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Energy Automation

7UT6: Low impedance


Restricted Earth Fault
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Power Transmission and
Distribution

Internal single pole fault’s close to transformer


star point
No. 1 with 400kV 230kV Example: Autotransformer 500MVA , 400/230kV, uk12 = 15.8%
Energy Automation
Inductivity L ∼ winding2 ; RF = fault resistance

f ⋅ U LV / 3 f ⋅ w2
X = ω ⋅ L ; I F LV = ; I F HV = I FLV
(f 2
) 2
⋅ X + R 2F w1 + w2 ⋅ (1 − f)

w
1 IF
[p.u.]

IFHV [p.u. HV side]


1 IFLV [p.u. LV side]
IFtot [p.u. LV side]

w f
2

0
Short circuited winding
L2 L3 part f

PF = I 2Ftot ⋅ R F ; Energy : WF = I 2Ftot ⋅ R F ⋅ t Trip

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 2


Power Transmission and
Distribution

Limits of the differential protection


(1 of 2)
No. 1 with Earth fault current limited by RE to IEmax = 2000A ; RE >> XTr
Energy Automation
20 MVA ; YNd5 Side 1: 132kV Side 2: 13.8kV
100/1A …/1A
1L1 2L1
~
1L2 2L2
~
0 f 1
~ 1L3 2L3

InO1 = 87.5A RE InO2 = 837A

…/1A

IF = f
(U / 3
2N )
= f ⋅ I Emax and I K = I F
(
f ⋅ U 2N / 3 ) (
U / 3
= f 2 ⋅ I Emax 2N
)
RE U1N U1N
Will the differential protection detect the fault (setting IDiff > = 0.25I/InO , slope 1 = 0.25) ?
(fault location 20% from the star point)

I F = 0.2 ⋅ 2000A = 400A ; I K = 0.2 2 ⋅ 2000A


(13.8kV/ 3 ) = 4.82A ;
132kV
I = I F /I nO2 = 400A/837A = 0.478 ; I = I K /I nO1 = 4.82A/87.5A = 0.055
*
F
*
K

Io - Elimination : I D Elim =
1
( )
0 + I*K + I*K = 1.154 ⋅ I*K = 0.063I/I nO
3
Io − Correction : I D Corr =
1
( )
1
0 + I*K + I*K + I*F = 0.063I/I nO +
3
0.478
3
I/I nO = 0.222 I/I nO
3
s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 3
Power Transmission and
Distribution

Limits of the differential protection


(2 of 2)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation
With the above setting the differential protection (with Io-correction)
would only just fail to pick up!

IF, ID, IK
[p.u.] IF [p.u. 13.8kV side]
IDCor Io-correction

IDElim Io-elimination
IK [p.u. 132kV side]

Diff. pickup at nom. load


Diff. pickup at no load
REF

Example Short circuited winding


part f

In the example at hand, it is therefore advisable to connect a CT with earth


current relay (pick up threshold 200A) in the earth connection of the star-point,
to increase the range of protection coverage to 90%.
This protection however requires a large time delay setting as the earth current
relay in the system must trip faster to maintain selectivity.
s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 4
Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: Restricted Earth Fault Protection (General)


No. 1 with The REF measures the Neutral current of the object ( ISP = 3I0’ ) and, depending
Energy Automation on the
angle (∆φ) between 3I0’ and the also measured sum of the phase currents
( 3I0’’ = IL1 + IL2 + IL3 ), decides for internal or external fault.
The sensitivity of the REF is almost independent from the load of the
object.
(The sensitivity of the “Differential Function” especially for high ohm faults will
be reduced by the load due to the slope of its “Tripping Characteristic” ).
The REF can be stetted to 0.1 I/INO and is therefore more sensitive as the
“Differential Protection” (even without load).

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 5


Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: Tripping Characteristic of REF


(1 of 3)
No. 1 with IREF > = Setting value (Trip Threshold)
Energy Automation
IRest = Restraint current
IREF = │3I0’│
1) for basic Trip-Area (0° ≤ ∆φ ≤ 90°): IREF = │3I0’│ and must be ≥ IREF >
Characteristic_1): IREF / IREF > = 1 (no restraining current IRest
effective)
2) for extended Trip-Area (90° ≤ ∆φ ≤ 180°):
IREF = IREF > + k·IRest where IRest = (│3I0’-3I0’’│-│3I0’+3I0’’│)
IRest includes the direction

I REF = I REF > + k ⋅ ( 3Io'−3Io' ' − 3Io'+3Io' ' ) ⇒ 3Io' ' = reference,ϕ (3Io' ' ) = 0
(
I REF = I REF > + k ⋅ 3Io'⋅e jΔϕ − 3Io' ' − 3Io'⋅e jΔϕ + 3Io' ' )
I REF >  3Io' ' 3Io' ' 
1= + k ⋅  1 ⋅ e jΔϕ − − 1 ⋅ e jΔϕ +  ⇒ I REF = 3Io' = 3Io'
3Io'  3Io' 3Io' 
I REF >  3Io' ' 3Io' ' 
= 1 − k ⋅  1 ⋅ e jΔϕ − − 1⋅ e jΔϕ + 
I REF  3Io' 3Io' 

I REF 1
Characteristic_2) : = for 7UT612 : k
I REF >  3Io' ' 3Io' ' 
1 − k ⋅  1 ⋅ e jΔϕ − − 1 ⋅ e jΔϕ +  ≈2
 3Io' 3Io'  for 7UT613/63 k
s ≈4
PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 6
Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: Tripping Characteristic of REF


(2 of 3)
No. 1 with Figure 2: 7UT6 REF tripping characteristic
Energy Automation
Char. for I REF
∆φ= 180° I REF >

Tripping
3

Blocking

-0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 +0.1 +0.2 +0.3


3I '0'
3I '0
180° ≥ ∆φ > 90° ≥ ∆φ ≥ 0°
90° Characteristic
Characteristic_ _1)
s 2)
PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 7
Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: Tripping Characteristic of REF


(3 of 3)
No. 1 with Figure 5
Energy Automation
Figure 3 Figure 4
∆φ > 90° ∆φ=90° ∆φ < 90°
-3I0’’ +3I0’
3I0’-3I0’’ 3I0’+3I0’

IRes - +3I0’ ’
3I0’’ ’
t - 3I0’
3I0’
+3I0’ 3I0’’ IRes

3I0’ t

3I0’-3I0’’
3I0’+3I0
’’
3I0’-3I0’’ 3I0’+3I0’’

∆φ = 45°

∆φ = 3I0’’
135° 3I0’’

3I0’’ IRest = (│3I0’-3I0’’│-│3I0’+3I0’’│)


=0
IRest = (│3I0’-3I0’’│-│3I0’+3I0’’│) IRest = (│3I0’-3I0’’│-│3I0’+3I0’’│)
>0 <0
(neg. values will be set to
s 0)
PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 8
Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: REF CT saturation at star point CT


(1 of 2)
No. 1 with The star point CT can or even should be weaker designed than the
Energy Automation
phase Ct’s !
In case of an external fault and saturation on this CT there will be no
false trip.

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 9


Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: REF CT saturation at star point CT


(2 of 2)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 10


Power Transmission and
Distribution

Comparison of sensitivity between


Differential Protection and REF
No. 1 with
Energy Automation
38.1 MVA ; Vector group: YNd5
Side 2: 11kV Side 1: 110kV
2000/1A 200/1A
2L1 1L1

2L2 1L2

2L3 1L3
200/1A

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 11


Power Transmission and
Distribution

Settings
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Io-Correction

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 12


Power Transmission and
Distribution

Fault 1: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, without


Load (1 of 3)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 13


Power Transmission and
Distribution

Fault 1: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, without


Load (2 of 3)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation With Io-Correction With Io-Elimination

Idiff ≈
0.11 I/InO

Only Ires, no Idiff


for L2,L3

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 14


Power Transmission and
Distribution

Fault 1: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, without


Load (3 of 3)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Trip Area

Block Area

Iref = actual current, IREF = Setting IREF >, K s=1, IoL = I0’’,
IoSt = I0’

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 15


Power Transmission and
Distribution

Fault 2: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, with Load


(1 of 3)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 16


Power Transmission and
Distribution

Fault 2: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, with Load


(2 of 3)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Iref = actual current, IREF = Setting IREF >,


Ks = 1, IoL = I0’’, IoSt = I0’

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 17


Power Transmission and
Distribution

Fault 2: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, with Load


(3 of 3)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

3I0’’ = 3·6.49mA = 19.47mA,  3I0’/ 3I0’’ = 19.47/140 = 0.139


s InO = 200A  1000mA, IRef = 140mA, IRef > = 0.1  IRef /IRef > = 1.4
PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 18
Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: REF settings


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

proposed value

InS = nominal side current

Increasing the pickup value


I Ref
InO

0.3
1313A
slope = 0.1
0.2
IRef >
0.1

0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 ΣI InO
nominal
Σ I = │IL1 │+ │IL2 │+ │IL3 │+ │ISP │ load

(to be handled with care) !!!


s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 19
Power Transmission and
Distribution

Setting the direction of the Star point CT


No. 1 with
Energy Automation Transformer-
winding

L1 Setting for “CT-Strpnt in Direct. Of Object”


must be correct !
L2
L3

Q7 Q8 0230 Earthing Electrode versus Terminal Q7


7UT612

Q7 Q8 0230 Earthing Electrode versus Terminal Q7


7UT612

Q7 Q8 0230 Earthing Electrode versus Terminal Q8

7UT612

Q7 Q8 0230 Earthing Electrode versus Terminal Q8

7UT612

Secondary earthing of Star point CT has no influence on the direction

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 20


Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: versions
No. 1 with
Energy Automation 7UT612 7UT613/63. 7UT613/63.
Version 4.0 Version 4.0 Version 4.6
(Dec. 2005)
Number of 1 1 2
Low impedance REF
REF for No No Yes
Autotransformer

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 21


Power Transmission and
Distribution

Application
No. 1 with Device Configuration
Energy Automation 0105 Protected Object 3 phase
Transformer
M1 0112 Differential Protection Enabled
S 0113 REF Protection Enabled
1
Main
Y X1
protect. Power System Data 1
object CT-Numbers

7UT61 0211 No. of connected Meas. Loc. 2
3 0212 No. of assigned Meas. Loc. 2
S 0213 No. of sides 2
2
CT-Assign
0222 Assignment at 2 assig.
M2
Meas.Loc./2 sides S1:M1, S2:M2
Starpoint- 0251 Auxiliary CT IX1 is used as Side 1
bilder earth
0252 Auxiliary CT IX2 is used as Side 2
earth
X2 Transf.
….
0313 Starpoint of Side 1 is Solid Earthed
0314 Transf. Winding Connection Side 1 Y (Wye)
Sides: ….
S1 High voltage side (HV) 0323 Starpoint of Side 2 is Solid Earthed (!!)
S2 Low voltage side (LV) 0324 Transf. Winding Connection Side 2 D (Delta)
Measuring locations 3-phase , assigned 0325 Vector Group Numeral of Side 2 11
M1 assigned to the main protected object Funct.
(side 1) 0413 REF assigned to Side 2
M2 assigned to the main protected object 0420 DMT/IDMT Phase assigned to Side 1
(side 2)
Auxiliary measuring locations 1-phase Setting Group A
X1 assigned to the main protected object Differential Protection-Settings Group A
(side 1) 1211A Diff-Prot. with meas. Earth Curr. S1 Yes (Io-
X2 assigned to the main protected object correct. Side 1)
s (side 2)
X3 not assigned to the main protected
1212A Diff-Prot. with meas. Earth Curr. S2 No
PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 22
Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: REF Interturn fault / terminal earth fault


No. 1 with 38.1 MVA ; Vector group: YNd5
Energy Automation
Side 2: 11kV Side 1: 110kV
2000/1A 200/1A
2L1 1L1
~
2L2 1L2
~
2L3 1L3
~
(-) (+)
200/1A

∆ ϕ = 180°  no Trip
by REF

38.1 MVA ; Vector group: YNd5


Side 2: 11kV Side 1: 110kV
2000/1A 200/1A
2L1 1L1
~
2L2 1L2
~
2L3 1L3
~
200/1A ISP

ISP = 0  no Trip by REF


s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 23
Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: REF, testing the characteristic


(1 of 3)
No. 1 with Configuration:
Energy Automation
Winding 1:
80MVA,110kV 500/1A

500/1
A

S NTr ⋅ I NCTSec 80000kVA ⋅ 1A


In = = = 0.839 A
3 ⋅ U NTr ⋅ I NCT Pr im 3 ⋅ 110kV ⋅ 500 A

(In this case for Io’ and Io’’, because all ct’s are primary 500A)

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 24


Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: REF testing the characteristic


(2 of 3)
No. 1 with Test point 1:
Energy Automation
Io’ = 2 IREF > = 2⋅ 0.1⋅ 0.839A = 0.168A = constant. Io’’: at the begin approximate
0.4⋅ 0.168A
ej180° =0.067A, than reducing step by step until trip⋅ Result: -21mA/168mA = -0.125
Test point 2:
Io’ = 4 IREF > = 4⋅ 0.1⋅ 0.839A = 0.336A = constant. Io’’: at the begin approximate
0.4⋅ 0.336A
ej180° =0.134A, than reducing step by step until trip⋅ Result: -60mA/336mA ≈ 0.18

- -0.125
s 0.18 TP 1 PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 25
Power Transmission and
Distribution

7UT6: REF testing the characteristic


(3 of 3)
No. 1 with Test point 1: Test point 2:
Energy Automation

≈ -21mA ≈-
60mA

168mA 336mA

s PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005 Page 26