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EXTERNAL FAULT

BB

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
INTERNAL FAULT
IF

BB

i1 i2 i3 i4

∑ i = if

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
EXTERNAL FAULT

LV HV

I1/_0º I2/_0º

Current difference is not equal to zero but it


less than the setting value – due to CT
.class error

|I1/_0º – I2 /_0º | =0

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
INTERNAL FAULT

I1/_0º
I2 /__180º

|I1/_0º – I2 /_180º | = |I1 +I2|

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
Operating conditions of transformer
Diff relay

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
Operating conditions of transformer
Diff relay
A) Through-fault current under healthy
conditions or on an external fault:
• I2 reverses its direction (I2 = –I1) .
• Both currents are equal in magnitude |I2| = |I1|.
• IDiff = |I1 + I2| = |I1 – I1| = 0 .
• IRest = |I1| + |I2| = |I1| + |I1| = 2·|I1| .
• No tripping effect (IDiff = 0); restraint current
(IRest) corresponds to twice the through flowing
current.
Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
Operating conditions of transformer
Diff relay
B) Internal fault, fed from each end (with
equal currents ):
• In this case, I2 = I1 in direction .
• In magnitude |I2| = |I1| .
• IDiff = |I1 + I2| = |I1 + I1| = 2·|I1| .
• IRest = |I1| + |I2| = |I1| + |I1| = 2·|I1| .
• Tripping effect (IDiff) and restraining (IRest)
quantities are equal and correspond to the
total fault current.
Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
Operating conditions of transformer
Diff relay
C) Internal fault, fed from one end only:
• In this case, I2 = 0
• IDiff = |I1 + I2| = |I1 + 0| = |I1|
• IRest = |I1| + |I2| = |I1| + 0 = |I1|
• Tripping effect (IDiff) and restraining
(IRest) quantities are equal and
correspond to the fault current fed from
one side.
Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
Metro cell REF REF
R R
stabilizing

At Turn to turn occur , diff relay cannot operate due to low current . REF relay will operate by
voltage according to the setting

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
EXTERNAL FAULT

I2/_0º
I1/_0º

Current difference is not equal to zero but it


less than the setting value – due to CT
.class error

|I1/_0º – I2 /_0º | =0

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
INTERNAL FAULT

I1/_0º I2 /__180º

|I1/_0º – I2 /_180º | = |I1 +I2|

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
Problems in Diffrential Protection

Saturate any one of the CT’s during fault- 1

For transformer , current from both CTs may not equal- 2


. due to changing tap changing position

For cables , current from both CT’s may not equal due- 3
. to capacitive current

Mal - operation of the relay

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
THE SOLUSION

Biased Differential Protection

Idiff I restrain = I stabilizing

SEESAW

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
I diff I restrain = I stabilizing

SEESAW

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
s s
I2 I1

= I1| + |I2 | |IRESTRAIN

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
s s
I2 I1

= I1| + |I2 | |IRESTRAIN

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
I RESTRAIN is the algebraic sum of I1 and I2 . The current passing through
restrain coil is DC . It is converted from AC to DC through bridge rectifier

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
T = 2 sec
T = 1.5 sec
A B C
T = 1 sec
T = 0.5 sec Z5
T = 0 sec Z4
%Z2 120 Z3 200%
Z1 85%

21

Relay will not


respond

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
T = 2 sec
T = 1.5 sec
A B C
T = 0.5 sec
T = 1 sec
Z5
T = 0 sec Z4
%Z2 120 Z3 200%
Z1 85%

21

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
)Permissive under – reach zone 1 extension ( PUR Z1X

A B C
SEND

Z1X
Z1 85%
Z1 85% %Z2 120

21 Both relays will 21


not respond
Z2 = Z1X
Both breakers will trip instantaneously with no effect of
SEND
:Summary : The distance relay will signal
operate at Z1 time if
. Fault occur at Z1- 1
Fault occur out of Z1 and inside Z1X (DISTANCE PICK UP) + Receive SEND- 2
.signal from remote end distance relay
Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
)Permissive under – reach zone 1 extension ( PUR Z1X

DISADVANTAGE 1

It is used with over head lines (OHL) for more than 20 km , and it is not
advisable to be used in short distances of over head lines (less than 20
km )

S/S A S/S B

ARCING
RESISTANCE

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
)Permissive under – reach zone 1 extension ( PUR Z1X

A B C

Z1X
Z1 85%

21 21

Arcing resistance is added to line impedance when fault is in the middle


of the line which cause increase in line impedance . So then both relays
.will see the fault as Z2 and give delay tripping

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
DISADVANTAGE 2

A B C
NO SEND

Z1X
Z1 85% %Z2 120

21 T = 0.5 sec 21

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
)Permissive under reach Transfer trip ( PUTT

A B C
SEND

Z1 85%
Z1 85% %Z2 120

21 Both relays will 21


not respond

Both breakers will trip instantaneously with no effect of


SEND
:Summary : The distance relay will signal
operate at Z1 time if
. Fault occur at Z1- 1
Fault occur out of Z1 (DISTANCE PICK UP) + Receive SEND signal from- 2
.remote end distance relay
Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
)Permissive over reach Transfer trip ( POTT

A B C
SEND

ZOR
Z1 85%
Z1 85% %Z2 120

21 Both relays will 21


not respond and
relay A will trip at
Z2 will trip instantaneously with no effect of
Both breakers
SEND
:Summary : The distance relay will signal
operate at Z1 time if
. Fault occur at Z1- 1
Fault occur out of Z1 and inside ZOR (DISTANCE PICK UP) + Receive SEND- 2
.signal from remote end distance relay
Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
)Permissive over reach Transfer trip ( POTT
ECHO FEATURE

A B C
ECHO
SEND

ZOR
Z1 85% %Z2 120

21 21

Z2 = ZOR

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
)Permissive over reach Transfer trip ( POTT
WEEK INFEED FEATURE

KV 110 KV
KV
KV
KV110
80
90
77
A B C
SEND

ZOR
Z1 85% %Z2 120
G

21 21

WEEK INFEED UNIT


Z2 = ZOR OPERATED

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
Pelec
Generator Out of Step
due to prolong of fault
without WEEK END
FEED function

Pmech

δ
Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
Blocking Over Reach

A Blocking B C
Signal

ZOR
Z1 85%
Z1 85% %Z2 120

21 21 21

Z2
Z1 = ZOR Z1 = ZOR

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
NO EVOLVING )Auto Reclosure (AR
FAULT OCCURE
A B

Z1 85%

+
Action Dead Reclaim
+ Time Time Time
+ +
+ +
AR
Dist
AR CB Reclosing
trip AR Reclaim
cycleTRIP command
STARTING
TC CC starting time
expired
_ _

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati
EVOLVING )Auto Reclosure (AR
FAULT OCCURE A B

Z1 85%

+
Action Dead Reclaim
+ Time Time Time
+ +
+ +
AR
Dist
AR CB Reclosing
trip AR
cycleTRIP command
STARTING
TC CC starting

_ _

Eng.Mohammad.A.Surrati