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Suggestion on How to Use

• Industry Trainers are encouraged to use this


material in their sessions
• Download both the PowerPoint file (.ppt) and script
file (.pdf)
• Print the script file (.pdf) and read the script as you
view the PowerPoint presentation in the “Slide
Show” view. In this way you see the slides in large
format and have animation (if there is any)
• Must have PowerPoint and Adobe Reader
application software on your system.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective
Coordination
Selective Coordination

• For 600 Volts & less


• Easy concept to understand
• Hard to verify, if you do not know what to look for
• Misinterpretations or lack of understanding is very
prevalent
• People review curves (hand drawn or computer
generated) and they do not know how to interpret

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination

Definition:
The act of isolating a faulted circuit from the
remainder of the electrical system, thereby
eliminating unnecessary power outages. The
faulted circuit is isolated by the selective operation
of only the overcurrent protective device closest to
the overcurrent condition.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination: Avoids
Blackouts
Without Selective Coordination With Selective Coordination

OPENS
NOT AFFECTED OPENS

UNNECESSARY NOT
POWER LOSS Fault AFFECTED Faul
t
Selective Coordination: NEC ®

240.2 Definitions
Coordination.
The proper localization of a fault condition to
restrict outages to the equipment affected,
accomplished by the choice of selective
fault-protective devices.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination: NEC ®

240.12 Electrical System Coordination where


orderly shutdown required to minimize
hazards
620.62 Selective Coordination required where
more than one elevator is supplied by single
feeder.
517.17 Selective coordination between main
and feeder required for health care facilities
where main has GFP (feeder also required to
have GFP).

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination

Chapter 2 Video
Selective Coordination

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination

Coordination
Circuit Breakers

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Magnetic Element

Bimetal

Trip Bar
Circuit Breaker
Operation

Load

Line

Latch
Spring Loaded Contacts
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Bimetal

Trip Bar Thermal Overload


Operation
Normal State

Load

Line

Latch
Spring Loaded Contacts
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Bimetal

Trip Bar Thermal Overload


Operation
Unlatch & Open

Load

Line

Latch
Spring Loaded Contacts
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Magnetic Element

Trip Bar Short Circuit


Operation
Normal State

Load

Line

Latch
Spring Loaded Contacts
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Magnetic Element

Trip Bar Short Circuit


Operation
Unlatching

Load

Line

Unlatch
Spring Loaded Contacts
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Magnetic Element

Trip Bar Short Circuit


Operation
Opening

Load

Line

Latch
Spring Loaded Contacts
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Magnetic Element

Trip Bar Short Circuit


Operation
Cleared

Load

Line

Latch
Spring Loaded Contacts
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Coordination -
Thermal-Mag Circuit Breakers

Thermal Magnetic Molded


Case Circuit Breaker Time-
Current Curve
◆ Overload Region

◆Instantaneous Region
◆Interrupting Time
◆Unlatching Time

◆Interrupting Rating

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Coordination -
Thermal-Mag Circuit Breakers (See SPD)

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination

C
Time

B
A

4000A
Fault Current
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Lacking Coordination

OPENS
NOT AFFECTED

UNNECESSARY
POWER LOSS Fault

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination -
Insulated Case Circuit Breakers (See
SPD)

◆ 2000A Insulated Case


Circuit Breaker
◆ STD Is an Option - Allows
breaker to delay opening
◆ Instantaneous Override
built-in: may be as low as
12X the breaker rating
◆ Will often result in lack of
coordination
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Selective Coordination -
Insulated Case Circuit Breakers (See
SPD)

◆ 2000A Insulated Case with


STD and Instantaneous Override
and 100A Molded Case Thermal
Magnetic Circuit breaker - NO
Coordination in Short-Circuit
Region (above 21,000A)

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination -
LV Air Power Circuit Breakers (See SPD)

◆ShortTime Delay - Allows the fault


current to flow for up to 30 cycles.
◆Used to coordinate with downstream
◆Subjects equipment to high
mechanical and thermal stresses, often
violating 110.10
◆Arc Flash/ Blast Risks Much Higher
◆High Cost, Larger Equipment
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Selective Coordination: Fuses

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Selective Coordination:Fuses
(See SPD)

Time Current
Curves

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination:Fuses
(See SPD)
Selectivity Ratio Not Melt
Guide Based on
Thermal Principle

Based on I2t Clear

I2t melting > I2t Clearing


1200 A 600 A
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Selective Coordination (See
SPD )
Load Side Fuse
Line Side Fuse

LOW-PEAK® : LOW-PEAK®
2:1 Line:Load Ratio
Selectivity Ratio Table Assures Coordination!
No Plotting required!
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Selective Coordination -
Fuses
480V, 3 phase

Example: 1200 A
Main: KRP-C 1200 SP GFP
MSB
Feeder: LPS-RK 200 SP
Branch: LPS-RK-30 SP
200 A

MCC

30 A
© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.
Selective Coordination - Fuses

Use Selectivity Table


Main KRP-C 1200 SP
Feeder LPS-RK 200 SP
Branch LPS-RK 30 SP
What happens: Branch Circuit Isca = 5000 A or
50,000A or 300,000A ?

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination- Fuses

Lineside KRP-C 1200SP to Loadside LPS-RK 200SP


1200/200 = 6:1 Table only need 2:1
Selective Coordination

Lineside LPS-RK 200SP to Loadside LPS-RK 30SP


200/30= 6.67:1 Table only need 2:1
Selective Coordination

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination

NOT
AFFECTED

OPENS Fault

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination

Simple Rules for Checking

• Circuit Breakers (instantaneous trip)

• Fuses

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Can you look at this
and assess whether
coordinated?

You do not even


need to draw curve!
See SPD
Simple Rule: 1600 A
(Amp rating) x (I.T. setting) =
Isca @ which CB will unlatch: 400 A
200 A
CB IT IT
Amp Set Amp Pickup 100 A
100 5X 500
200 5X 1,000
400 10X 4,000
1600 12X 19,000
Selective Coordination

• You already know the simple rule for fuses.


• Simply use amp rating ratios
• Typically 2:1 for
Low Peak Fuses to Low Peak Fuses

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Selective Coordination

• Do coordination exercise using simple rules


– Fusible system
– Circuit breaker system

• It’s simple!

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Are These Selectively
Coordinated?

Low Peak
KRP-C 1000 SP

Low Peak
LPJ 200 SP

Low Peak
LPJ 20 SP

Fault
10000 Amps

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Are These Selectively
Coordinated? Selectively Coordinated

Low Peak
Low Peak
KRP-C 1000 SP
KRP-C 1000 SP

Low Peak
Low Peak
LPJ 200 SP
LPJ 200 SP

Low Peak NOT


AFFECTED Low Peak
LPJ 20 SP
LPJ 20 SP
OPEN
Fault S Fault
10000 Amps
10000 Amps

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Are These Selectively
Coordinated?

1000 A. CB
IT @ 10 X

200 A. CB
IT @ 10 X

20 A. CB
IT @ 10X

Fault
10000 Amps

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Are These Selectively Not Coordinated
Coordinated?

1000 A. CB 1000 A. CB
IT @ 10 X IT @ 10 X

200 A. CB 200 A. CB
IT @ 10 X IT @ 10 X

NOT
20 A. CB 20 A. CB
AFFECTED
IT @ 10X IT @ 10X
OPEN
Fault S Fault
10000 Amps 10000 Amps

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


The Issue:
Lack of coordination
takes out other loads
1000 A. CB
IT @ 10 X

200 A. CB
IT @ 10 X

Unnecessary
Blackout
20 A. CB
IT @ 10X
OPEN
S Fault
10000 Amps

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Ground Fault Protection 230-95

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


See SPD

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


GFP Health Care 517-17

Where one level of GFP is provided per 230.95 or 215.10 an


additional step of GFP on feeders required.

The Ground Fault Protection for service and feeder shall


be fully Selectively Coordinated

What does this mean ?

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


517-17 Health Care GFP

Main 1200 A CB
Feeder 200 A CB

GFP on Main & Feeder

Does this meet 517-17?

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


517-17 Health Care GFP

Main 1200 A Fuse


Feeder 200 A Fuse

GFP on Main & Feeder

Does this meet 517-17?

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


Following Excerpts from IEEE Standards

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


IEEE 242-1986 “BUFF BOOK”
Protection and Coordination of Industrial
and Commercial Power Systems

Page 263 6.4.1 Protection (Series


Connection). It should be noted that
selectivity will not be provided at any current
level where the breaker trip characteristic
curves overlap when this protection scheme is
used, that is, both circuit breakers will trip.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


IEEE 242-1986 “BUFF BOOK”
Protection and Coordination of Industrial
and Commercial Power Systems

Page 528 Coordination 14.2.2


Coordination can easily be achieved with low
voltage current-limiting fuses that have fast
response times. Manufacturer’s time current
curves and selectivity ratio guides are used for
both overload and short-circuit conditions,
precluding the need for calculating time intervals.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


IEEE 141-1993 “RED BOOK” Electrical
Power Distribution for Industrial Plants

Page 256 5.7.2.3 Low-voltage circuit


breakers. To achieve this level of selectivity,
power circuit breakers utilize short-time delay
trips. The equipment protected by this
breaker must be designed to handle the
available short-circuit current for the duration
of the short-time delay.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


IEEE 242-1986 “BUFF BOOK”
Protection and Coordination of Industrial
and Commercial Power Systems

Page 528 Coordination 14.1 A coordination


study should be made when the available
short-circuit current of the source to the plant
is increased.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


IEEE 242-1986 “BUFF BOOK”
Protection and Coordination of Industrial
and Commercial Power Systems

Page 528 Coordination 14.1 A coordination study


or revision of a previous study may be needed for
an existing plant when new loads are added to the
system or when existing equipment is replaced
with higher rated equipment.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


IEEE 602-1996 “WHITE BOOK”
Electrical Systems in Health Care
Facilities

Page 57/58 3.7.1.1 Protection requirements.


As total selectivity and maximum safety to
personnel are critical, a total short-circuit
coordination, and component protection study
shall be performed.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


IEEE 141-1993 “RED BOOK” Electrical
Power Distribution for Industrial Plants

Page 256 5.7.2.3 Low-voltage circuit


breakers. It should be recognized that
providing selectivity to the load-side devices
may result in equipment bus structures being
underprotected. The Standards for such
equipment, ANSI/UL 891-1984 [B21] for
switchboards, ANSI/UL 845-1987 [B20] for
motor control centers,

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


IEEE 1015-1997 “BLUE BOOK”
Applying Low-Voltage Circuit Breakers
Used in Industrial and Commercial Power
Systems

Page 135 5.5.4 Short-time delay


All MCCBs and most ICCBs with a short time delay
have an instantaneous override. If selective
coordination is required for fault currents above the
instantaneous override level, a power circuit
breaker defined as an LVPCB with a short-time
delay option, as shown in Figure 5-16, should be
considered.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


IEEE 242-1986 “BUFF BOOK”
Protection and Coordination of Industrial
and Commercial Power Systems

Page 252 6.3 Trip Unit The resulting combination of


long-time delay and short-time delay characteristics
provides delayed tripping for all levels of overcurrent
below the instantaneous response. This provides
time for downstream circuit breakers to operate and
clear the fault. The withstand of other electrical
components in the current path should be checked
to be certain they can handle the additional stress
associated with the longer clearing time.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


IEEE 1015-1997 “BLUE BOOK”
Applying Low-Voltage Circuit Breakers
Used in Industrial and Commercial Power
Systems
Page 62 3.38 Series-connected rating. Sometimes
it is erroneously thought that series combinations
are at a disadvantage with regard to coordination
as compared to fully rated systems. The fact is
that even fully rated circuit breakers with
instantaneous trips will not “coordinate” once the
fault level exceeds both circuit breakers’
instantaneous trip levels.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.


IEEE 1015-1997 “BLUE BOOK”
Applying Low-Voltage Circuit Breakers
Used in Industrial and Commercial Power
Systems
Page 134 5.5.3 Series MCCBs
Selective coordination is limited to currents
below the instantaneous pickup of the line-
side circuit breaker. For any fault downstream
of the load-side MCCB having a current
greater than the instantaneous pickup of the
line-side MCCB, both circuit breakers trip, and
power is interrupted to unfaulted circuits fed by
the line-side circuit breaker.

© 2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.