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# CRYPTOGRAPHY

APEEJAY INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY
SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT

## Ambuj Rai (13)

Ashutosh kumar (25)
Ashutosh kumar(24)
28-aug-2012

Contents:2

Introduction
History
Definition and Terminology
Symmetric and Asymmetric key cryptography
Symmetric and Asymmetric Algorithms.
Conclusion
References

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Introduction
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## communication confidential in this hostile

environment.
In ancient it is used for military purpose
only but now a days by many commercial
companies and publicly it used for
information security.
It is an effective technique for information
security.
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History Of Cryptography
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## Before the modern era:1.It was limited for message confidentiality.

2.It was used to ensure the secrecy in communication such as those
Spies
And Diplomats

## In modern era:1.There is so many new techniques come.

2.It is mainly used for computing or communication used through
computer.
3.There is so many more complex ciphers are produced by electronics.

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## Definition and terminology

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Cryptography1.It is come from Greek word krypto that means hidden, secret and
grapho that means I write.
2.This is nothing but encryption and decryption of information. There is
certain keys are used to make this.
3.In it plain text convert into cipher text and then again cipher text
converted into plain text.
Plain text- The message is in natural form and readable by
anyone
Cipher text- Message altered to unreadable for any one except
intended recipients.
Key- Sequence that controls the operations and behavior of the
cryptographic algorithms.

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## Key space- Total no. of possible values of keys in a cryptoalgorithms.

Cipher- In cryptography, it is an algorithm for performing
encryption and decryption, a series of well-defined steps that can be
followed as procedure.
Cryptosystem- The combination of algorithms, key, and the key
management function used to perform the cryptographic operations.

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## 1. In it both the sender and receiver shares the same key.

2. In symmetric key ciphers relates mainly to the study of block
ciphers and stream ciphers and to their application.
Block ciphers- A block cipher operates on block of fixed length, often
64 or 128 bits.

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Secret writing

Steganography

Cryptography
Substitution

Transposition
Code
Cipher

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## same key used for encryption/decryption

Problem of key distribution
Public (asymmetric) key cryptography a
public key used for encryption and private
key for decryption
Key distribution problem solved

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## pairs for encryption and

decryption.
There is used of public key
and private key and some
time digital sign also there.
For e.g.

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Attacks
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## 1. Ciphertext only: Alice has only a copy of

ciphertext
2. Known Plaintext: Eve(Third party) has a copy of
cipher text and the corresponding plaintext and
tries the deduce the key.
3. Chosen Plaintext: Eve has a copy of cipher text
corresponding to a copy of plaintext selected by
Alice who
believes it is useful to deduce the key.
4. Chosen Cipher text: Eve has a copy plaintext
corresponding to a copy of cipher text selected by
Alice who
believes it is useful to deduce the key.
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Conclusions
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## We are conclude that the

cryptography is the better
technique to make our
information confidential but
it is not best because all the
techniques are break at
some standards.
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Thank You
15

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