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(Focus Test Pattern)

LTspice/SwitcherCAD III
Mike Engelhardt Linear Technology Corporation

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Historical Timeline
1969
1972 1975

CANCER (Computer Analysis of Nonlinear Circuits Excluding Radiation)


SPICE 1 (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) SPICE 2 (L. Nagels Ph.D. thesis is the user guide)

1981
1983 1985 SPICE 2G6 SPICE 3

Linear Technology Corp. founded

1991
1993 1996 SPICE 3F4

DOS SwitcherCAD(equation based)

Power SwitcherCAD(simulation based)

1999
2004

LTspice/SwitcherCAD III(SPICE based)


500,000 base LTspice downloads(excluding updates & redistrib.)
Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

LT1533 Case Study


Voltage and current slew rate limiting Complex control logic External timing capacitor Timing-cap current look-up table Demo board available Difficult to get efficiency analytically

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Demo Board Schematic

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Demo Board

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The Bench

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Minimum Slew Limits


Vin = 5V Vout = +/-5V Iout = 28mA

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With Voltage Slew Limit


Vin = 5V Vout = 5V Iout = 28mA

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

LT1533 Efficiency Comparison

SwCAD III Min. Slew Rate Limit With Current Slew Limit With Voltage Slew Limit 73.0% 66.0% 63.0%

Demo Board 73.0% 65.4% 62.0%

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Drafting Your Own Circuits


General purpose schematic capture
- Unlimited schematic size - Unlimited depth of hierarchy - Graphical symbol editor

- Complete documentation
Integrated with Industry superlative SPICE simulator - Unlimited, professional-quality SPICE proven for IC design - Unmatched combination of robustness, accuracy, speed and compatibility - Advanced analysis/simulation options, parameter sweeps, FFTs, etc. - Run 3rd party models - Active independent users group Macromodels of over 950 Linear Technology products

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Waveform Display Features


Plot expressions of data assisted with cross probing Cross probe voltages, device and port currents Differential crossprobing Dissipation expression composed by the schematic Dimensional analysis

Waveform average and RMS calculator Fourier analysis (both .four statements and FFT's) Parametric plotting (X-Y plotting) Multiple plot planes - Attached cursors ganged across plot panes Eye diagrams Complex data: Bode, Nyquist, and Cartesian Dynamic waveform data compression
Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Rewrite Berkeley SPICE 3F4/5 for machines with faster CPUs than RAM - Reduced address calculation and function calling overhead - Improved timestep control and numerical methods - Enhanced integration methods and convergence improvements - Alternate solver/SPARSE matrix package 1000x more accurate. - Circuit size limited by computer memory Added/Enhanced semiconductor models - Diode recombination current - JFET impact ionization current - BJT quasi-saturation - VBIC - Binned BSIM3v3.2.4 - BSIM4.4.0 - VDMOS(a new vertical double diffused MOSFET for power MOS) - EKV 2.6 - BSIMSOI3.2 Advanced Analog Behavioral Modeling Technology - Traditional ABM, specialized behavioral devices, HDL, co-simulation Leadership in the SPICE community - Subcircuit port current monitoring - Unlimited output file size, i.e., >> 2GB
Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

LTspice Core Simulator

Benchmarking SPICE
Transistor-level performance LTspice PSPICE hspice
ab_ac ab_integ ab_opamp arom astabl b330 bias bjtff bjtinv counter cram e1480 g1310 gm1 gm17 gm19 gm2 gm3 gm6 hussamp jge latch 4.750* 0.109* 5.454* 3.656 1.046* 2.172 3.234* 2.453* 7.594* 7.234* 0.625* 0.250 3.969* 5.562* 2.703* 12.625 1.125* 3.453* 5.109* 0.781* 33.875 0.969* 7.59 .23 6.44 6.94 4.52 3.16 5.19 4.17 13.03 15.16 .91 (fails) 10.91 12.39 4.47 (fails) 4.91 8.66 13.45 (fails) (fails) 2.30 14.63 0.17 7.72 3.34* 5.21 1.90* 8.63 2.94 14.28 7.40 0.74 0.09* 5.45 11.14 2.92 9.37* 3.21 8.13 11.84 1.42 9.08* 2.42

1] PSPICE is a Cadence Trademark

2] hspice is a Synopsis Trademark

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Benchmarking SPICE(Cont.)
LTspice PSPICE hspice
loc mike2 mosrect mux8 nagle nand opampal optrans pump rca reg0 rich3 ring ring11 schmitecl schmitfast schmitslow slowlatch todd3 toronto vreg 46.687 8.86* 5.797* 37.83 9.734* 17.22 6.531* 12.00 0.672* 1.28 2.250 1.08* 5.109 1.41* 7.500 6.17 0.016* .23 1.719 1.53 4.406* 37.22 35.610 (fails) 5.562* 10.33 2.360* 3.11 0.015* .16 8.297* 21.16 10.781* 23.84 0.156 .22 0.156 .22 5.031* 11.74 0.735* 2.16 10.64 21.39 29.14 11.91 1.53 2.45 4.50 3.14* 0.49 1.45* 28.78 4.67* 19.36 4.72 0.06 29.09 37.28 0.11* 0.06* 11.72 2.86

WINS:

30

10

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

LTspice Behavioral Simulator


PSPICE style behavioral modeling - Legacy POLY() statements

- Arbitrary expressions
- Laplace - Look-up tables. Arbitrary capacitance: write an expression for the charge. Arbitrary inductor: write an expression for the flux. An original mixed-mode simulator -- not xspice based.

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Mixed-Mode Simulator
Computationally lightweight Tight feedback between analog and digital circuitry - Implemented as a mix of intrinsic SPICE devices and ~30 optimizing HDL compilers. - Predictors aid timestep control.

Easy to program so that models for new products are usually quick to be generated.

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Example Mixed-Mode Simulation

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

LTspice's Special Enhancements for SMPS Simulation


Automatic Steady State Detection and Efficiency Computation Node Reduction VDMOS MOSFET Model Mixed-Mode Simulator with intrinsic SMPS controller functions Nonlinear magnetics with gapped magnetic circuit solver

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

SPICE Solver Overview


Circuit to Simulate I D 1mA

SPICE Solver Initial Solution Guess V[0] = 0V I D Linearize 1mA 1mA G[n] I[n] I [G][V]=[I] Solve Matrix for Voltages 1mA G[n] I[n] V[n] D I Newton-Raphson Iteration V[n+1] D

Linearize About New Voltage Solution G[n] G[n+1] I[n] I[n+1]

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Circuit Matrix
Nodal analysis: [G][V] = [I] G: Conductivity matrix V: Unknown voltage vector I: Known current vector Modified Nodal analysis: [ G 1] [v] = [I] [1 R ] [i] = [V] G: Conductivity matrix v: Unknown voltage vector i: Unknown current vector V: Known voltage vector I: Known current vector

Node count is more important than part count. Its best to avoid floating voltage sources
Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Capacitor Companion Model

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Inductor Companion Model

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VDMOS MOSFET
Normal Monolithic MOSFET (Used in ICs)
Drain

VDMOS (Discrete Power MOSFET)


Source

Source

Gate

Gate

Bulk(Substrate)
Drain-Source Current Path

Drain

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

LTC Proprietary VDMOS Model


Replace a problematic subcircuit with a single new intrinsic SPICE device

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

VDMOS Gate Charge Behavior

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Two-Phase SMPS & PLL Capture

Total elapsed time: 19.809 seconds.


Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Chan et al. Nonlinear Magnetics


A computationally lightweight model that uses only three parameters to specify the cores major hysteresis loop: Hc: Coercive force [Amp-turns/meter] Br: Remnant Flux Density [Tesla] Bs: Saturation Flux Density [Tesla]

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Gapped Core Magnetic Solver


Core physical dimensions specified with four parameters:
Lm: Lg : A: N: Magnetic Length(excl. gap)[meter] Length of gap [meter] cross sectional area [meter**2] number of turns

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Core Saturation Considerations


Saturation flux density goes down monotonically with temperature Maximum service temperature plus self-heating Controller peak current production scatter Startup/transient/short circuit conditions

If you use the worst inductor that works in simulation, you will have failures over service temperature and production scatter.
Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Simulating Transformers

Mutual coupling K-statement placed as a SPICE directive on the schematic

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Multiple Windings
=

For N windings, the number of mutual couplings is

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Misc. Advanced Features


Waveform plot annotations Hierarchy BUSs Fast Access file format. .measure statements Optional double precision data files Read/Write .wav files URL's in a .lib and .inc statements Color Preference Editor Programmable Keyboard Shortcuts

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Misc. Advanced Techniques


User-defined parameters & functions .steping a user-defined parameter - Overlay simulation runs - Parameter sweeps - Monte Carlo - Optimization Open loop response from closed loop system Using the Universal Opamp Model Adding 3rd party models

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Common Pitfalls
Mirror & Rotate buttons greyed out Copy block from one schematic to another

Hidden filename extensions


Start-up overshoot Dissipation: RMS or Average?

Finding steady state

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Adding

rd 3

Party Models

RCL databases - standard.res - standard.cap - standard.ind - standard.bead Intrinsic Devices - standard.dio - standard.bjt - standard.mos - standard.jft Subcircuits - define on schematic - program symbol to automatically include the required library - explicitly .inc the model

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Built-in Help System

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Updates With Field Sync


Incrementally updates your installation off the web Automatically merges databases of devices Free Lifetime Updates

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation

Reporting a Bug
Make sure youre using the current version with Field sync.

All bug reports are appreciated and will be resolved.

Copyright 2004, 2005 Linear Technology Corporation