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Chapter 1

Introduction and Early Phases of Marketing Research


Marketing Research An Applied Orientation: Global Edition 6th Edition Naresh Malhotra, SPSS SPSS Sep 2009, Paperback, 936 pages ISBN13: 9780136094234 ISBN10: 0136094236

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Chapter Outline
1) Definition of Marketing Research
2) A Classification of Marketing Research 3) Marketing Research Process 4) The Role of Marketing Research in Marketing Decision Making 5) Marketing Research and Competitive Intelligence 6) The Decision to Conduct Research

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Chapter Outline
7) 8) 9) Marketing Research Suppliers and Services The Role of Marketing Research in MIS and DSS The Department Store Project

10) International Marketing Research

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Definition of Marketing Research

Marketing research is the systematic and objective

identification
collection analysis

dissemination
and use of information For the purpose of improving decision making related to the

identification and
solution of problems and opportunities in marketing
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Market Research

Specifies the information necessary to address these issues Manages and implements the data collection process

Analyzes the results


Communicates the findings and their implications Helps managers use this information to make decisions
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Classification of Marketing Research

Problem-Identification Research Research undertaken to help identify problems which are not necessarily apparent on the surface and yet exist or are likely to arise in the future. Examples: market potential, market share, image, market characteristics, sales analysis, forecasting, and trends research. Problem-Solving Research Research undertaken to help solve specific marketing problems. Examples: segmentation, product, pricing, promotion, and distribution research.
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A Classification of Marketing Research


Fig. 1.1

Marketing Research

Problem Identification Research

Problem-Solving Research Segmentation Research Product Research Pricing Research

Market Potential Research Market Share Research Market Characteristics Research Sales Analysis Research Forecasting Research Business Trends Research
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Promotion Research Distribution Research


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Problem-Solving Research
Table 1.1 SEGMENTATION RESEARCH
Determine the basis of segmentation Establish market potential and responsiveness for various segments Select target markets Create lifestyle profiles: demography, media, and product image characteristics PRODUCT RESEARCH Test concept Determine optimal product design Package tests Product modification Brand positioning and repositioning

Test marketing
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Problem-Solving Research
Table 1.1 cont. PROMOTIONAL RESEARCH Optimal promotional budget

0.00%

APR

Sales promotion relationship


Optimal promotional mix Copy decisions Media decisions Creative advertising testing

PRICING RESEARCH

Evaluation of advertising effectiveness Claim substantiation

Pricing policies
Product line pricing Price elasticity of demand

Importance of price in brand selection

Initiating and responding to price changes


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$ALE
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Problem-Solving Research
Table 1.1 cont. DISTRIBUTION RESEARCH

Determine
Types of distribution Attitudes of channel members

Intensity of wholesale & resale coverage


Channel margins Location of retail and wholesale outlets

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The Role of Marketing Research


Fig. 1.2
Customer Groups Consumers Employees Shareholders Suppliers

Controllable Marketing Variables Product Pricing Promotion Distribution

Uncontrollable Environmental Factors

Marketing Research

Assessing Information Needs

Providing Information

Marketing Decision Making

Economy Technology Laws & Regulations Social & Cultural Factors Political Factors

Marketing Managers Market Segmentation Target Market Selection Marketing Programs Performance & Control
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Management Information Systems Vs. Decision Support Systems


Fig. 1.6

MIS
Structured Problems
Use of Reports Rigid Structure

DSS

Unstructured Problems
Use of Models User Friendly Interaction

Information Displaying
Restricted Can Improve Decision Making

Adaptability
Can Improve Decision Making by Using What if Analysis
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by Clarifying Data
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Table 1.2
U.S. Rank

Top 50 U.S. Marketing Research Firms


Organization Headquarters Website U.S. Global Non-U.S. The Nielsen Co. IMS Health Inc. Kantar Group* Westat Inc. IRI TNS U.S. Arbitron Inc. GfK AG USA Ipsos Synovate Maritz Research New York Norwalk, Conn. Fairfield, Conn. Rockville, MD Chicago New York New York Nuremberg, Germany New York London Fenton, Mo. Westlake Village, Calif. Rochester, N.Y. Port Washington, N.Y. Omaha, Neb. Princeton, N.J. nielsen.com imshealth.com kantargroup.com westat.com infores.com tnsglobal.com arbitron.com gfk.com ipsos-na.com synovate.com maritzresearch.com jdpower.com harrisinteractive.com npd.com infousa.com opinionresearch.com $2,173.0 801.0 526.8 467.8 441.0 379.8 338.5 319.7 281.2 250.4 187.4 184.5 161.0 160.4 124.7 97.5 $4,220.0 2,192.6 1,551.4 467.8 702.0 2,137.2 352.1 1,603.00 1,270.30 867.0 223.3 260.5 227.0 211.1 206.7 179.5 48.5% 63.5 66.0 37.2 82.2 3.9 80.1 77.9 71.1 16.1 29.2 29.1 24.0 39.7 45.7

2007
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

2006
1 2 3 5 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 12 14 15

J.D. Power and Associates* Harris Interactive Inc. The NPD Group Inc. Opinion Research/ Guideline Group Opinion Research Corp.

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Table 1.2 Top


U.S. Rank 2007 2006 38 16 17 18 20 20 37 18 19 17

Organization

50 U.S. Marketing Research Firms


Headquarters Website U.S. Global New York Reston, Va. Livonia, Mich. Livonia, Mich. Little Rock, Ark. Los Angeles Cambridge, Mass. guideline.com comscore.com marketstrategies.com markestrategies.com fw-mi.com Irwonline.com abtassociates.com 26.8 77.0 75.7 53.4 22.3 71.0 55.1 26.8 87.2 80.4 58.1 22.3 87.4 55.1

(Cont)
Non-U.S.

Guideline Inc. comScore Inc. Market Strategies Inc. Market Strategies Inc.

11.7 5.8 8.1 18.8 6.8 11.5 9.7 4.0

Flake-Wilkerson Market Insights


Lieberman Research Worldwide Abt Associates Inc.

19 41 20 21 22 23 23 25 26 23 21 22 26 25 24 40

Abt Associates Inc. Abt SRBI Inc. OTX Burke Inc. MVL Group Inc. Knowledge Networks Inc. National Research Corp. Directions Research Inc. Phoenix Marketing International

Cambridge, Mass. New York Los Angeles Cincinnati Jupiter, Fla. Menlo Park, Calif. Lincoln, Neb. Cincinnati Rhineback, N.Y.

abtassociates.com srbi.com otxresearch.com burke.com mvlgroup.com knowledgenetworks.com nationalresearch.com directionsresearch.com phoenixmi.com

33.0 22.1 50.8 47.0 42.3 37.3 37.3 37.2 33.5

33.0 22.1 54.5 53.1 42.3 37.3 41.3 37.2 34.9

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Table 1.2 Top


U.S. Rank 2007 2006 27 34

50 U.S. Marketing Research Firms


Headquarters Website U.S. Global Great Neck, N.Y. liebermanresearch.com 30.1 30.1

(Cont)
Non-U.S.

Organization

Lieberman Research Group ICR/Int'l Communications Research

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Media, Pa. Farmington Hills, Mich. Los Angeles New York Chicago Calabasas, Calif. Philadelphia Kansas City, Mo. Milwaukee New York Indianapolis Syracuse, N.Y. Winston-Salem, N.C. Cincinnati Alexandra, Va.

icrsurvey.com

28.8

29.7

3.0

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

28 33 36 39 32 31 44 34 42 43 47 46 28

Morpace Inc. MarketCast Data Development Worldwide C&R Research Services Inc. Informa Research Services Inc. National Analysts Worldwide Service Management Group Market Probe Inc. Hitwise Walker Information KS&R Inc. Bellomy Research Inc. MarketVision Research Inc. Public Opinion Strategies

morpace.com marketcastonline.com datadw.com crresearch.com informars.com nationalanalysts.com servicemanagement.com marketprobe.com hitwise.com walkerinfo.com ksrinc.com bellomyresearch.com marketvisionresearch.com pos.org

28.7 25.1 25.0 23.6 23.5 23.3 22.4 21.7 21.6 21.2 17.1 16.7 16.4 15.5

33.2 25.1 25.3 23.6 23.5 23.3 23.0 41.4 49.9 25.5 21.0 16.7 16.4 15.5

13.6

1.2 2.6 47.6 56.7 16.9 18.6

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Table 1.2 Top


U.S. Rank Organization 2007 2006 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 45 48 49 50 Compete Inc.

50 U.S. Marketing Research Firms


Headquarters Website U.S. Global Boston Dallas Bloomfield Hills, Mich. Auburn Hills, Mich. Old Bridge, N.J. Charleston, S.C. Stamford, Conn. Atlanta compete.com savitzresearch.com rdagroup.com gongos.com whoisq.com marketinganalysts.com rtiresearch.com the-link-group.com 14.9 14.8 13.7 13.3 13.0 12.8 12.2 11.9 14.9 14.8 16.8 13.3 13.2 13.6 12.2 13.3

(Cont)
Non-U.S.

18.5 1.5 5.9 10.5

Savitz Research Companies RDA Group Inc. Gongos Research Inc. Q Research Solutions Inc. Marketing Analysts Inc. RTi Market Research & Brand Strategy The Link Group

Total All other (150 CASRO companies not included in the Top 50)

$7.828.7

$17,638.0

55.6%

$774.3

$870.1

11.0%

Total (200 companies)

$8,603.0

$18,508.1

53.5%

*Estimated by Top 50.

U.S. and worldwide revenue may include nonresearch activities for some companies that are significantly higher. Rate of growth from year to year has been adjusted so as not to include revenue gains or losses from acquisitions or divestitures. Total revenue of 150 survey research companies that provide financial information on a confidential basis to CASRO.

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Marketing Research Suppliers & Services


Fig. 1.4

INTERNAL

RESEARCH SUPPLIERS

EXTERNAL

FULL SERVICE
Syndicate Services Standardized Services Internet Services Customized Services

LIMITED SERVICE
Field Services Focus Groups and Qualitative Services Other Services Technical and Analytical Services
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Selected Marketing Research Career Descriptions


Fig. 1.5 cont. Vice President of Marketing Research
Part of companys top management
team Directs companys entire market research operation Sets the goals & objectives of the marketing research department

Research Director
Also part of senior management Heads the development and execution of all research projects

Assistant Director of Research


Administrative assistant to director
Supervises research staff members

Senior Project Manager

Responsible for design, implementation, & research projects


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Selected Marketing Research Career Descriptions


Fig. 1.5 cont. Senior Analyst
Participates in the development of projects Carries out execution of assigned projects Coordinates the efforts of analyst, junior analyst, & other personnel in the development of research design and data collection Prepares final report

Analyst

Handles details in execution of project Designs & pretests questionnaires Conducts preliminary analysis of data

Statistician/Data Processing

Serves as expert on theory and application on statistical techniques Oversees experimental design, data processing, and analysis

Junior Analyst

Secondary data analysis Edits and codes questionnaires Conducts preliminary analysis of data
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Fieldwork Director

Handles selection, training, supervision, and evaluation of interviewers and field workers
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Marketing Research Process

Step 1 Step 2

: Problem Definition : Development of an Approach to the Problem

Step 3
Step 4 Step 5 Step 6

: Research Design Formulation


: Fieldwork or Data Collection : Data Preparation and Analysis : Report Preparation and Presentation

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Marketing Research Associations Online Domestic


AAPOR : American Association for Public Opinion Research (www.aapor.org) AMA ARF : American Marketing Association (www.ama.org) : The Advertising Research Foundation (www.amic.com/arf)

CASRO : The Council of American Survey Research Organizations (www.casro.org) MRA : Marketing Research Association (www.mra-net.org)

QRCA
RIC

: Qualitative Research Consultants Association (www.qrca.org)


: Research Industry Coalition (www.researchindustry.org)
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Marketing Research Associations Online

International ESOMAR: European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research (www.esomar.nl) MRS: MRSA: PMRS: The Market Research Society (UK) (www.marketresearch.org.uk) The Market Research Society of Australia (www.mrsa.com.au) The Professional Marketing Research Society (Canada) (www.pmrs-aprm.com)
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Overview of Ethical Issues in Marketing Research Table 1.3 I II Problem definition Using surveys as a guise for selling or fundraising Personal agendas of the researcher or client Conducting unnecessary research Developing an approach Using findings and models developed for specific clients or projects for other projects Soliciting proposals to gain research expertise without pay Inaccurate reporting
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Overview of Ethical Issues in Marketing Research (Cont.)


Table 1.3 cont.

III
-

Research Design
Formulating a research design more suited to the researcher's rather than the client's needs Using secondary data that are not applicable or have been gathered through questionable means Disguising the purpose of the research Soliciting unfair concessions from the researcher Not maintaining anonymity of respondents Disrespecting privacy of respondents Misleading respondents Disguising observation of respondents Embarrassing or putting stress on respondents Using measurement scales of questionable reliability & validity Designing overly long/sensitive questionnaires Using inappropriate sampling procedures and sample size
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Overview of Ethical Issues in Marketing Research


Table 1.3 cont.

IV
-

Field Work
Increasing discomfort level of respondents Following unacceptable field work procedures

V
-

Data Preparation and Analysis


Identifying and discarding unsatisfactory respondents Using statistical techniques when the underlying assumptions are violated Interpreting the results and making incorrect conclusions and recommendations

VI
-

Report Preparation and Presentation


Incomplete reporting Biased reporting Inaccurate reporting

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The Department Store Project

The following information was solicited:


1. Familiarity with the ten department stores
2. Frequency with which household members shopped at each of the ten stores 3. Relative importance attached to each of the eight factors of the choice criteria 4. Evaluation of the ten stores on each of the eight factors of the choice criteria 5. Preference ratings for each store 6. Rankings of the ten stores (from most preferred to least preferred) 7. Degree of agreement with 21 lifestyle statements 8. Standard demographic characteristics (age, education, etc.) 9. Name, address, and telephone number
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