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About the Presentations

The presentations cover the objectives found in the opening of each chapter. All chapter objectives are listed in the beginning of each presentation. You may customize the presentations to fit your class needs. Some figures from the chapters are included. A complete set of images from the book can be found on the Instructor Resources disc.

Linux Operations and Administration

Chapter One Introduction to the Linux Operating System

Summarize the functions of an operating system Identify key historical points in the development of Linux Explain the components of the Linux architecture and features of the operating system

Linux Operations and Administration

Overview of Operating System Functions

Practical alternative to more costly Windows and Macintosh operating systems Includes:
Graphical desktop Web browser E-mail Sound and video Any other feature that Windows has to offer

Linux Operations and Administration

Software Licensing Agreements

User does not actually own the software
Only granted a license to use it

Table 1-1
Licensing terms

Open source
Software distributed with its source code Users can view or modify it

All Linux versions are open source Source code

Instructions defining how a program works
Linux Operations and Administration 5

Software Licensing Agreements (contd.)

Table 1-1 Licensing agreement terms

Linux Operations and Administration

Software Licensing Agreements (contd.)

Linux kernel licensed under General Public License (GPL) Activity 1-1: Reviewing Licensing Agreements
Examine the licensing agreement of an application of your choice and compare it with the GPL

Linux Operations and Administration

Functions of an Operating System

Operating system
Software thats designed to control hardware Provides an interface between computer hardware and software

Performs the most basic computing functions

Table 1-2
Summarizes common OSs

Linux Operations and Administration

Functions of an Operating System (contd.)

Table 1-2 Features of common operating systems

Linux Operations and Administration

Functions of an Operating System (contd.)

Most OSs include:
User interface
Graphical user interface (GUI) Enables users to interact with computers by using graphical elements, such as menus and buttons Command-line interface (CLI) Users communicate with the computer by typing commands

Linux Operations and Administration


Functions of an Operating System (contd.)

File systems
Find and access files

Device drivers
Control hardware devices

System services
Run in the background and carry out applicationrelated tasks

Linux Operations and Administration


History of Linux
American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T)
By 1969, 90% of American homes had AT&T phone service Testing and research conducted at Bell Laboratories

UNIX operating system

Created at Bell Labs by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson Many professors began using it for testing and research in university labs

Linux Operations and Administration


History of Linux (contd.)

In early 1980s, AT&T decided to license UNIX and charge institutions a hefty price to use it Richard Stallman
Created the GNU Project Developed the GPL Believes software should be free

Linux Operations and Administration


History of Linux (contd.)

You can use, view, and change the source code You are able to redistribute the software and sell it for a profit If you decide to sell the software, you must make the source code available

Created by Andrew Tanenbaum to teach students how to use an OS Source code made available to everybody
Linux Operations and Administration 14

History of Linux (contd.)

Linus Torvalds
Created his own kernel in 1991 Called the Linux kernel Licensed through the GPL

Many different versions (distributions)

Red Hat (www.redhat.com) Ubuntu (www.ubuntu.com) Debian (www.debian.org) PCLinuxOS (http://pclinuxos.com) FreeBSD (www.freebsd.org) openSUSE (www.novell.com/linux)

Linux Operations and Administration

History of Linux (contd.)

Table 1-3 Linux timeline

Linux Operations and Administration


Overview of SUSE
Developed in Germany in 1992
By Hubert Mantel, Burchard Steinbild, Roland Dyroff, and Thomas Fehr

Acronym for Software und System Entwicklung

Software and System Development

Top Linux seller in Europe Sold to Novell for $210 million

Linux Operations and Administration


Overview of SUSE (contd.)

Comes with the Linux kernel and the latest versions of two desktop environments KDE and GNOME

Yet another Setup Tool (YaST)

Configuration tool that enables administrators to install and manage software

Linux Operations and Administration


Linux Architecture
Modular system
All components are separate from one another Makes it possible for different teams to develop components that dont affect one another

Linux distribution
Consists of all the Linux components put together and released as one OS

Linux Operations and Administration


Figure 1-1 Components of the Linux architecture

Cengage Learning 2013

Linux Operations and Administration


Linux Architecture (contd.)

Core of the OS Manages hardware, such as disk drives and memory

Interface that accepts and translates user input so that the kernel can process it

Programs that run in the background independently of the user Called services in Windows
Linux Operations and Administration 21

Linux Architecture (contd.)

Programs that require an OS to run Give users a specific function, such as wordprocessing programs, media players, etc.

Linux Operations and Administration


Linux kernel
Licensed under the GPL Allows public access to the source code

Resource manager
Manages processes and memory Can perform multiple processes at the same time

Program the kernel launches into memory for the purpose of performing specific tasks

Linux Operations and Administration


Kernel (contd.)
Random access memory (RAM)
Storage space where a computer reads and writes data Considered volatile storage
Data stored there is erased when the computer shuts down

Demand paging
Load only needed sections of a program into RAM

Linux Operations and Administration


Linux Desktop Environments

Desktop environments available in openSUSE
K Desktop Environment (KDE) GNU Network Object Model Environment (GNOME) Very similar Differ mainly in the programming language used to write them

Linux Operations and Administration


Figure 1-2 The KDE interface in openSUSE

Cengage Learning 2013 Linux Operations and Administration 26

Figure 1-3 The GNOME interface in openSUSE

Cengage Learning 2013 Linux Operations and Administration 27

Linux File Structure

Organized in a hierarchical, treelike structure Top level
Root directory Indicated with the / symbol

Everything in Linux is considered a file

Device files Regular files Directory files

Linux Operations and Administration


Linux File Structure (contd.)

Device file
Special file stored in the /dev directory Represents a hardware device on the system

Regular files
Files containing data

Directory file
Like a folder in Windows Can contain files and other directories

Linux Operations and Administration


Features of Linux
Enables multiple users to log on to a single computer at the same time

Multiple processes can run simultaneously

Preemptive multitasking
Scheduler decides when a process stops and another process starts

Linux Operations and Administration


Features of Linux (contd.)

Networking connectivity
Uses Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Internationally accepted set of rules for connecting computers to the Internet and most other networks

Login and password authentication File ownership and permissions Firewall for protecting network resources from users outside the network
Linux Operations and Administration 31

Command Shells Available in Linux

Command-line interface between users and the kernel

Used by administrators for more advanced configuration tasks Table 1-4

Summarizes common Linux shells Stored in the /bin directory

Linux Operations and Administration


Command Shells Available in Linux (contd.)

Table 1-4 Common shells in Linux

Linux Operations and Administration


All Linux distributions
Open source and licensed under the General Public License (GPL)

Linux distributions
Include graphical desktop environment, a Web browser, e-mail, sound, video, and networking capability Comparable with rival operating systems

Performs the most basic computing functions
Linux Operations and Administration 34

Summary (contd.)
Main user interfaces
Graphical user interface (GUI) Command-line interface

GNU Project
Protest against licensing UNIX as a for-profit software product

Linux architecture
Kernel, shell, applications, GUI, and desktop environment

Linux Operations and Administration