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Autism is a term commonly used for a group of neuro-developmental disorders also known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) or Autism

Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The core symptoms of autism are challenges related to:
communication social interaction restrictive or repetitive behaviors and interests

Impaired social interaction; unresponsive to people; focus intently on one item to the exclusion of others for long periods of time. Appear to develop normally and then withdraw and become indifferent to social engagement. Fail to respond to their names and often avoid eye contact with other people. Difficult in interpreting what others are thinking or feeling (they cant understand social cues, such as tone of voice or facial expressions). Lack empathy.

Engage in repetitive movements (rocking and twirling, or in self-abusive behavior such as biting or head-banging). Tend to start speaking later than other children. May refer to themselves by name instead of I or me. Do not know how to play interactively with other children. May have co-occurring conditions, including Fragile X syndrome (which causes mental retardation), tuberous sclerosis, epileptic seizures, Tourette syndrome, learning disabilities, and attention deficit disorder.

Develop teaching strategies to address the behaviour and ease communication:


Analyse the information you have gathered and talk to the child and his/her parents about his/her behaviour. Observe the child and identify an alternative and more appropriate behaviour. Give reward. Provide interesting activities to engage the child.

Adapt the classroom to support the childs understanding and sense of security:
Change distracting stimuli. Provide a place for the child to take a break. Offer choices. Plan predictable routines. Introduce calming moments into the class routine. Help the child to manage his/her behaviour by using social stories and shape behaviour toward appropriate outcome. Plan a crisis strategy when things get out of hand and know the triggers which can upset. Never confront the child; offer time out space.

Assessing the behaviour situation


Use schedules, timetables or calendars that help to show when something will happen. Use accessible pictorial or written rules to remind a child what he/she should do. Physically arrange the classroom to show where something should happen. Provide a checklist using objects of reference, photographs or a written list to help the pupil follow directions

Replace inappropriate with appropriate behaviours:


Teach the child to communicate; in difficult situations, for example, the child needs to be able to ask for help, to take a break, to express emotions such as fear or anger. Teach social skills, which will help the child initiate, sustain or escape anxious social situations, such as going to a quiet place, completing a calming activity or using relaxation techniques. Teach specific play and leisure skills which might occupy his interest. Develop behaviour targets which shape the childs behaviour toward more appropriate behaviour.

A child does not reach their developmental milestones at the expected times. It is an ongoing major or minor delay in the process of development. Delay can occur in one or many areasfor example, gross or fine motor, language, social, or thinking skills.

Unable to hold a pen or pencil in the correct way. Unable to write, sketch and colour neatly. Clumsy, having difficulty to walk and do activities like cycling. Limited vocabularies, tend to use simple sentences, passive in conversation and wrong pronunciation while communicating. Unable to socialize with the new surrounding and peers.

The use of technology. Medication. Physical therapy. Balanced diet. Psychological help.

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), also known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is indicated when children display inappropriate attention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior for their mental and chronological age.

Short Attention Span


doesn't seem to listen to speaker; easily distracted by outside stimuli; shifts from one uncompleted task to another.

Impulsive Behavior
Interrupts conversations, sometimes making inappropriate comments; acts without thinking.

Hyperactivity
Talks loudly, rapidly, incessantly; excessive energy.

Emotional Instability
Low frustration tolerance, over-reacts, underreacts; temper tantrums; excess anger or excitement.

Poor Social Relationships


few friends; bossy, irritates others without realizing; starts fights, chooses younger children for friends.

Poor Response to Discipline


doesn't accept correction; unresponsive to discipline; defiant.

Attention
Provide a sanctuary for child to work away from distractions or seat child in front of room. Use direct instruction/interaction techniques (for attention, direct response and immediate encouragement and correction). Acquire and maintain eye contact, verbal contact and close contact with the child. Break tasks into small parts. Provide concrete models and examples -- a hands-on approach. Praise and recognize appropriate attention rather than reprimand for lack of attention.

Impulsive Behavior:
Establish and post firm, clearly understood, rules with immediate consequences for violations. Establish routines for child and prepare child for breaks in routine. When behavior gets out of control, or the environment is too stimulating, calmly remove child and isolate him in a quiet place for a short period of time. Don't let child interrupt. Have him/her wait a brief time before giving permission to speak.

Hyperactivity:
Provide appropriate activities for channeling the child's energy, (e.g. rocking chair for reading),combine a learning activity with movement (e.g. bouncing ball while reciting alphabet.) Channel annoying behavior into more acceptable behavior (e.g. suggest tapping with fingers rather than pencil.) Reward roaming child when he stays near work area, gradually making rewards more specific the closer child stays in area. Placing colored tape on floor around work area may remind child to stay in area. Use activities that involve visual, tactile and auditory skills. Alternate sitting and moving activities.

Social/Emotional:
Use consistent rules and clear routine. Praise appropriate behavior. Keep environment as simple as possible. Playing with one friend at a time, or one toy at a time, may be most beneficial