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Lecture 31

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors


TITLE
ROTATING DC
MOTOR
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
OUTLINE
Theory
Rotating DC Motor Principle
Rotating DC Motor Theory
Rotating DC Motor Torque Taming
Rotating DC Motor Field Taming
Rotating DC Motor / Generator
Simple Rotating DC Motor
Rotating DC Motor Dissection
Rotating DC Motor Building at Home
Rotating DC Motor Regenerative Braking
Rotating DC Motor Brushless

Assignment
References
Summary
Fourier, Joseph (1768-1830)
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
Linear motors are good for certain tasks, but industrial
and transportation applications usually demand rotating
motion.
Movable metal bar
Magnetic flux density into page
External applied field
bat
V

+
R
I
v

app
B

Metal fixed rail


Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
The DC rotating motor is commonly
constructed with an armature on the rotor
and a field generated by a permanent
magnet instead of a stator winding.
Stator: non-moving coil
Rotor: rotating part
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
motor, electric,
machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical
energy. When an electric current is passed through a wire
loop that is in a magnetic field, the loop will rotate and the
rotating motion is transmitted to a shaft, providing useful
mechanical work. The traditional electric motor consists of a
conducting loop that is mounted on a rotatable shaft. Current
fed in by carbon blocks, called brushes, enters the loop
through two slip rings. The magnetic field around the loop,
supplied by an iron core field magnet, causes the loop to turn
when current is flowing through it.
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
motor, electric,

In an alternating current (AC) motor, the current flowing in the loop
is synchronized to reverse direction at the moment when the plane of the
loop is perpendicular to the magnetic field and there is no magnetic force
exerted on the loop. Because the momentum of the loop carries it around
until the current is again supplied, continuous motion results. In alternating
current induction motors the current passing through the loop does not
come from an external source but is induced as the loop passes through
the magnetic field. In a direct current (DC) motor, a device known as a
split ring commutator switches the direction of the current each half
rotation to maintain the same direction of motion of the shaft. In any
motor the stationary parts constitute the stator, and the assembly
carrying the loops is called the rotor, or armature.
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
motor, electric,

As it is easy to control the speed of direct-current motors by varying the
field or armature voltage, these are used where speed control is necessary.
The speed of AC induction motors is set roughly by the motor construction
and the frequency of the current; a mechanical transmission must therefore
be used to change speed. In addition, each different design fits only one
application. However, AC induction motors are cheaper and simpler than
DC motors. To obtain greater flexibility, the rotor circuit can be connected to
various external control circuits. Most home appliances with small motors
have a universal motor that runs on either DC or AC. Where the expense is
warranted, the speed of AC motors is controlled by employing special
equipment that varies the power-line frequency, which in the United States
is 60 hertz (Hz), or 60 cycles per second.
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
motor, electric,

Brushless DC motors are constructed in a reverse fashion from the
traditional form. The rotor contains a permanent magnet and the
stator has the conducting coil of wire. By the elimination of brushes,
these motors offer reduced maintenance, no spark hazard, and better
speed control. They are widely used in computer disk drives, tape
recorders, CD drives, and other electronic devices. Synchronous
motors turn at a speed exactly proportional to the frequency. The very
largest motors are synchronous motors with DC passing through the rotor.
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
Terming this device a DC motor is not
entirely clear, in fact, the current in the
armature coil alternates in polarity, even
though the supply is DC.
Stator: non-moving coil
Rotor: rotating part
Armature coil
Brushes
WHY ?
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR THEORY
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
Consider a rectangular coil rotating in a
uniform magnetic field B
Figures extracted from Lecture 22
Magnetic field and
current in loop
interact in such a way
as to generate a
torque on the loop.
Axis

r 2
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
Lecture 22
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: Magnetic dipole
THEORY THEORY
m

Side view
u
F

Pivot point
2
a
( ) u sin
2
IB a = I
a
a
I
Wire loop
I a m
2
=

( ) u sin B m

= I
B m

= I
TORQUE ON A
MAGNETIC
DIPOLE
Taken from Lecture 22
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
Lecture 22
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: Magnetic dipole
THEORY THEORY
m

Side view
u
F

Torque attempts to align dipole


moment with .
m

Pivot point
( ) u sin
2
2
a
F = I
F r

= I
2
a
Total torque
F => Magnetic force on
wire of length a
TORQUE ON A
MAGNETIC
DIPOLE
Taken from Lecture 22
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
Lecture 22
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: Magnetic dipole
THEORY THEORY
m

Side view
u
F

Pivot point
( ) u sin
2
2
a
F = I
2
a
F => Magnetic force on
wire of length a
IBa F =
Through postulate 1 for magnetic fields
( ) u sin
2
IB a = I
Then
TORQUE ON A
MAGNETIC
DIPOLE


d B I F d =
Taken from Lecture 22
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE
If current always
flows in the same
direction then loop
will only oscillate
rather than rotate
Axis

r 2
u
I
m

u
F

r
0
180
360
Unstable equilibrium
Stable equilibrium
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR TORQUE TAMING
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE TORQUE TAMING
We need to reverse the direction of the current on each half cycle.
u
I
0
180
360
Transform original torque
versus angle curve from:
u
I
0
180
360
TO
Now torque always applied in same
direction inducing loop to spin
continuously in same direction.
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE TORQUE TAMING
This is accomplished by using a commutator (either mechanical or
electronic cycle).
u
I
0
180
360
How it Works.
Metal ring attached to shaft split in
two sections
Link to related site
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE TORQUE TAMING
The figure illustrates one method by which the commutation function might be
accomplished. Rather than hard wiring the current source to the coil, the current is
conducted through sliding contacts (brushes) connected to the current source. The
brushes ride on the ends of the coil wires, thus conducting current through the coil.
In this simplified motor, the brushes switch coil connections about once every 180
o

of rotation. Therefore, the direction of current flow remains fixed with respect to the
magnetic field.
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE TORQUE
TAMING
The torque produced by this design momentarily goes to zero
every half cycle. Stall is possible, also start up may require a
small push. In addition to this the torque versus rotation angle is
not uniform
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE TORQUE TAMING
Link to related site
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE TORQUE TAMING
Link to related site
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE TORQUE TAMING
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR FIELD TAMING
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE FIELD TAMING
To obtain a more even
torque, the magnetic field
lines should look something
like:
F

And how do you get a magnetic field


with that shape?
B

Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE FIELD TAMING
To obtain a more even
torque, the magnetic field
lines should look something
like:
B field lines follow the path of least reluctance, so the
curved poles create roughly a radial field pattern.
B

poles of magnet
Rotor
Redesign the permanent magnet poles.
Insert soft iron rotor
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE FIELD TAMING
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE FIELD TAMING
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE FIELD TAMING
B

Rotor
r
Recall slide 9 of this lecture for
parameters of the wire loop.
Motor dimensions:
Radius r
Depth
Torque in radial field
rBI 2 = I
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE FIELD TAMING
In a practical motor design, use many turns of wire on the rotor
(rather than just one) to increase the torque.
B

Rotor
r
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE FIELD TAMING
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR / GENERATOR
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR / GENERATOR
As the motor turns, a back emf is produced:
vB V
emf
2 =
velocity of the outer edge of the
rotor
r v e =
There are two conductors of length
in the loop.

B r V
emf
e 2 =
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR / GENERATOR
B r V
emf
e 2 =
Equivalent circuit
emf
V
bat
V

+
R

+
terminal
v

Expression of V
emf
Loop
Slide extracted from lecture 30 and modified for loop motor.
e

I
emf bat
V IR V + =

B r R
rB
V
bat
e 2
2
+
I
=
rBI 2 = I
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR / GENERATOR

B r R
rB
V
bat
e 2
2
+
I
=
Linear relation between
speed and torque
rB
V
bat
load no
2
=

e
e
I
R
V rB
bat
2
0
= I
= e
Current
flows in a
direction to
charge the
battery.
Motor
Slide extracted from lecture 30 and modified for loop motor.
Stall torque
Generator
Link
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
SIMPLE ROTATING DC MOTOR
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
SIMPLE ROTATING DC MOTOR
PURPOSE: To illustrate possibly the world's simplest motor.
DESCRIPTION: A small coil is mounted across the terminals of a battery as shown. The
enamel is scraped off half of the coil wire where it contacts the battery terminals. The magnet is
oriented such that when the coil is rotating it either pushes away or pulls toward the magnet in
the appropriate part of its cycle. The other half-cycle the enamel prevents the coil from being
activated; if it were it would counteract the torque which produces the desired rotation.
SUGGESTIONS:
REFERENCES: (PIRA unknown.)
EQUIPMENT: Mounted battery and rotation coil with carefully polished lead wires.
SETUP TIME: None.
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
SIMPLE ROTATING DC MOTOR
ST. LOUIS MOTOR
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the structure and operation of a simple motor.
DESCRIPTION: This is a two-pole DC motor with a split-ring commutator and
permanent magnets. Operates with a 1.5 volt battery.
SUGGESTIONS:
REFERENCES: (PIRA 5K40.10)
EQUIPMENT: St. Louis motor.
SETUP TIME: None.
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
THEORY
ROTATING DC MOTOR DISSECTION
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR DISSECTION
Link by clinking
on figure
"How Electric Motors Work" describes how an electric
motor works and explains the basic components found in
any simple DC electric motor. In this article we will take
apart an actual electric motor and see what's inside. The
motor being dissected is a simple electric motor that you
would typically find in a toy:


97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR DISSECTION
You can see that this is a small motor about as big around as a dime. From the
outside you can see the steel can that forms the body of the motor, an axle, a
nylon end cap and two battery leads. If you hook the battery leads of the motor
up to a flashlight battery the axle will spin. If you reverse the leads it will spin in
the opposite direction. Here are two other views of the same motor. Note the
two slots in the side of the steel can in the second shot - their purpose will
become more evident in a moment:

The nylon end cap is held in place by two tabs that are part of the steel can. By
bending the tabs back you can free the end cap and remove it. Inside the end
cap are the motor's brushes. These brushes transfer power from the battery to
the commutator as the motor spins:
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR DISSECTION
The axle holds the armature and the commutator. As described in "How Electric
Motors Work", the armature is a set of electromagnets, in this case three. The
armature in this motor is a set of thin metal plates stacked together, with thin
copper wire coiled around each of the three poles of the armature. The two ends
of each wire (one wire for each pole) are soldered onto a terminal, and then each
of the three terminals is wired to one plate of the commutator. The figures below
make it easy to see the armature, terminals and commutator:
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR DISSECTION
The final piece of any DC electric motor is the field magnet. The
field magnet in this motor is formed by the can itself plus two
curved permanent magnets:
One end of each magnet rests against a slot cut into the can, and then the
retaining clip presses against the other ends of both magnets.
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR DISSECTION
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BUILDING AT HOME
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BUILDING AT HOME
While this motor is very crude and inefficient, it cost me less than $5.00 to build from
parts I mostly had around the house, and total construction time was under four hours.
The hardest part was winding the field magnet and the armature coils.
Note that you can click on many of the smaller images on this page to see larger
versions.
The wooden frame of the motor was constructed from various bits of scrap lumber I had
laying around. If you build your own, look through all of these pictures and you can rig
something up based on what YOU have laying around.

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BUILDING AT HOME
I could have used permanent magnets for the fields on this motor,
but this is a section on electromagnetism - and I couldn't find
any. I made my field coil by winding 75 feet of 26 gauge
enameled magnet wire onto the "U" of a 2.5 in iron Muffler
clamp. Note the fence staple on the left to provide a route for the
wires. The coil is wound in several neat overlapping layers, with
a layer of electrical tape between each. Wind a layer, then wrap
with a single layer of electrical tape, and wind back over the coil
you have already wound. Just make sure that you always wind in
the same clockwise or counterclockwise direction in which you
started.
The arms of the "U" bolt are passed up through holes drilled in
the bottom of the wooden frame. The whole assembly is held in
place by gravity and by the nuts on the top of the frame
assembly.

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BUILDING AT HOME
The bearings for the shaft are simply screw eyes
screwed in to the sides of the wooden frame. The
brushes, which will transfer current to the slip
rings in the commutator assembly are made from
22 gauge solid copper wire with a couple of inches
of the insulation stripped from each end. Note that
one is mounted on the top of one wooden cross
piece, while the other is mounted to the bottom of
the other. This wire must be stiff enough to hold a
shape, but not so stiff that it puts too much friction
on the commutator assembly.
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BUILDING AT HOME
Wrap one layer of electrical tape around each half of the iron nail, then wind four
layers of 26 gauge enameled magnet wire and tape onto the iron nail, making sure
to always wind in the same direction. Simply cross over the 12 gauge wire shaft in
the center and continue each layer on the other side, as if the shaft were not there.
The armature is made from a section of iron nail
which was cut to fit cleanly between the arms of the
"U" bolt. Before winding the coil for the armature,
wrap one turn of 12 gauge solid copper insulated
house wiring around the very center of the nail. Bend
the wire in such a way that it comes straight off the
piece of nail, and that the nail is positioned in a ninety
degree angle to the wire. Place the nail and wire on a
chunk of waxed paper and place some two part epoxy
on the union to bind them together.
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BUILDING AT HOME
The commutator in my motor is made from a section cut out of
a broken shovel handle. Drill a hole in the center into which
the wire shaft will fit fairly snugly, and cut a groove into each
of it's sides. Slide this onto the short end of the shaft. The next
step is to fashion the slip rings. I used a tuna fish can, and cut it
into 2 strips the width of the commutator using tin snips. The
ends of the strips should be folded down into the grooves in
each side of the commutator. Use a small screwdriver to fold
them neatly into the grooves in the wooden piece. It is
important that the slip rings are as round as possible when the
commutator is assembled, and that none of the metal extends
past the edges of the wooden part or your motor will not
function properly.
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BUILDING AT HOME
Cut a small notch in the folded part of the slip rings so that you
have something to which you can attach the wires from the
armature. Using a small butane lighter, burn the insulation from
the ends of the armature wires and clean with a piece of steel
wool. You can solder the wires in place if you wish, but I
simply used some miniature alligator clips to hold it in place.
Snap the slip rings onto the wooden block, and wrap half of
them tightly with electrical tape to hold them in place. Make
sure that they are as round as possible, and that they do not
touch each other in the notches.
Make sure that the 12 gauge wire shaft is straight and even,
and that the slip rings on the commutator are as round as
possible. The gap between the slip rings should be at about a 90
degree angle to the armature assembly. Try spinning the shaft in
your fingers to be sure that the assembly is fairly well balanced.
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BUILDING AT HOME
Slide the armature assembly into the front bearing
(a.k.a. a screw eye) from the center of the wooden
frame until the armature is against the frame. If the
other end of the wire shaft is too long to fit in the rear
screw eye, trim it off a bit. Insert the back end of the
shaft into the rear bearing, and slide the whole
assembly back until the slip rings line up with the
brushes.
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BUILDING AT HOME
You should have to bend the brushes slightly outward to get the commutator
between them. If they don't touch the slip rings when you are done, slide the
assembly forward enough to bend them in toward the shaft, then gently slide
the commutator back between them.
There is not much to the electrical wiring of the motor - I did not even use
an on/off switch. The use of the terminal strip in the back of the motor is
optional, but does make life a lot easier. Apply power to the motor by
connecting a 12 volt lantern battery, and it should spin merrily away. If the
armature wants to lock in position, then you have the wires to the
commutator reversed, causing an opposite magnetic field. Even if you have
the magnetic poles in the correct orientation, to get the motor to run properly
you may have to disconnect the battery and adjust the position and tension
of the brushes. You can also slightly adjust the speed of the motor by
slightly rotating the commutator on the shaft so that you change the angle
between the armature and the field coils.
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BUILDING AT HOME
If your motor still does not work properly, connect a couple of
"D" cell batteries (3 volts dc instead of 12) and manually turn
the shaft. You should be able to feel the magnetic fields as
resistance or attraction at certain points in the rotation and you
should then be able to figure out where the problem lies. Do
not leave the motor connected to the batter for very long or the
coils will get very hot, and the battery will get drained quickly,
due to the extremely poor efficiency of this design.
If you want your motor to work better than mine, and
possibly at a lower voltage, figure out how to reduce the
friction of the brushes, and use a more rigid shaft mounted in
bearings for the armature.
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR LINKS
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR LINKS
Making DC Motors
Click picture to link
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR Regenerative
Braking
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR Regenerative Braking

Since the DC motor and a DC generator are virtually the same
machine mechanically, it was immediately realized that a train
could use its motors to act as generators and that this would provide
some braking effect if a suitable way could be found to dispose of
the energy. The idea formed that if the power could be returned to
the source, other trains could use it. Trains were designed therefore,
which could return current, generated during braking, to the supply
system for use by other trains. Various schemes were tried over
many years with more or less success but it was not until the
adoption of modern electronics that reliable schemes have been
available.
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BRUSHLESS
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BRUSHLESS
Brushless DC motors are referred to by many aliases: Brushless
permanent magnet, permanent magnet ac motors, permanent
magnet synchronous motors ect. The confusion arises because a
Brushless dc motor does not directly operate off a dc voltage
source. However, as we shall see, the basic principle of operation
is similar to a dc motor. A Brushless dc motor has a rotor with
permanent magnets and a stator with windings. It is essentially a
dc motor turned inside out. The brushes and commutator have
been eliminated and the windings are connected to the control
electronics. The control electronics replace the function of the
commutator and energize the proper winding.
As shown in the animation the winding are energized in a pattern which rotates around the stator. The
energized stator winding leads the rotor magnet, and switches just as the rotor aligns with the stator.
There are no sparks, which is one advantage of the bldc motor. The brushes of a dc motor have several
limitations; brush life, brush residue, maximum speed, and electrical noise. BLDC motors are
potentially cleaner, faster, more efficient, less noisy and more reliable. However, BLDC motors
require electronic control.
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BRUSHLESS
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BRUSHLESS
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BRUSHLESS
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
Lecture 31 TEXT
ROTATING DC MOTOR BRUSHLESS
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
ASSIGNMENT
These questions are straight forward. Plug in the numbers and get your answer. Being able to
solve this type of question ensures you of at least a grade of 25% on a quiz or final exam
containing questions related to this lecture.
These questions require a few manipulations of equations or numbers before the answer can be
obtained. Being able to solve this type of question ensures you of at least a grade of 50% on a
quiz or final exam containing questions related to this lecture.
These questions are the most difficult and require a thorough understanding of the topic material
and also pull in topics from other lectures and disciplines. Being able to solve this type of
question ensures you an A grade on a quiz or final exam containing questions related to this
lecture.
These question are quite involved and requires a thorough understanding of the topic material.
Being able to solve this type of question ensures you of at least a grade of 75% on a quiz or final
exam containing questions related to this lecture.
25
50
75
100
75 100
These form excellent review questions when preparing for the quiz and final exam.
25 50 75
100
SELF EVALUATI ON SCALE
Lecture 31
97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: DC Motors
ASSIGNMENT
Know the properties of DC motors, ..
Lecture 31 ASSIGNMENT
A square coil, 0.60 m on a side, rotates about the x-axis
at w = 60 t rad/s in a uniform field B = 0.80 T in the
positive z direction. Find the induced voltage.
50
B

a
b
ab
V
w
DC Motors
Lecture 31 SUMMARY
DC Motors