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EXERCISES 3.6 AND 3.

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CLAIRE S. COLINA B. University of Cartagena Chemical Engineer Program Process Control March 2014

EXERCISE 3.6

Process wastewater (density = 1000 flows at 500 000 kg/h into holding pond with a volume of 5000m3 and then flows from the pound to a river. Initially, the pond is at steady state with a negligible concentration of the pollutants [x(0)=0]. Because of a malfunction in the wastewater treating water treating process, the concentration of pollutants in the inlet stream suddenly increases to 500 mass ppm (kg pollutant per million kg of water) and stays constant at the value (step change)

EXERCISE 3.6

Assuming a perfectly mixed pound, obtain the transfer function of the pollutant concentration of the inlet stream, and determinate for how long can the process malfunction go undetected before the outlet concentration of pollutants exceeds the regulated maximum value of 350 ppm.

Repeat parts (a) assuming that the water flows in plug flow (without mixing) through the

pond. Notice that this means the pond behaves as a pipe and the response of the
concentration is a pure transportation lag.

In both parts (a) and (b), it is assumed that the entire volume of the pond is active. How would your answers be affected if portions of the pond were stagnant and not affected by the flow of water in and out.

EXERCISE 3.6
Obtain the transfer function of the pollutant concentration of the inlet stream. For how long the process malfunction can go undetected (350 ppm)
Assuming: perfect mixing, constant flow, volume and density.

1 1 2 2 =

2 1 1 2 2 = Steady State (Eq. 1 on S.S.) 1 1, 2 2, = 2,

(. 1)

Linear Eq.

(. 2)

EXERCISE 3.6
Obtain the transfer function of the pollutant concentration of the inlet stream. For how long the process malfunction can go undetected (350 ppm)
It was assumed constant flow, 1 = 2 = 2 1 2 = (. 3)

Subtracting Eq.3 Eq.2 1 1, 2 2 = 2 2, (. 4)

Deviation variable 1 2 = 2 (. 5) 1 2 = 2 (. 6)

EXERCISE 3.6
Obtain the transfer function of the pollutant concentration of the inlet stream. For how long the process malfunction can go undetected (350 ppm) Applying Laplace Transform

1 2 = 2
Mathematical Model 1 2 = + 1 . 8

(. 7)

Transfer Function 2 1 = 1 + 1 . 9

It is applied Inverse Laplace Transform to know how long can the process malfunction go undetected (scale function) 1 = 500 1 = 500 Applying Laplace 500 1 = 500 1 + 1

2 =

. 10

EXERCISE 3.6
Obtain the transfer function of the pollutant concentration of the inlet stream. For how long the process malfunction can go undetected (350 ppm) 500 1 2 = ( + ) . 11 = 1

It is applied Inverse Laplace Transform to know how long can the process malfunction go undetected (scale function) 500 1 2 = 1
350 1 = 500 10

2 = 350 = 1

(. 12)

= =

1000

50003 3 = 10 500 000

= 0.3

Natural Logarithm

= 10 ln 0.3 = .

EXERCISE 3.6
Repeat (a) assuming water flows in plug flow. The pond behaves as a pipe and the response of the concentration is a pure transportation lag. Because of the Real Translation Theorem, where 0 2 = 0 1 . 13 = 0 1 2 = 500 0 . 14

2 = 350
0 = 0 = = 1000 50003 3 = 10 500 000

300 = 500 0
0.7 + 10 = = .

EXERCISE 3.6
In both parts (a) and (b), it is assumed that the entire volume of the pond is active. How would your answers be affected if portions of the pond were stagnant and not affected by the flow of water in and out. The active volume is represented by the following equation = This reduces the time it takes for the outlet concentration to reach the limit. 2

1 2 =

(. 6)

EXERCISE 3.13

Consider an adiabatic, exothermic, perfectly mixed chemical

reactor where the reaction A + B C takes place. Let


3 3

,
, , 3

EXERCISE 3.13

The kinetics of the reaction is expressed by the following zeroth-order


expression = 0 Where
0 , 3

()

, ,

EXERCISE 3.13

Determinate the transfer function for the reactor. Express the time constant and gain in terms of the physical parameters.

Under what conditions can the time constant be negative? What would be the consequences of a negative time constant?

EXERCISE 3.13
Determinate the transfer function for the reactor
Rate of moles of components into control volume

Rate of moles of components out of control volume

Rate of change of + components in control = volume

Rate of change of moles components acumulated in control volume

Assume: adiabatic (no heat losses), perfect mixing, constant flow, volume, specific heats and density,
Tref = 0. = 0

= + + ;

= 2

= ( )

1 ,1 1 2 ,2 2 =

1 ,1 1 2 ,2 2 0

2 =

(. 1)

Non Linear Eq.

EXERCISE 3.13
Determinate the transfer function for the reactor
Applying Taylor Serie to nonlinear terms. 0

0 + 2 2, 2 2,

(. 2)

Replacing Eq. 2 on Eq. 1


1 ,1 1 2 ,2 2 0

0 2 2,

2 2, =

(. 3)

Steady State for Non Linear Eq. (Eq. 1) 1 ,1 1,


2, 2 ,2 2, 0

2, =0

(. 4)

EXERCISE 3.13
Determinate the transfer function for the reactor
Subtracting (Eq. 3 - Eq. 4) and applying deviation variable 1 ,1 1 1 ,1 1, 2 ,2 2 + 2 ,2 2, 0

0 2 2,

2 2,

2, 0

2 2,
2

0 1 ,1 1 2 ,2 + 2 2, 1 ,1 0 2 ,2 + 2 2,

2 =

(. 5)

1 2 =

0 2 ,2 + 2 2,

EXERCISE 3.13
Determinate the transfer function for the reactor
2 1 2 = Applying Laplace Transform 1 2 = 2 The Transfer Function for the reactor is (. 7)
Mathematical Model

(. 6)

2 1 = + 1 1

. 8

EXERCISE 3.13
Express the time constant and gain in terms of the physical parameters.
1 ,1 2 ,2 + 0 2 2,

Gain

(. 9)

Time constant

0 2 ,2 + 2 2,

(. 10)

EXERCISE 3.13
Under what conditions can the time constant be negative? What would be the consequences of a negative time constant?
It is known that the chemical reactor is adiabatic and exothermic. For exothermic reactions < 0 = 0 2 ,2 + 2 2,
0

(. 10)

If 2 ,2 +

< 0 it makes negative.

THANKS A LOT!