Paramedic Care: Principles & Practice

Volume 1 Introduction to Advanced Prehospital Care

Chapter 8 General Principles of Physiology and Pathophysiology

Chapter 8, Part 1 The Cell and the Cellular Environment

Part 1 Topics     The Normal Cell How Cells Respond to Change and Injury The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes Acid-Base Balance .

CELL THEORY All Living Things Are Composed of Cells  Cells Are the Functional Unit of the Body  Continuity of Life: Cells come from other cells  .

CELL DIVERSITY  Human Body contains 50-106 trillion cells  200 different cell types  Range from 2 micrometers to 1 meter in length .

The Normal Cell .

The Normal Cell   The cell is the fundamental unit of the human body. Three main elements:    Cell membrane Cytoplasm Organelles .

and lipids  Organelles  Structures that perform specific functions within the cell . proteins. glucose (sugar).Cellular Components  Membrane encircles and protects the cell.  The membrane is selectively permeable  Cytoplasm viscous fluid that fills and gives shape to the cell  Electrolytes.

The Cell Membrane .

Organelles       Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Mitochondria Lysosomes Peroxisomes .

directs activities Bounded by a double membrane.many nuclei Anucleate . the nuclear envelope Contains genetic information (DNA) in the form of genes Nucleolus .NUCLEUS       Cell control center.site of ribosome assembly Multinucleate .no nucleus .

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chemical substances that may be stored in the cytoplasm .CYTOPLASM  Cell forming material    viscous transparent fluid organelles .“little organs” Inclusions .

sort and modify proteins and lipids for export or cell use .synthesize proteins Golgi apparatus .ORGANELLES  Endoplasmic reticulum   rough ER .transport & membrane synthesis smooth ER .series of flattened membrane sacs that process.lipid synthesis & drug detoxification   Ribosome .

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short.ORGANELLES    Mitochondria .form part of the cytoskeleton that serve as support structures and assist with cell movement   Cilia -numerous. transport substances across the membrane Flagella . used to propel the cell .ATP formation Lysosome . digest bacteria Microtubules / Microfilaments .contain hydrolytic enzymes that break down molecules.often single.

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contain enzymes that oxidize toxic substances (neutralize free radicals) Centrosomes/centrioles . oils. melanin .ORGANELLES    Peroxisomes . Vesicles.function in cell division Storage organelles .Vacuoles. may contain:  fats.

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2 m) determined by space needed for ribosomes. DNA.Size does matter!    Cells range from 1–200 m Lower limit (0. Upper limit determined by need to transport materials across surface  Large cells have lower surface to volume ratio .

NO NUCLEUS growth due to increase in numbers rather than size high surface to volume ratio .5 µm no organelles.5 .Prokaryotic Cell Structure  bacteria & archaea      very small 0. internal membranes rare DNA localized in nucleoid region.

Eukaryotic Cells  Internal membranes form different compartments to carry out specific activities     Energy metabolism Protein processing Recycling Information storage .

Essential Chemistry .

Atom acquires a net charge. A charged atom or group of atoms is called an ion.Ions/Ionic bonds  Some atoms can donate or accept electrons     # of protons (+ charge) and electrons (. . Oppositely charged atoms are attracted to each other. forming an ionic bond.charge) become imbalanced.

S – 2 bonds H – 1 bond .Covalent Bonds    Some atoms share electrons – forming covalent bonds Shared electrons spend time orbiting both atoms Important elements     C – 4 bonds N – 3 bonds O.

Polar Covalent Bonds    Some atoms such as O. N attract electrons strongly Unequal sharing of electrons creates partial charges at ends (poles) of covalent bond Opposite partial charges on the same or separate molecules are attracted to each other – forming hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) .

Two ends of molecule have opposite charges.      Surface tension adhesion.Why is water special?    Water is a polar molecule. Water molecules stick to each other and to other things. capillary action and redwood trees collapsed lungs surfactants cohesion .

Water as a solvent    Water can interact with other polar substances. therefore they dissolve well Charged on ions are stabilized by partial charges in water Non. .polar molecules do not interact with water.

Hydrophobic “interactions”   Substances that do not interact with water referred to as hydrophobic hydrophobic molecules are aggregated to minimize disruption of water’s H-bonding network. .

Societies  Families  individuals/organisms  organs  tissues  cells  molecules  .  The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.Major Theme!!  Nature builds “big” things by organizing and connecting “little” things.

fructose Monosaccharide = 1 sugar . . hexoses – (n=6) .g.pentoses (n=5) – Ribose.Hydrated Carbon    Carbohydrates have a base formula of (CH2O)n names end with “ose”.glucose. e. ribulose.

Macromolecules .

The most important chemical reactions in living organisms    Condensation .monomers  polymer . Hydrolysis .Water used to split a molecule Can be continued ad infinitum .Removal of H and OH from two separate molecules forms water and connects the two molecules.

 Present on cell surface proteins and lipids.Disaccharides   2 monosaccharides can be linked to form a disaccharide Oligosaccharides contain several different sugars linked in different types of linkages. .

starch (plants) and cellulose (plants).Polysaccharides   Sugars (monosaccharides) can be connected to form polysaccharides – usually only 1 or 2 types of linkage. . Glucose is used to produce glycogen (animals).

 Fiber in the diet.Polysaccharides  Cellulose is also a polymer of glucose.allows more rapid breakdown to individual sugars . paper. but sugars are linked differently. wood.branching creates more ends . sheep) with cellulose degrading bacteria  Starch & Glycogen . difficult to breakdown. Extra stomachs in ruminants (cows.

NADP carry electrons . 2 (di) or 3 (tri) Important nts    ATP .Nucleotides (nts)     Sugar .C.ribose vs.A.G and T (DNA) or U (RNA) Phosphates . deoxyribose Base .regulates protein activity NAD.1 (mono).energy GTP .

Nucleic Acids  Nucleotides are linked together via dehydration synthesis reactions   sugar phosphate backbone bases project to side   RNA has one strand DNA is double stranded .

. Linkage by peptide bonds maintains amino and carboxyl termini.Proteins are polymers of amino acids    Amino acids are connected together to form a chain linked by peptide bonds. directionality 20 different amino acids have “R groups” or “side chains” with different chemical properties.

amphipathic  hydrophobic tail + hydrophilic head .glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate + something else.Phospholipid structure   Phospholipids .

exposed to water. phospholipids spontaneously form a lipid bilayer.  Lipid bilayers form the basis of membrane structure . away from water.   Hydrophilic portion of phospholipid on surface.Lipid Bilayers  When mixed with water. Hydrophobic portion in central region.

Triglycerides = Fats/Oils  Triglycerides = glycerol + 3 fatty acids  Function as energy storage and insulation .

lard. fat     less than maximum number of hydrogens double bonds present less energy storage more fluid because bent vegetable oils .Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats  Saturated     Unsaturated    maximum number of hydrogens no double bonds more energy storage (more calories) less fluid because straight butter.

carotene. cortisone . estrogen. a component of membranes steroid hormones. K Sterols   cholesterol.Other Lipids   Isoprenoids . E. testosterone. vitamin A.

good cholesterol vs. bad cholesterol  Good cholesterol   Bad cholesterol    bound to high density lipoprotein (HDL) transports cholesterol to liver blocks synthesis of more cholesterol   bound to low density lipoprotein (LDL) transports cholesterol to cells of the body does not prevent synthesis of more cholesterol by liver .

1 fatty alcohol. hydrophilic part associates with water to allow grease to be washed away emulsification .allows oil and water to mix often forms micelles  detergents . ear wax amphipathic . very hydrophobic  surface of leaves.Other lipids  Waxes .fatty acid salt    .hydrophobic part associates with grease on your jeans.

prevents absorption of many fat soluble vitamins that help prevent cancer diarrhea oily anal leakage  Disadvantages    .Olestra    Olestra = sucrose + 8 fatty acids not absorbed by digestive track Advantage(s)  can be used to fry foods without adding calories negative nutritional value .Fat substitutes .

There are seven major functions of cells. or maturation. causes cells to become specialized.Cell Function    All human cells have the same general structure and genetic material. . Differentiation.

Major Functions of Cells        Movement Conductivity Metabolic absorption Secretion Excretion Respiration Reproduction .

Four basic types of tissue     Epithelial Muscle Connective Nerve .Tissues   Tissue refers to a group of cells that perform a similar function.

TISSUE ORGANIZATION Histology .is the study of tissues .

MAIN TISSUE TYPES     Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous .

cavities. or covering body surfaces Form many glands .EPITHELIAL TISSUE  Location   sheets or layers lining body tubes.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

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Form sheets, layers Cells fit together tightly One edge attached to basement membrane No blood supply Regenerate quickly Many are secretory Supported by connective tissue

FUNCTIONS

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Protection Absorption Filtration Secretion Gas exchange

EPITHELIAL TISSUE TYPES

Number of layers
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simple epithelium stratified epithelium pseudostratified epithelium squamous (flat) cuboidal ( cubed) columnar ( tall) transitional (varies)

Shape of cells
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secrete hormones into blood exocrine.“goblet cells”  multicellular   modes of secretion  apocrine .apex pinches off  holocrine .accumulate until rupture  merocrine -most common.secrete by exocytosis .Glandular Epithelial Tissue Types   endocrine (ductless) .secrete through ducts to specific locations unicellular .

CONNECTIVE TISSUE Most abundant and widespread tissue found in the body .

fibers.GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS        Many types with great diversity Very good blood supply Cells usually spaced apart from each other Intercellular material (matrix) separating cells No free surface Derived from mesenchyme Consist of ground substance. cells .

Connective Tissue Functions         Physical protection Support Binding Absorb shock Insulation Stores energy Blood production Immunity .

very tough and strong  contains collagen protein contains elastin protein contains collagen & glycoprotein  Elastic .Types of Fibers  Collagen .very flexible and stretchable   Reticular .forms network mesh  .

attaches skin to underlying body parts. superficial fascia Adipose .energy storage. insulation Reticular .binds smooth muscles together   .Connective Tissue Proper  Loose Connective(Areolar) .

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periosteum blood vessels. lung tissue  Irregular dense   Elastic connective  . ligaments fascia. Regular dense connective tissue(fibrous)  tendon.

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Cartilage  Hyaline cartilage (gristle)  ends of long bone. connects ribs to sternum external ear  Elastic cartilage   Fibrocartilage   between pubic symphysis discs between vertebrae . nose tip.

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BONE MATRIX 30% collagen fibers 70% mineral salts .OSSEOUS TISSUE .

trabeculae Compact Bone .Osseous Tissue  Types of Cells    osteocytes osteoblasts osteoclasts Cancellous (Spongy) Bone .Haversian Canal System  Types of Bone   .

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Blood Tissue (Vascular)   Hemopoietic Tissue (blood forming tissue) Types of Cells:    erythrocytes (RBC’s) leukocytes (WBC’s) platelets (thrombocytes) .

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MUSCLE TISSUE Contractile tissue Responsible for movement .

striated   Usually attached to long bones . threadlike cells with parallel fibers Cells are multinucleate with nuclei located peripherally.Voluntary  Long.Skeletal Muscle .

Smooth Muscle - Involuntary

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Spindle shaped cells with single nucleus per cell No striations Located in blood vessels, walls of hollow organs, and the gastrointestinal tract

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Cardiac Muscle .Involuntary     Branched cells with striated fibers Intercalated discs Only a single nucleus per cell Only found in the heart .

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NERVE TISSUE Characterized by the ability to conduct electrical signals .

Nervous Tissue

Located in the brain and spinal cord (CNS) and in the nerves (PNS) Sensitive to changes in the internal and external environment Conducts nerve impulses to other neurons/body parts

NERVE TISSUE

Functions in coordinating, regulating, and integrating body activities Types of Cells:
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neuroglial cells - support cells neuron - cell body, axon, dendrites

MEMBRANES Thin sheet or layer of tissue that covers a structure or lines a cavity .

mucosa  line cavities that open to the exterior .lines inside of cavities  visceral membrane .(serosa)  found in closed cavities parietal membrane .skin Serous membrane .covers organs   Mucous membrane .Epithelial Membranes   Cutaneous membrane .

Connective Tissue Membranes  Synovial Membrane   line spaces between bones in joints secrete synovial fluid .

and organ systems makes up an organism. tissues. A group of organs working together is an organ system. . Organ Systems.Organs. organs. and the Organism    An organ is a group of tissues functioning together. The sum of all cells.

Organ Systems      Cardiovascular Respiratory Gastrointestinal Genitourinary Reproductive      Nervous Endocrine Lymphatic Muscular Skeletal .

System Integration  Homeostasis is the body’s natural tendency to keep the internal environment and metabolism steady and normal. .  Cells do not tolerate extreme environmental fluctuations.

System Integration  Two systems work together to maintain homeostasis:   Nervous system Endocrine system    Nervous system response is fast Endocrine response is longer lasting Responses are stimulated by pathological alterations .

System Integration  Chemical signals are received by various types of receptors  Interact with. the chemical signals and other stimuli    Chemoreceptors Baroreceptors Alpha and Beta Receptors . and then respond to.

System Integration  Endocrine Glands  Secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system Secrete hormones directly onto surface Endocrine and exocrine function  Exocrine Glands   Some glands are “mixed”  .

Intercellular Communication  Endocrine signaling  Hormones distributed throughout the body Secretion of chemical mediators by certain cells that act only upon nearby cells Cells secrete substances that act upon themselves Cells secrete neurotransmitters that transmit signals across synapses  Paracrine signaling   Autocrine signaling   Synaptic signaling  .

A system receiving input creates feedback. Biological systems generally employ negative feedback loops to maintain stability.System Integration     Stressors on a body system are inputs. . A negative feedback loop exists when body mechanisms work to reverse the input.

Pathophysiology

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“The physiology of disordered function” Our understanding is constantly expanding During your career you will encounter patient conditions or diseases that were not addressed in your initial paramedic education.

How Cells Respond To Change and Injury

Cell Reproduction

Human cells (except sex cells) reproduce by mitosis Most undergo division throughout the life of the individual
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Epithelial cells Liver cells Bone marrow cells Nerve cells Skeletal muscle cells
Copyright © 2006, 2001, 1994 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Some divide until near time of birth
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mitosis.reductional division in which the chromosome number is reduced .CELL DIVISION      Process by which a cell reproduces itself Involves nuclear division .somatic cell division in which the cell retains the same number of chromosomes Meiosis . meiosis Involves cytoplasmic division cytokinesis Mitosis .

DNA synthesis Growth Phase 2 .CELL CYCLE      Growth Phase 1 . proteins and carbohydrates S Phase . centrioles divide Mitosis / Meiosis INTERPHASE .formation of spindle fibers for cell division.synthesis of lipids.

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•STAGES OF MITOSIS PROPHASE METAPHASE ANAPHASE TELOPHASE .

PROPHASE       Chromatin condenses into chromosomes Spindle Fibers appear Nuclear membrane disappears Nucleolus disappears Centrioles move to opposite poles Chromosomes begins to migrate toward equator .

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sister chromatids separate Chromatids migrate to opposite poles .METAPHASE / ANAPHASE   Chromosomes line up along equator centromere of each pair attached to a spindle fiber   Centromeres split.

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TELOPHASE & CYTOKINESIS      Opposite of Prophase Chromosomes elongate forming indistinct chromatin Nuclear membrane reappears Nuclear reorganization occurs Two new daughter cells formed .

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forms genetic code RNA .NUCLEIC ACID STRUCTURE   DNA .functions in the process of protein synthesis .

nucleus Contains: 5 carbon sugar. phosphate group. nitrogenous base Nitrogenous bases   adenine-thymine cytosine.DNA DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID    Double stranded helix.guanine  Base pairing occurs .

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each contains an original strand and a newly synthesized strand .helix molecules are formed.DNA RELICATION    DNA makes an exact duplicate of itself DNA strands separate into separate strands and each one is used as a template for a new strand of nucleotides Two double.

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phosphate group. tRNA. nitrogenous base Bases: adenine. uracil RNA types: mRNA. cytosine.RNA RIBONUCLEIC ACID      Single stranded Uracil substitutes for thymine consists of 5 carbon sugar ribose. guanine. rRNA .

TRANSCRIPTION RNA SYNTHESIS   mRNA is synthesized using a DNA molecule as a template mRNA carries MESSAGE out of the nucleus to the ribsome in the cytoplasm .

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TRANSLATION PROTEIN SYNTHESIS      Genetic code is translated forming a specific sequence of amino acids mRNA attaches to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm tRNA molecules bring specific A. to the ribosome for placement in the dictated sequence Ribosome bonds amino acids together to form proteins / polypeptides Protein is released .A.

membranes    Lipid bilayer closes to form a sphere (vesicle) Inside of vesicle is a separate compartment Bilayer is “semipermeable”   Small. uncharged molecules pass through Large or charged molecules cannot pass through hydrophobic part of bilayer .Loose end .

Loose end– protein folding   Proteins are incredibly diverse – 20(# of amino acids) possible combinations (3.000 combinations for a 5 aa protein). causing polypeptide chain to fold up on itself. which is dependent on sequence of amino acids.    Hydrophobic amino acids are buried in the center Hydrophilic are on the surface Ionic and H-bonds can form between amino acids  Function is dependent on folded structure.200. Different amino acids have different chemical properties.******* .

Loose end– enzymes    Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (stimulate/ accelerate) chemical reactions Names end in -ase Examples    DNA polymerase makes DNA ATPase breaks down or produces ATP Helicase unwinds the DNA double helix  Metabolic pathway is a series of reactions that produces (anabolic) or breaks down (catabolic) a molecule in the cell  Defects cause genetic diseases .

. thoughts.Info Flow . series of symbols that have meaning. Digital – 1’s and 0’s Alphanumeric – letters and numbers Graphic – illustration Genetic – chemical – order of bases (ACGTU) in a nucleic acid tells a cell how and when to make specific proteins – which then perform some function for the cell.What Information?  What is information?      Representation of knowledge.

Storage of Information   Information is stored in the sequence of bases in DNA. What Information?  Genes .when and where to make proteins  only bone marrow cells make hemoglobin .instructions on how to make proteins  hemoglobin gene contains the information on the order of amino acids that are linked together to make hemoglobin  Regulation .

T  Phosphate – negative charge – gives DNA a negative charge . G Pyrimidines (1 ring) = C.DNA  DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid Sugar = deoxyribose Base –     Purines (2 rings) = A.

Nucleic Acids  Nucleotides are linked together via dehydration synthesis reactions   sugar phosphate backbone bases project to side .

 Bases can form Hbonds   DNA structure C’s and G’s pair A pairs with T or U Two strands of DNA are said to be complementary  Strands are antiparallel. have 5’ phosphate & 3’ OH 5’-GCTAGGTAGTCCT-3’ 3’-CGATCCATCAGGA-5’  .

 amino acid seq.  english  russian .photocopy Transcription: DNA  RNA  still a sequence of nucleotides  writing notes from screen . different form (cursive) Translation: RNA  protein  nucleotide seq.still same letters.The Central Dogma     Information Flow within Organisms  What Information? Replication: DNA  DNA  exact copy .

U in RNA .Transcription     Messenger RNA (mRNA) functions as a “working copy” of the information on DNA. RNA polymerase uses 1 strand of DNA as a template to make mRNA.C.A.  Starting position determined by RNA polymerase binding to PROMOTER RNA polymerase moves down DNA and connects nucleotides to make RNA bases .G in both RNA and DNA. T in DNA.

Transcription  After RNA is made. the 2 DNA strands come back together. RNA molecule is released  in eukaryotes .each RNA contains the info from 1 gene – produces 1 protein  in prokaryotes .RNAs may contain info from multiple gene – produce multiple proteins .

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RNA produced referred to as “primary transcript” In Eukaryotes.RNA processing   Once transcription does occur. RNA is processed to form mRNA before export from nucleus to cytoplasm .

Introns are cut from primary RNA transcript.RNA splicing   Eukaryotic genes are interrupted by DNA sequences called introns or intervening sequences. exons are spliced together. parts that will be used to make protein are exons. .

RNA Processing   Poly-A tail added to 3’ end to enhance stability of mRNA 7-methyl-guanine “cap” added to 5’ end – required for export from nucleus .

.sequence of 3 nucleotides that specifies 1 amino acid.The Genetic Code    What is a code? Morse Code The genetic code translates nucleotide sequence into amino acid sequence    codon . AUG=start codon UAA. UAG are stop codons. UGA.

same for all organisms  .64 possible combinations. but only 20 amino acids. Most amino acids are encoded by multiple codons The Genetic Code is Universal .The Genetic Code   Genetic code is degenerate .

3 Possible Reading Frames       AUG GGA UCC ACA UUU GCA UGA Met Gly Ser Thr Phe Ala Stop A UGG GAU CCA CAU UUG CAU GA Trp Asp Pro His Leu His AU GGG AUC CAC AUU UGC AUG A Gly Ile His Ile Cys Met .The Genetic Code   Codons are read sequentially. notoverlapped.

The Big Picture .

proteins provide scaffolding . 5S rRNA and 45 proteins  rRNAs are functional components.Ribosomes   Translation occurs on ribosomes Ribosomes are ribonucleoproteins (RNA and protein components)   Small subunit contains 16S rRNA and 33 proteins Large subunit contains 23S rRNA.

rRNA Intramolecular base pairing causes RNA to fold into a specific shape (like a protein) Paired regions twist to form helix .“Functional” RNAs     mRNA function is information transfer – info is used to make protein Some RNAs are not translated – tRNA.

tRNA structure  Transfer RNA (tRNAs) are the adaptors that associate RNA codons with amino acids    anticodon at one end base pairs with codons on mRNA. amino acid at other end attached by amino acyltRNA synthetases Each amino acid has 1-2 tRNAs .

Translation     1. 3. 2. tRNA that base pairs with next codon is lined up. position start codon. . Ribosomes bind mRNA. Two amino acids are connected. Initiator tRNA base pairs with AUG codon. 4.

6. Ribosome moves down mRNA to next codon.Translation     4. Two amino acids are connected. 5. Return to step 4 . New tRNA pairs with next codon. 7.

folds into a functional protein. See animation .Translation    When ribosome reaches a stop codon . Polypeptide is released.no tRNAs can pair with it.

The Big Picture     DNA is transcribed to mRNA. Ribosome binds mRNA. tRNAs with amino acids pair up with codons on mRNA. Amino acids connected to produce protein .

Questions? .

How Cells Respond To Change and Injury    Cellular Adaptation Cellular Injury Cellular Death .

Adaptation results in alteration of structure and function.  May also be part of the process of a disease . organs. and organ systems can adapt to both normal and injurious conditions.Cellular Adaptation    Cells. tissues. Many of these cellular adaptations are successful.

Types of Cellular Adaptations  Atrophy  Decreased size resulting from a decreased workload An increase in cell size resulting from an increased workload  Hypertrophy   Hyperplasia  An increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased workload .

shape. or appearance caused by an external stressor  Dysplasia  .Types of Cellular Adaptations  Metaplasia  Replacement of one type of cell by another type of cell that is not normal for that tissue A change in cell size.

Cellular Injury     Hypoxic Chemical Infectious Immunologic or Inflammatory    Physical agents Nutritional balances Genetic factors .

  Results in anaerobic metabolism Cell and some of its organelles then begin to swell  Reversible if intervention is early  Infarction occurs if no intervention .Cellular Injury  Hypoxic Injury   Usually a deficit in the respiratory or cardiovascular system Blockage or reduction of blood flow to a cell may result in ischemia.

drugs.Cellular Injury  Chemical Injury  Cellular injury due to chemical products is very common. ethanol. and insecticides are examples Disruption of the cellular membrane Alteration of coagulation Death of the cell  Injuries include:    . carbon monoxide.  Heavy metals.

prions. and parasites Majority are harmless  Pathogens cause disease  Degree of damage depends on the pathogens numbers. viruses. and the body’s ability to contain or destroy it . its virulence. fungi.Cellular Injury  Infectious Injury   Caused by bacteria.

Hypersensitivity Anaphylaxis An immune response may harm healthy cells as well as damaged cells. .Cellular Injury  Immunologic/Inflammatory Injury     Protective responses of the body can cause cell injury and even death.

Cellular Injury  Injurious Physical Agents       Extreme variances in temperature Atmospheric pressure changes Exposure to ionizing radiation Illumination Noise Mechanical stresses .

Cellular Injury  Injurious Nutritional Imbalances    Excessive intake of saturated fats and cholesterol Excessive carbohydrate (glucose) intake Insufficient intake of nutrients .

the shape of the cell. This can involve alterations to the nucleus or the cell membrane. or the transport mechanisms that carry substances across the cell membrane. . the receptors on the cell membrane. The interaction of genes and environmental factors determine that person’s development.Cellular Injury  Injurious Genetic Factors    Some cellular dysfunctions are caused by genetic predisposition.

causing substances to infiltrate or accumulate to an abnormal degree in cells and tissues.Manifestations of Cellular Injury   When cells are injured metabolism is changed. The most commonly seen effects of cell injury and accumulation are cellular swelling and fatty change. .

Manifestations of Cellular Injury  Cellular Swelling   Results from a permeable or damaged cellular membrane Caused by an inability to maintain stable intraand extra-cellular fluid and electrolyte levels Lipids invade site of injury Ominous sign of impending cellular destruction  Fatty Change   .

Manifestations of Cellular Injury  Systemic Signs and Symptoms of Cellular Change      Fatigue and malaise Altered appetite Fever Increased heart rate associated with fever Pain .

Cellular Death  Apoptosis     The body’s way of ridding itself of destroyed or nonfunctional cells Result of both normal and pathological tissue changes In apoptosis. cells shrink Apoptosis has specificity  Contained to specific cells or areas .

Cellular Death  Necrosis    A pathological process Cells swell and rupture Necrotic tissue changes  Coagulative. caseous. liquefactive. and fatty  Gangrenous necrosis .

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