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About the Presentations

The presentations cover the objectives found in the opening of each chapter. All chapter objectives are listed in the beginning of each presentation. You may customize the presentations to fit your class needs. Some figures from the chapters are included. A complete set of images from the book can be found on the Instructor Resources disc.

Linux Operations and Administration


Chapter One Introduction to the Linux Operating System

Objectives
Summarize the functions of an operating system Identify key historical points in the development of Linux Explain the components of the Linux architecture and features of the operating system

Linux Operations and Administration

Overview of Operating System Functions


Linux
Practical alternative to more costly Windows and Macintosh operating systems Includes:
Graphical desktop Web browser E-mail Sound and video Any other feature that Windows has to offer

Linux Operations and Administration

Software Licensing Agreements


User does not actually own the software
Only granted a license to use it

Table 1-1
Licensing terms

Open source
Software distributed with its source code Users can view or modify it

All Linux versions are open source Source code


Instructions defining how a program works
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Software Licensing Agreements (contd.)

Table 1-1 Licensing agreement terms

Linux Operations and Administration

Software Licensing Agreements (contd.)


Linux kernel licensed under General Public License (GPL) Activity 1-1: Reviewing Licensing Agreements
Examine the licensing agreement of an application of your choice and compare it with the GPL

Linux Operations and Administration

Functions of an Operating System


Operating system
Software thats designed to control hardware Provides an interface between computer hardware and software

Kernel
Performs the most basic computing functions

Table 1-2
Summarizes common OSs

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Functions of an Operating System (contd.)

Table 1-2 Features of common operating systems

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Functions of an Operating System (contd.)


Most OSs include:
User interface
Graphical user interface (GUI) Enables users to interact with computers by using graphical elements, such as menus and buttons Command-line interface (CLI) Users communicate with the computer by typing commands

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Functions of an Operating System (contd.)


File systems
Find and access files

Device drivers
Control hardware devices

System services
Run in the background and carry out applicationrelated tasks

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History of Linux
American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T)
By 1969, 90% of American homes had AT&T phone service Testing and research conducted at Bell Laboratories

UNIX operating system


Created at Bell Labs by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson Many professors began using it for testing and research in university labs

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History of Linux (contd.)


In early 1980s, AT&T decided to license UNIX and charge institutions a hefty price to use it Richard Stallman
Created the GNU Project Developed the GPL Believes software should be free

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History of Linux (contd.)


GPL
You can use, view, and change the source code You are able to redistribute the software and sell it for a profit If you decide to sell the software, you must make the source code available

MINIX
Created by Andrew Tanenbaum to teach students how to use an OS Source code made available to everybody
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History of Linux (contd.)


Linus Torvalds
Created his own kernel in 1991 Called the Linux kernel Licensed through the GPL

Many different versions (distributions)


Red Hat (www.redhat.com) Ubuntu (www.ubuntu.com) Debian (www.debian.org) PCLinuxOS (http://pclinuxos.com) FreeBSD (www.freebsd.org) openSUSE (www.novell.com/linux)
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Linux Operations and Administration

History of Linux (contd.)

Table 1-3 Linux timeline

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Overview of SUSE
Developed in Germany in 1992
By Hubert Mantel, Burchard Steinbild, Roland Dyroff, and Thomas Fehr

Acronym for Software und System Entwicklung


Software and System Development

Top Linux seller in Europe Sold to Novell for $210 million

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Overview of SUSE (contd.)


OpenSUSE
Comes with the Linux kernel and the latest versions of two desktop environments KDE and GNOME

Yet another Setup Tool (YaST)


Configuration tool that enables administrators to install and manage software

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Linux Architecture
Modular system
All components are separate from one another Makes it possible for different teams to develop components that dont affect one another

Linux distribution
Consists of all the Linux components put together and released as one OS

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Figure 1-1 Components of the Linux architecture


Cengage Learning 2013

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Linux Architecture (contd.)


Kernel
Core of the OS Manages hardware, such as disk drives and memory

Shell
Interface that accepts and translates user input so that the kernel can process it

Daemons
Programs that run in the background independently of the user Called services in Windows
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Linux Architecture (contd.)


Applications
Programs that require an OS to run Give users a specific function, such as wordprocessing programs, media players, etc.

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Kernel
Linux kernel
Licensed under the GPL Allows public access to the source code

Resource manager
Manages processes and memory Can perform multiple processes at the same time

Process
Program the kernel launches into memory for the purpose of performing specific tasks

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Kernel (contd.)
Random access memory (RAM)
Storage space where a computer reads and writes data Considered volatile storage
Data stored there is erased when the computer shuts down

Demand paging
Load only needed sections of a program into RAM

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Linux Desktop Environments


Desktop environments available in openSUSE
K Desktop Environment (KDE) GNU Network Object Model Environment (GNOME) Very similar Differ mainly in the programming language used to write them

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Figure 1-2 The KDE interface in openSUSE


Cengage Learning 2013 Linux Operations and Administration 26

Figure 1-3 The GNOME interface in openSUSE


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Linux File Structure


Organized in a hierarchical, treelike structure Top level
Root directory Indicated with the / symbol

Everything in Linux is considered a file


Device files Regular files Directory files

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Linux File Structure (contd.)


Device file
Special file stored in the /dev directory Represents a hardware device on the system

Regular files
Files containing data

Directory file
Like a folder in Windows Can contain files and other directories

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Features of Linux
Multiuser
Enables multiple users to log on to a single computer at the same time

Multitasking
Multiple processes can run simultaneously

Preemptive multitasking
Scheduler decides when a process stops and another process starts

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Features of Linux (contd.)


Networking connectivity
Uses Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Internationally accepted set of rules for connecting computers to the Internet and most other networks

Security
Login and password authentication File ownership and permissions Firewall for protecting network resources from users outside the network
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Command Shells Available in Linux


Shell
Command-line interface between users and the kernel

Used by administrators for more advanced configuration tasks Table 1-4


Summarizes common Linux shells Stored in the /bin directory

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Command Shells Available in Linux (contd.)

Table 1-4 Common shells in Linux

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Summary
All Linux distributions
Open source and licensed under the General Public License (GPL)

Linux distributions
Include graphical desktop environment, a Web browser, e-mail, sound, video, and networking capability Comparable with rival operating systems

Kernel
Performs the most basic computing functions
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Summary (contd.)
Main user interfaces
Graphical user interface (GUI) Command-line interface

GNU Project
Protest against licensing UNIX as a for-profit software product

Linux architecture
Kernel, shell, applications, GUI, and desktop environment

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