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Climate Change and Sustainable Development

The REDD Mechanism: Possibilities, Concerns and Critique

Group 2. Emilia,Camille,Daniel,Minna,Morgane,Sarri, Amaranta.

Plan of the presentation

1. Introduction: What is REDD and how could it work? 2. Biodiversity and value of forests 3. Forest dependent people 4. Benefit distribution and tenure 5. Participation in governance and decision making 6. Conclusions and discussion

What is REDD?

REDD = Reduction of green house gas (GHG) Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation of forests in developing countries.

REDD is a climate change mitigation mechanism that includes forest carbon in the carbon market.

Developed countries provide funds to developing countries for reducing emissions from deforestation or forest degradation. --> Forests are made more valuable standing than cut down.

CO2

The scope of REDD?

Terrestrial carbon, carbon bio-sequestration, "carbon sinks" RED REDD forest Reduction of Deforestation Reduction of Deforestation and Degradation of

REDD+ REDD + biodiversity value LULUCF AFOLU Land Use, Land Use change and Forestry Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use

The definition of words are important in REDD:

What is a forest? Deforestation? Degradation of a forest? Afforestation? Reforestation?

Biodiversity value of forests


- Credits from REDD should take into consideration biodiversity, which is actually the most important REDD+ will BETTER TO CONSERVE FORESTS AS THEY ARE -Biodiversity necessary to maintain ecosystem services ; genetic reservoir (could be needed in the future). - e.g : Tropical rain forests more biologically diverse than any other biome (80% of the earth's terrestrial biodiversity in the tropics). Two-thirds of the 250,000 species of flowering plants occur in the tropics. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

- Forests : important providers of ecosystem services. - 4 categories: provisioning, regulating, supporting, cultural

DEGRADATION OF ECOSYSTEMS
Deforestation

Forest-dependent People

Three directly dependent people

The two adverse approaches to REDD+ Environmental Justice


A matter of capabilities not commodities.

Examples :
Madre de Dios

Benefit distribution
No benefits without costs! Net benefits = benefits - costs How are benefits defined? Who should get the benefits and why? Examples of criteria: Dependency Labour Carbon rights and tenure

Tenure and REDD


=the systems of rights, rules, institutions and
processes regulating recourse access and use. Key to shaping the distribution of risks, costs and benefits. There is great diversity in tenure contexts across countries with rainforests. Official tenure vs. traditional tenure Both, tenure and benefit distribution, rely and are conditioned by governance.

Participation in governance and decision making process


TOP DOWNprocess
Not all participants are necessarily included in the decision making.

Lack of understanding both directions Poor acess to decision making process Contact, but not consent Lack of participation of local stakeholders Misunderstandings , Lack of support

Stalled Action

Pro-poor interventions

FPIC
Cross-sectoral coordination

Long term success

Multilevel governance Multistakeholder process

Conclusions
-

The entire system depends on carbon price volatility


REDD+ is a market mechanism embedded in neoliberal frame Final questions

Thank you for your attention!

Sources I
-http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/13554IIED.pdf -REDD-net: Participation and benefit sharing in national REDD+ schemes: early observations from five countries. <http://redd-net.org/resource-library/participation-and-benefit-sharing-in-national-reddschemes-early-observations-from-five-countr> 2012 -IUCN: Building effective pro-poor REDD-plus interventions: How enhanced multistakeholder processes can ensure REDD-plus works for vulnerable communities.<http://www.cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/building_effective_pro_poor_redd_pl uss_internet_1.pdf -Anderson, P. 2011. Free, Prior, and Informed Consent: Principles and Approaches for Policy and Project Development. Published by The Center for People and Forests (RECOFTC) and Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).

Cotula, L. & Mayers J. 2009. Tenure in REDD: Start-point or afterthought? IIED. ISBN 9781-84369-736-7. 67 pages.

Sources II
Kanninen, M. et al. 2007. Do trees grow on money? The implications of deforestation research for policies to promote REDD. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Bogor, Indonesia. ISBN 978-979-1412-42-1 Mohammed, E. Y. 2011. Pro-poor benefit distribution in REDD+:who gets what and why does it matter? REDD working paper. IIED, London. Montreal and Eschborn. 2011. Biodiversity and Livelihoods, REDD-Plus benefits. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations Environment Programme. ISBN: 92-9225-337-9 Sagoff, M (1988). The allocation and Distribution of resources. The Economy of the Earth. Cited from: Dryzek, JS. Schlosberg, D. (2005) Debating the earth: The environmental Politics Reader. Oxford University Press 2nd Ed. New York (pp 147-162)

Wissenburg, M. Barry, J (Eds) (2001). Sustainability and the limits of Liberalism. Sustainable Liberal Decmocracy. Cited from: Dryzek, JS. Schlosberg, D. (2005) Debating the earth: The environmental Politics Reader. Oxford University Press 2nd Ed. New York (pp 180-190).

Sources III
FAO; 1997. People and forests in Asia and the Pacific: situation and prospects. [Online] <ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/W7732E/W7732E00.pdf> IELP; 2011a. The Social Implications of REDD+. [Online] <http://ielpblog.tumblr.com/post/14012880323/thesocial-implications-of-redd> IELP; 2011b. Two Perspectives on the Social Implications of REDD+: If we take care of the people, people will take care of the trees. [Online] http://ielpblog.tumblr.com/post/14048510350/two-perspectives-on-the-socialimplications-of-redd Ministerio del Ambiente; 2010. Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Tambopata National Reserve and in Bahuaja-Sonene National Park, Madre de Dios region Peru. [Online] <https://s3.amazonaws.com/CCBA/Projects/Proyecto_Reduccion_de_la_deforestation_y_degradacion_en_la_R eserva_Nacional_Tambopata_y_en_el_Parque_Nacional_Bahuaja_Sonene_del_ambito_de_la_region_Madre_d e_Dios_en_Peru/Project_Design_Document_summary_10_ENG%5B1%5D.pdf>

Discussion
3 groups: What solutions could be found to
Further include biodiversity value in the REDD mechanism

Include relevant stakeholders in all process levels


Distribute the benefits equitably