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ASESMEN KLINIS: TES OBYEKTIF

Tes kepribadian objektif disebut juga selfreport inventory Objective personality measure involve the administration of a standard set of question or statement to which the examinee respond using a fixed set of options. Pilihan jawaban: benar/salah, ya/tidak, skala dimensional

KEUNTUNGAN
1. Ekonomis Dapat dilakukan secara klasikal

2. Skoring & administrasi relatif sederhana dan objektif Interpretasi mjd lebih mudah & klinisi hanya mbutuhkan sedikit kemampuan interpretif

KERUGIAN
1. Same score on a measure may have several alternative interpretations 2. The transparent meaning of some inventories questions, which can obviously facilitate faking on the part of some patient some test tend to dependheavily on the patients self-knowledge 3. The forced-choice approach prevents individuals from qualifying or elaborating their responses so that some additional information may be lost or distorted 4. The limited understanding or even the limited reading ability of some individuals may lead them to misinterpret question

Metode Konstruksi Tes Objektif


Content Validation Involve: a. Carefully defining all relevant aspects of the variable you are attempting to measure b. Consulting experts before generating items c. Using judges to assess each potential items relevance to the variable of interest d. Using psychometric analyses to evaluate each item before you include it in your measure

Potential Problem : 1. Can clinicians assume that every patient interprets a given item in exactly the same way? 2. Can patient accurately report their own behavior or emotions? 3. Will patient be honest, or will they attempt to place themselves in a good light? 4. Can clinicians assume that the expert can be counted on to define the essence of the concept they are trying to measure?

Empirical Criterion Keying No assumption are made as to whether a patient is telling the truth or the response really corresponds to behavior or feelings certain patient describe themselves in a certain ways Members of particular diagnostic group will tend to respond in the same way not necessary to select test item in a rational, theoretical fashion Problem: Difficulty of interpreting the meaning of a score

Factor Analysis/ Internal Consistency Examine the intercorrelations among the individual items from many existing personality inventories Exploratory: Atheoretical begins by capturing a universe of items & and the proceeds to reduce them to basic elements (personality, adjustment, diagnostic affiliation, etc) in attempt to arrive at the core traits and dimensions of personality Confirmatory: More theory driven, seeking to confirm a hypothesized factor structure (based on theoretical predictions) for the test item

The strength: The emphasis on an empirical demonstration that items purporting to measure a variable or dimension of personality are highly related to one another The limitations: The items are actually measuring the variable of interest; we only know that the items tend to be measuring the same thing Construct Validity Approach Kombinasi 3 metode di atas

MMPI & MMPI-2


Publikasi oleh Hathaway & McKinley th. 1943 Contoh tbaik dari pendekatan empirical keying

MMPI
Btujuan utk midentifikasi diagnosa psikiatrik individu Item2nya dirancang bdasarkan tes kepribadian sebelumnya, riwayat kasus, & pengalaman klinis Kategori psikiatrik: hypocondriasis (Hs), depression (D), hysteria (Hy), psychopatic deviate (Pd), paranoia (Pa), psychasthenia (Pt), schizophrenia (Sc), & hypomania (Ma). Dua skala tambahan: masculinity-feminity (Mf) & social introversion (Si) MMPI yg original tdd dari 550 items yg harus dijawab pasien dgn true, false, & cannot say Digunakan utk usia 16 tahun ke atas, namun digunakan juga utk anak yg lebih muda

MMPI-2
MMPI dikritik karena tidak mewakili populasi US secara umum partisipan hanya berasal dari area Mineapolis dgn karaketristik yg berbeda Adanya MMPI-2 dgn penyesuaian, jml item ada 704 item Digunakan utk usia 13 thn ke atas atau yg dapat mbaca di kelas 8 Bisa individual ataupun klasikal Dapat diskor dgn komputer Tdpt versi bahasa non-English Telah dikembangkan MMPI-2 utk remaja, yaitu MMPIA (adolescents)

Validitas skala Problem: distortion through various tes-taking attitudes or response sets. Utk mdeteksi faking bad, test-taking attitudes, & carelessness atau misunderstanding, ada 4 skala validitas dalam MMPI: 1. ? (Cannot say) scale. Item yg tidak dijawab 2. F (Infrequency) scale. 60 item yg jarang dijawab. Nilai F yg tinggi mungkin ada penyimpangan respons, atau hipotesis lain ttg perilaku 3. L (Lie) scale. 15 items whose endorsement places the respondent in a very positive light 4. K (Defensiveness) scale. 30 item suggest defensiveness in admitting certain problems.

Tiga skala validitas yg baru dalam MMPI-2 5. Fb (Back-page Infrequency) scale. 40 items occuring near the end of the MMPI-2 are infrequently endorsed 6. VRIN (Variable Response Inconsistency) scale. 67 pairs of item with either similar or opposite content 7. TRIN (True Response Inconsistency) scale. 23 items pairs thar are opposite in content. Ketujuh skala validitas di atas digunakan utk memahami motivasi & test-taking attitudes responden.

MMPI dpt digunakan ketika klinisi mbutuhkan informasi ttg bbrp masalah pasien, ketika klinisi harus membuat hipotesis ttg status diagnostik pasien, mengetahui kekuatan & kelemahan pasien