every member must help in the transfer of lateral loads to the foundations through rigid connections

- These systems are usually very regular and not of great height. Building Examples 860 & 880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments (Chicago, USA, 26 stories, 82 m), Business Men's Assurance Tower (Kansas City, USA, 19 stories),
Height Limit Steel Concrete 30 20

RIGID FRAME WITH CORE -In this hybrid system, a stiffening core has been added SYSTEM to the standard rigid frame in order to reduce the lateral
sway of the structure. -This system is also known as Framed Tube System. Building Examples Aon Centre (Chicago, USA, 83 stories, 346 m), Water Tower Place (Chicago, USA, 74 stories, 262 m) Height Limit Steel Concrete

80 60


-This system attempts to combine the efficiency of the

truss with the stiffness of the rigid frame. -The rigid frame could be used to transfer the vertical loading and the truss for the lateral loading.


-Large trusses tie the facade columns to the core so that the whole building acts as one large system of interdependent parts.
-The trusses are called "cap Trusses" when they are at the top of the building, and "Belt Trusses" when they are at intermediate points.


-Trusses utilized to transfer the lateral loads to the

core. -Very large columns and bracing. - Stiff transfer floors allow for internal flexibility.


-Vertical structural elements carry the loads directly to foundations. -The height of the structure is limited mostly by the strength of the bearing materials. -This system depends upon its massive weight to resist lateral loading. -Bearing Wall systems are commonly used in apartments in which the spans between walls is relatively small.

BEARING WALL WITH CORE -The core is often placed in a central location. This is due SYSTEM to the convenience for the distribution of building services
& for an increased structural integrity. -Bearing walls with core(s) allow for a greater free floor area and is thus more popular for office buildings than the parallel Bearing Wall systems. This is a common system for reinforced concrete structures of moderate height.

Kanchanjunga Apartments, Mumbai.


-The exterior and interior columns of the structure are

placed so closely together that they not only appear to be solid, but they act as a solid surface as well. -The entire building acts as a huge hollow tube with a smaller tube in the middle of it. -The lateral loads are shared between the inner and outer tubes.


-This was the natural extension of the "Tube-in-Tube"

system. -The stiffness and strength of these very tall buildings is generated by all of the "tubes" of the building being "bound" together to act as one big bundle. Sears Tower (Chicago, USA, 108 stories, 442 m)

CORE WITH CANTILEVER -Solid Core supports cantilevered floor slabs which are SYSTEM often post-tensioned.
-This has the advantage of freeing the facade and clearing the interior floor space of columns. -The disadvantage is the additional thickness required as the cantilever increases.